Sociology In Our Times / Chapter 1 Vocabulary Flashcards

Terms Definitions
sociology
the systematic study of human society and social interactions.
society
a large social grouping that shares the same geographical territory and is subject to the same political authority and dominant culture expectations.
social imagination
C.Wright Mills's term for the ability to see the relationship between individual experiences and the larger society.
high-income countries are sometimes referred to as .....
industrial countries
industrial countries are sometimes referred to as.....
high-income countries
high-income countries / industrial countries
nations with highly industrialized economies
; technologically advanced industrial, administrative, and service occupations; and
relatively high levels of national and personal income.
middle-income countries are sometimes referred to as....
developing countries
developing countries are sometimes referred to as....
middle-income countries
middle-income countries / developing countries
nations with industrializing economies, particularly in urban areas, and moderate levels of national and personal income.
low-income countries are sometimes referred to as.....
underdeveloped countries
underdeveloped countries are sometimes referred to as.....
low-income countries
industrialization
the process by which societies are transformed from dependence on agriculture and handmade products to an emphasis on manufacturing and related industries.
urbanization
the process by which an increasing proportion of a population lives in cities rather than in rural areas.
social Darwinism
Herbert Spencer's belief that those species of animals, including human beings, best adapted to their environment survive and prosper, whereas those poorly adapted die out.
positivism
a term describing Auguste Comte's belief that the world can best be understand through scientific inquiry.
anomie
Emile Durkheim's designation for a condition in which social control becomes ineffective as a result of the loss of shared values and of a sense of purpose in society.
social facts
Emile Durkheim's term for patterned ways of acting, thinking, and feeling that exist outside any one individual but that exert social control over each person.
theory
a set of logically interrelated statements that attempts to describe, explain, and (occasionally) predicts events.
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