Chapter 13 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Moral development
changes in thoughts, feelings, and behaviors regarding standards of right and wrong
Heteronomous morality
the first stage of moral development in piaget's theory, occuring at 4 to 7 years of age. justice and rules are conceived of as unchangeable properties of the world, removed from the control of people
autonomous morality
the second stage of moral development in piaget's theory, displayed by children about 10 years of age and older. at this stage, children become aware that rules and laws are created by people and that in judging an action they should consider the actor's intentions as well as consequences
immanent justice
belief that if a rule is broken, punishment will be meted out immediately
preconventional reasoning
the lowest level in Kohlber's theory of moral development. the individual's moral reasoning is controlled primarily by external rewards and punishments
mutual interpersonal expectations, relationships, and interpersonal conformity
kohlberg's third stage of moral development. at this stage, individuals value trust, caring, and loyalty to others as a basis of moral judgments
social systems morality
the fourth stage in kohlbergs theory of moral development. moral judgements are based on understanding the social order, law justics, and duty
postconventional reasoning
the highest level in kohlbergs theory of moral development. at this stage, individuals reason that values, rights, and principles undergird or transcend the law
universal ethical principles
the sixth and highest stage in kohlberg's theory of moral development. individuals develop a moral standard based on universal human rights
justice perspective
A moral perspective that focuses on the rights of the individual; individuals independently make moral decisions
care perspective
the moral perspective of carol gilligan; views people in terms of their connectedness with others andemphasizes interpersonal communication, relationships with others, and concern of others
social conventional reasoning
focuses on conventional rules established by social consensus and convention, as opposed to moral reasoning, with stresses ethical issues
social cognitive theory of morality
the theory that distinguishes between moral competence the ability to produce moral behaviors and moral performance, performing those behaviors in specific situations
ego ideal
the component of the superego that rewards the child by conveying a sense of pride and personal value when the child acts according to ideal standards approved by the parents
conscience
the component of the superego that punishes the child for behaviors disapproved of by parents by making the child feel guilty and worthless
empathy
reacting to another's feelings with an emotional response that is similar to the others feelings
moral identity
the aspect of personality that is present when individuals have moral notions and commitments that are central to their lives
moral examples
people who have a moral personality, identity, character, and set of virtues that reflect moral excellence and commitment
hidden curriculum
the pervasive moral atmosphere that characterizes every school
character education
a direct moral education program in which students are taught moral literacy to prevent them from engaging in immoral behavior
values clarification
a moral education program in which students are helped to clarify what their lives are for and what is worth working for. students are encouraged to define their own values and understand others values
covnitive moral education
a moral education program based on the belief that students should learn to value things like democracy and justice as their moral reasoning develop; Kohlbergs theory has been the basis for many of the cognitive moral education programs
service learning
a form of education that promotes social responsibility and services to the community
altruism
an unselfish interest in helping others
forgiveness
an aspect of prosocial behavior that occurs when the injured person releases the injurer from possible behavioral retaliation
gratitude
a feeling of thankfulness and appreciation, especially in response to someones doing something kind or helpful
conduct disorder
age-inappropriate actions and attitudes that violate family expectations, societies norms and the personal or property rights of others
juvenile delinquency
actions taken by an adolescent in breaking the law or engaging in illegal behavior
values
beliefs and attitudes about the way things should be
religion
an organized set of beliefs, practices, rituals, and symbols that increases an individuals connection to a sacred or transcendent other
religiousness
the degree of affiliation with an organized religion, participation in prescribed rituals and practices, connection with its beliefs, and involvement in a community of believers
spirituality
experiencing something beyond oneself in a transcendent manner and living in a way that benefits others and society
meaning-making coping
drawing on beliefs and values and goals to change the meaning if a stressful situation, especially in times of high levels of stress such as when a loved one dies
individualism, instrumental purpose, and exchange
the second kohlberg stage of preconventional reasoning. at this stage, individuals pursue their own interests but also let others do the same
conventional reasoning
the second, or immediate level in kohlbergs theory of moral development. at this level, individuals abide by the standards of others such as parents or the laws of society
social contract or utility and individual rights
the fifth kohlberf stage of moral development. at this stage, individuals reason that values, rights, and principles undergird or transcend the law
universal ethical principles
the sixth and highest stage in kohlbergs theory of moral development individuals develop a moral standard based on universal human rights
Intrapersonal dimension
regulates activities
interpersonal dimension
regulates social interactions and arbitrates conflict
piaget's theory on domains of moral development
Heteronymous morality from 4-7
Immanent Justice
autonomous Morality (10+)
Kohlberg's theory of the moral development
Moral reasoning unfolds in universal stages
tested by story with moral dilemma
theory of three levels, two stages in each
reflects some of piaget's concepts
preconventional reasoning
conventional reasoning
postconventional reasoning
Gilligan
Kohlberg;s theory is gender biased and care perspective must be accounted for
parenting strategies
cocooning
pre-arming
pre-arming parenting
discuss what could happen and what to do
Equity
same fair
merit
earned, deserve it
benevolence
special treatment for disadvantaged
prosocial behavior and gender
females behave in more altruistic and volunteerism
prosocial behavior and age
older adults behave in more altruistic and volunteerism
conduct disorder
age-inappropriate behaviors, attitudes violating norms, rights of others
pittsburgh youth study
characteristics of lower SES culture can promote delinquency but it is not SES status that makes delinquency
cognitive factors and delinquency
lower self-esteem
low IQ
Lack of sustained attention
low self-control
Spirituality
a sense of connectedness to a sacred other
values
beliefs, attitude about the way things are and should be
measured by ones goals
youth today have stronger interest in welfare of society
Piaget's views on religion
adolescents think more abstractly, idealistically, logically
logical reasoning give ability to form hypothesis and systematically sort through religious questions
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