Geo Final Flashcards

Terms Definitions
universalizing
o Universalizing• Proselytizing• ‘Meant for everyone’
belize
belopan
paraguay
asuncion
heterotroph (consumer)
plants
culture hearth
Knesset-
Israeli government
choice of projection
Quaternary industry
information technology.
Influences Of Supply
1.Resource Characteristics2.Accessibility
braided channel
interwoven connected channels
Official Language of Brazil
Portuguese
Total Receipts in 2005
680 Billion
soils
mineral particles, organic matter, airsmallest is clay, largest is sand
Human and Physical (natural) geography
Worlds highest Freshwater lake
lake Titicaca
Colonias
Residential neighborhood. The word has been adopted to referr to colonia rural serrlements often characterized by poor housing stock, inadequate physical infrastructure, and a weak social infrastructure.
Mass wasting is categorized by ____.
Speed
ethnic
strong territorial and cultural group identification
intermittent stream
only part of the year
What is the megapolitan region stretching from east of San Francisco to Sacramento?
Norcal
1/4 of what country is Polar
Netherlands
Militarism-
glorification of the military and readiness for war
Favelas
A shantytown or slum, especially in brazil.
structural constraint
preference exist to participate but unable to (rains)
Humus
the decayed remains of plant and animal material
environmental modifiers
natural vegetation not generally good for agriculture, clearing follows
radial drainage pattern
drainage pattern around a volcano
diffusion vs. independent innovation
o Innovation: (origin)• creation of a new trait• Culture hearth: a place where a lot of important traits originate
In 1950, the world urbanization rate was _____?
30%
Identify whether it is a sovereign state. if not say what SS it belongs to... Taiwan
China
Taiwan-
island off the southeast coast of China
Subsistence ecnomony
where families produces most if its own food clothing and shelter
Aztecs
A Member of people of central Mexico whose civilization was at its height at the time of the Spanish Conquest in the early 16th Century
Classify the following type of setting by public vs. private place: Streets and sidewalks near buildings.
Public space
What is an ecosystem?
communities of organisms functioning together in an interdependent relationship with the environment they occupy.
Erosion
The wearing away of land of water, wind, waves, and ice
ice shelf
part of glacier that extends over water
time geography
Studying geography and how it relates with time
What are the later-built residential suburbs of the metropolitan area?
Outer Ring Suburbs
Social structure
a way of organizing people into groups.
Coup-
the sudden overthrow of a ruler often with violence
Fill in the blanks: New Urbanism neighborhoods feature ________ and ________ at the edge to supply the weekly needs of households.
Shops ; Offices
Biomass ____ as you move up with each successive trophic level
decreases
stream order
counts the branches of a stream by starting at the bottom and naming that the biggest number.
(urban) node hierarchies
Big airports in Large cities with smaller ones spread out among smaller cities
What surrounds a downtown area, and is the oldest built-up and relatively higher population density urban area or metropolitan area consisting of both residential and nonresidential land uses?
Inner City
Gross Domestic Product
the total value of all goods and services produced in a country in a given year, dived by the number of people in the country
dendritic drainage pattern
stream with many branches off of the main one.
How much of the world's population is living in urban places?
More than 50%
Fill in the blanks: A New Urbanism neighborhood has a discernible _________ - a square or a busy/memorable street corner. A __________ _________ would also be located here.
Center ; Transit Stop
distortions in cognitive maps
Areas of more importance to you often seem biggerCognitive maps are not precise
What are some of the transportation system influences of travel behavior?
Preference for private vehicles rather than transitMultiple car households
Give 3 examples of developed and devolping countries.
Developed:Have better access to health care.Have better access to technology.Have better access to safe waterDeveloping:have worse access to healthcare.have worse access to technology.limited access to safe water.
What is the term for the largest city in each statistical area?
Principal city (or "central city")
Why is the U.S upset with Iran?(2 reasons)
1) Iran fired off "Test" Missels that could hit Israel(Iran is very anti-Israel) (Iran is pro-palistinian) And the U.S. is allied with Israel.2) Secret nuclear site, / nuclear energy, nuclear wepons.
Egypt
Cyro
pakistan
isamabad
peru
lima
Malaria
Mosquito
mathematical projections
south korea
seoul
u-shaped valley
glacial trough
capital of Philippines
Manila.
Exodus-
leaving a place
religious diffusion
roadswarfareprinting pressmissionary societies radio and television
globalization
• Greater interconnectivity between places around the world
NGO
different people agreeing on political, economic, social or enviromental goal.
stateless nation
people without a state
perennial stream  
water all year
How many Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MeSAs) are there in the United States?
362
Tertiary industry
refers to services companies.
Antecedent constraint
negative influence of initial preference (Billy Elliot)
Sand dune
A hill of wind-deposited sand
ablation
loss of ice (melting and sublimation)
space-time prisms
• Potential activity locations at given times, based on constraints of your schedule
What natural resource(s) is most associated with each region? Kuznetsk
steel
Equatorial Region
Abundant rainfall, with high vegatation and rainforest, which is not very common on the continent
Temperature-Altitude Zones
1. Tierra Caliente2. Tierra Templada3. Tierra Fria4. Tierra Helada
Trucks are projected to carry what percentage of new freight by 2020?
82%
___ volcanoes are dome shaped and gently slope, but impressive in size. Not very explosive.
Shield
Volcano
The opening in the earth's crust through which lava flows; the surface feature created by the lava
saltation
when fragments on the bottom are jumping
natural levee
low ridges of flood-deposited sediment formed on both sides.
reference vs. thematic maps
 Reference maps• Original map type• General purpose – show as accurately as they can the identity and location of a variety featureso Isoline map On a line variables value doesn’t change Switching lines changes the value either up or down Thematic maps• Much newer type of maps• Specific purpose maps• Usually very limited base map with one or more (but still small #) of variables• More about pattern of variable than what is there
Do "urban areas" cross over state boundaries?
No
What is EPZ short for?
Export Processing Zone
Economy
is a producing distributing and consuming goods and services.
Barrios
An urban district or quarter in a Spanish speaking country
What is key in determining the overall residential settlement pattern of the metropolitan area?
Transportation
True or False: The neighborhood is a way to describe and evaluate the social, economic, and ethnic diversity of locales within the metropolitan area.
True
Name some geomorphic agents
the wind, humans, animals, rivers
downcutting
sediment and rock ware away from the erosion of channels
isoline (contour) maps
o Isoline map On a line variables value doesn’t change Switching lines changes the value either up or down
Which process has a beginning and an end: urbanization or urban growth?
Urbanization
Technology
tools and the skills the people need to use.
Multinational Corp.
A corp. that has its facilities and other assests in at least one country other than its home country
Examples of fast mass wasting
Rockwall, avalanche, slump, landslide, and debris flow (mud flow)
shifting cultivation (swidden)
rotating fields instead of crops, 2-3 years of farming, 10-30 years fallow, intercropping, raised fields
preference maps
Maps used to show how people view certain areas
What is a geographic entity that consists of a densely settled area with a census population of 2,500 to 49,999, a geographic core of block groups or blocks that have a population density of at least 1,000 people per square mile, and adjacent densely sett
Urban Cluster (UC)
Consumers
are people who use money to buy goods and services.
Net Travel Propensity
% of the population who take atleast on tourism trip in a given time period (#>1/total pop)
space-time budgets
How you use your time fitting in your space-time prism
Richter scale ends at ___, the Intensity scale ends at ___.
Richter = 9Intensity = 12
What is the population density of Gainesville?
2,000 people per sq. mi.
The angle at which gravity and friction are at equilibrium. (It's 30-35 degrees for sand)
What is the angle of repose.
What is the difference between a generalist and a specialist?
A generalist is very adaptable to their environment, whereas a specialist can only live in certain environments (EX: generalist: dog. specialist: koala.)
How can cities grow without any increase in urbanization? (3 possibilities)
1. The rural population grows at an equal or greater rate.2. The place is 100% urbanized, but continues to grow because births exceed deaths or foreign immigration is larger than any exodus of nationals.3. Ratio of urban to rural land areas remains the same or declines.
Si
Silicon
intrusive
big crystals
folding
-deformation under compression
Drumlin
Elliptical streamlined hill.
-Blunt up-glacial end
-Tapered down-glacial end
-Points in the direction of glacial flow (usually found in groups)
divides separate drainage basins
T
guano
phosphate/nitrate deposit formed by the leaching of bird excrement accumulated in arid regions
the famous french hydrologist was
darcy
subcontinent
a large, relatively self-contained landmass forming a subdivision of a continent:
a remnant ridge separating two bowl-shaped depressions formed by a mountain glacier is termed?
arete
dyke
passageway for magma up thru' volcano
The first animals with preservable hard parts first appear in the _______________?
Cambrian
speleothem
dripstone deposit of calcite in caves
O horizon
-top of soil profile-organic composition-high humus
The standard pronunciation throughout the American West comes from the _____________ states rather man the New England and Southern regions.
Middle Atlantic
relative dating
uses fossils and no specific numbers
chimneys
(small)flat lying strata or layers of volcanic rock erodes to make flat-topped hills
complex fall
combinations of falls, slides and flows
Troposphere
where weather and air pollution takes place
Mafic
Basalt; MAgnesium and FERrum high iron content little to no quartz
terrane
region in which the geology is markedly different from that in adjoining regions
submarine fans occur oceanward of the continental slope
T
About how much precipitation is there?
10 inches
Urban renewal has been critizied for destroying social __________ of older neighborhoods.
cohesion
territory
any tract of land; region or district.
polar glacier
glacier with a cold surface, steep thermal gradient
What volcanic chain formed from a trench?
-Mariana Arc
drainage basin
the land area that contributes water to a stream
Rock Glaciers
mixter of rock fracments and ice, falls down into the ice and snow and they move downslope with the ice.
Geyser
Natural hot spring that emits a cloumn of water and steam into the air.
the highest precipitation in the west is
western washington
___ believed that life was evil and filled with misery , but one could escape evile by 1) good deeds 2) self knowledge , and giving up all worldly desires.
Buddha
The one large US CBD without skyscrappers in _______________.
Offices downtown are no more that _____ stories high.
Washington DC

13
solar wind
a constant stream of charged particles emitted from the sun's magnetic field
Recessional Morraine
Created by a TEMPORARY ADVANCE of a retreating glacier. Shows seasonal advancement of the glacier.
Mount Spurr
Mount Spurr is a stratovolcano in the Aleutian Volcanic Arc of Alaska, named after United States Geological Survey geologist and explorer Josiah Edward Spurr, who led an expedition to the area in 1898. The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) currently rates Mount Spurr as Level of Concern Color Code Green.[1]
Elements in earth's crust
Oxygen (46%), Silicon (28%), Aluminum (8%), Iron (6%), Magnesium (4%), Calcium (2.4%), Other (5.6%)
winter solstice
(Dec 21-22) - @ Tropic of Capricorn (23.5 S) - Sun's rays directly overhead
Restoring Force
the force that causes the water to return to its undisturbed surface level
Bowen's reaction series
order in which minerals tend to crystallize; continous reaction series maintain same basic crystal structure but change content of calcium and sodium; discontinous series minerals change structure
Dew Point
the temp that air must be cooled at constant pressure to reach saturation
the most seaward part of a delta is composed of
bottomset beds
concordant vs discordant ages
concordant when two ages can overlap when error factors considered
what is the purpose of the atmosphere
Respiration, UV protection, maintain temperature
5 features desired for geologic clocks
accuracy - run at constant rate
What would happen to a mudstone if it were metamorphosed at temperatures in excess of
700oC under wet conditions?
The mudstone would melt.
Consider two Main Sequence stars. Star A is 1L and star B is 10L. From this information we can say that:
Star A is less Massive than B
What is the focus of an earthquake?
It is the energy released that radiates in all directions from its source.
What were the early stages of damage caused by hurricane katrina?
Several breaches in the levees led to widespread flooding and isolated people on their rooftops as well as cutting power.
continental
Granite
***Dune forms
-Barchan-transverse-parabolic-longitudinal-star
rock
mineral stuck together
mud with pressure is
-shale
esker
-develops underneath the glacier
pediments
flat/gently sloping bedrock surfaces that are a consequence of erosion left behind as a mountain front gradually retreats
Carbohydrate production by photosynthesis isprimary productionsecondary production
primary production
gypsum
soft hydrous calcium sulfate; varieties include satin spar and alabaster
Pelagic Sediment
Fine-grained sediments that accumulate by settling through the water column
Calcium carbonate
Silica
Clay
What makes clouds visible
dust and salt
Granite
Coarse grained 25% quartz, 65% feldspar, Felsic
continents
Landmasses located above water on earth.
light industry
manufacturing aimed at making consumer goods, such as textiles or food processing
Ben-Yehuda is credited with the invention of 4,000 new ___________ words.
Hebrew
decomposition
The precise general name for the chemical weathering of existing rocks is _______.
angle of repose
when things start to fall
karst topography
landscape shaped by dissolving power of groundwater. associated with carbonate rocks
sorting
The degree of similarity in particle size in sediment or sedimentary rock.
Cenozoic
era of mammals. Basin and range extension thins crust volcanic rocks.
archipelago
group of islands in fairly close proximity
chesapeake bay was once a river valley
T
extended family
household made up of several generations
Most textile and apparel production in the US moved from the NE to the ________ during the mid- ___Cent.
SE

20th
tundra
vast, nearly level, treeless plains of the arctic regions of Europe, Asia, and North America
groin
a stone or concrete wall built out from a beach to reduce erosion. A protective structure.
axial plane
imaginary plane that divides the fold in half
runoff
water that flows over the land rather than infiltrating into the ground
What isotope system would you use to date a Pleistocene tree trunk?
C-14/N-14
wildcat well
exploratory well drilled for oil or gas on a geologic feature not yet proven to be productive
an incised meander
still lies ona flood plain
mixed farming
raising several kinds of crops and livestock on the same farm
In the late ___th cent most steel mills in the US closed.
20
What rock you start with is all that matters in categorizing metamorphic rocks:true or false?
False
zone of accumulation
powder frim ice material starts to flow downhill
How thunderstorms form:
Must be abundant source of moisture, mechanism must lift air, and must be unstable
How far is the earth from the sun?
93,000,000
3rd planet
What factors control erosion rates
climate, lithology(types of rock), relief, time,
shield volcano
a subarial volcano with a brad gentle dome formed either from low viscosity basaltic lava or from large pyroclastic sheets
Cross bedding is an indication of?
Deposition from a moving fluid
The pores of clastic sedimentary rocks are the ___________ between grains.
voids or empty space
Stable Platform
The part of the craton that is mantled by relatively underformed sedimentary rocks and underlain by a basement of complex igneous and metamorphic rocks.
In an open shop unions and companies can not __________ workers to join a union.
require or force
What is a contact?
A contact is a 3D surface separating rocks of differing lithological aspect.
2 choices available for cities to close the gap btwn cost of services and funding available from taxes:
reduce services

raise tax revenues
Know the earliest member of a group (for those discussed in class). For example, Archaeopteryx was discussed as the earliest bird.
Bird = ArchaeopteryxMammal = MorganucodonTetrapod = Ichthyostega Reptile = Hylonomus
Which has the most porosity? Angular or rounded?
rounded (or sorted) don't fit together as well so more space
What are the conditions favoring preservation?
The presence of hard parts and rapid burial
If a typical wave had a wavelength of say 40 meters, and a period of 8 seconds, then what is its speed?
The magnitude of the velocity or speed is wavelength divided by time; hence, the velocity is 40
meters/8 seconds or 5 meters/sec.
spesies
species
Devonian
age of fishes
Capital of Kuwait
Kuwait
uplift
moves shells up mountains
Capital of Saudi Arabia
Riyadh
turbulent flow
streamlines intertwine, complex mixing
reverse fault
-compressional stress
-dip slip fault
-creates over hanging scarp that collapses
-thrust fault: practically horizontal
-crustal thickening
tropopause
air can't go any higher
Snowball Earth
Neoproterozoic glacial deposits from 700 m.y.a
Vast amounts, or most of the earth was covered by glaciers at this time
drainage network
the array of linked channels
peneplain
nearly flat erosional surface of considerable area of weathering down of region to base level (ex mtn down)
RESPIRATION
The consumption of stored energy (photosynthesis in reverse) Formula:[ C6H12O6+6O2<-->6C02+ 6H2O+HEAT ENERGY ]
backwash is the opposite of forewash
F
Diatom
-microscopic unicellular algae with an external skeleton of sylicaa
-sexual cycle
atmosphere
the gaseous envelope surrounding the earth; the air.
Robust species
A. boisei (2.6-1.0 million years ago)
A. robustus (2.0-1.2 million years ago)
Suspended load
small clay particles, regardless of how slow the flow is, they will float and not settle on the bottom
Dissolved rocks
opposite of bed load
Surge Deposit
Pyroclastic material that rains in thin sheets across the ground
inselberg
large, domelike residual hill of hard rock, characterized by very steep slopes rising abruptly from the surrounding surface
Polypedon
A soil classification term that refers to a group of pedons with similar characteristics. A region composed of similar pedons that can be differentiated from surrounding areas.
diffusion routes
the spatial trajectory through which cultural traits or other phenomena spread
What satellite technique is used for measuring ground deformation near a volcano?
InSAR
Pyroclastic flows
they are more dense, follow topography, more predictable
% of earth does mantle make up?
83
disappearing stream
surface streams that flow into cave system (and may re-emerge downstream)
how much degree change for interglacial to glacial period
10 degree difference
glaciers
A large ice mass that moves slowly down a mountain or over land.
Two important variables of climate are ________________ and ___________________.
precipitation, temperature
An envelope of recrystallized rock surrounding a pluton is called a
contact metamorphic aureole
lithosphere
the solid rock portion of the Earth's surface
Paradigm
Theory that is held with very high degree of confidence and is comprehensive in scope.
HAWAIIAN ERUPTIONS
o &#10;Calmest. Fluid basaltic type lavas, low gas&#10;content, not as much ejected material. Eruptions often occur at vents around&#10;the main summit and from fissure vents. Fire fountains (central vent eruptions),&#10;spatter cones (cooled magma), lava lakes &#10;&#10;o &#10;Ie: PuuOo&#10;of Kilauea
What are the Features of Oceanic Ridges?
Rift Valleys
Soil
Is the hear the surface part of earth occupied by plant roots.
Mercator projection
equator is a straight line true to scale, the meridians parallel straight lines and equally spaced; great distortion of polar regions. For navigation; plotting satellite trajectories
dot map
one dot represents certain # of a phenomenon (pop.)
South Asia is almost ___ times as crowded as the U.S.
10 times
What is convective flow?
A mechanism which proples crustal plates across the globe
How can sedimentary rocks be formed?
chemical-minerals dissolve in water, water evaporates and leaves mineral, biochemical- takes elements our of water and turns into bones or shells
Soil Properties: Porosity and moisture
Pores control water movement. Improved by biotic actions of plants and animals. Also by human manipulation (plowing). Soil moisture at field capacity can result in most efficient plant function.
___ is what the red dot a women wears on her forehead means.
Goodluck
louisiana purchase
a treaty signed with France in 1803 by which the U.S. purchased for $15,000,000 the land extending from the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains and from Canada to the Gulf of Mexico.
there is
more than 1 billion cu km of water in the oceans
List two Aristotelian concepts about the physical world that were accepted until the 16th to 17th centuries.
1. Feels as if earth is moving
How do magma types influence eruption?
Rhyolite and dacite eruptions tend to be more&#10;explosive because they are more viscous (this makes it hard for gas bubbles to&#10;escape). Basalt and andesite magmas are less explosive because they have a lower&#10;viscosity and silica content, so gas bubbles can escape.
Be able to discuss the adaptations necessary for the loss of flight in some groups of birds. What adaptations are seen in mammals which return to the water?
- reduced wings- enhanced hind limbs for swimming
10. What is the current pattern of growth of the human population
An increase of 95 million people each year
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