Respiratory System Flashcards

Terms Definitions
nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs
bony piriform aperture
maxilla, nasal bones
nasal cavity
lined with mucosa
-septum separates the two sides of the cavity
Bony septum
ethmoid bone and vomer bone
Cartilagenous septum
septal cartilage that fits between the vomer and ethmoid bone
scroll-shaped bones that project into the nasal cavity
-covered by mucosa
air passageways below conchae
Middle meatus
frontal sinus, ethmoid sinuses and the maxillary sinus open into the nasal cavity here
Inferior meatus
opening of the nasolacrimal duct that conducts tears from the eye
Paranasal sinuses
-4:frontal, ethmoid, sphenoid, maxillary
-air filled space within bone
-expand during growth period
-lined by mucosa
-drain into the nasal cavity
Maxillary sinus
(antrum) within the maxilla
-expands during childhood and reaches full size after 2nd dentition
-infraorbital nerve runs across the roof of the sinus in the floor of the orbit
anterior superior alveolar nerves
-branch from the infraorbital nerve and travel within the maxilla
-run along the walls of the sinus before entering the alveolar bone
-go to the canines and incisors
middle superior alveolar nerves
-branch from the infraorbital nerve and travel within the maxilla
-run along the walls of the sinus before entering the alveolar bone
-go to the premolars and mesiobuccal root of first molar
posterior superior alveolar nerves
-branch from the infraorbital nerve and travel within the maxilla
-to the maxillary molars also pass along the wall of the sinus
Clinic: molar roots
-often project into the floor of the sinus
-extraction can open up the sinus to the oral cavity
-inflammation of the sinuses can be perceived as oral pain
Olfactory nerve
-CN 1
- smell receptors are located in the mucosa in the roof of the nasal cavities
-caries the sense of smell
Nasopalatine nerve
-V2 from the posterior nasal cavity to the septum
-crosses the septum
-travels via the incisive canal to the palate
-carries sensation from the anterior palate and lingual gingiva of the incisors and canines
-upper part of the digestive and respiratory tracts
-muscles direct food to esophagus and air in the larynx and trachea
-air passes through the nasal and oropharynx
-located posterior to the nasal cavity
-receives air from the nasal cavity
-auditory tube opens here
Auditory (Eustacian) tube
a bony and cartilaginous tube in the nasopharynx that connects the middle ear to the pharynx
-equalizes pressure in the middle ear
-connects to the oral cavity through the pillars of the fauces
-food and air pass through here
-extends from the soft palate to the base of the tongue
-posterior 1/3 of tongue is in the oropharynx
Anterior pillar
the boundary between the oral cavity and the oropharynx
Gag reflex
-controlled by CN IX and X
-sensation goes to CN IX (glossopharyngeal nerve)
-muscle contraction (gagging) comes from CN X (vagus nerve)
-voice box
-opening into the trachea
-produce voice and protect airway
-supported by cartilages, membranes, muscles, and mucosa
Thyroid cartilage
laryngeal prominence
Cricoid cartilage
complete ring of cartilage around the airway
-leaf shaped cartilage that sits at the base of the tongue
-lid over the larynx protect the laryngeal inlet (entrance)
Arytenoid cartilages
(2) vocal cords run from them to the inner surface of the thyroid cartilage
Muscles of the larynx
-close the laryngeal inlet to keep food out of the airway
-move the vocal cords
Vestibular fold
(false vocal fold)
-interior of the larynx
-upper fold that helps to tightly close airway when coughing
Vocal fold
(true vocal cords)
-interior of the larynx
-lower fold that contains vocal cords
-the triangular opening between the vocal cords
-the airway into the trachea and lungs
-distal continuation of the larynx
-descends through the neck into the thorax
-anterior to the esophagus
-supported by c-shaped cartilages
-organs for respiration
-air enters via the trachea and passes through the bronchial tree to the alveoli where gas exchange takes place
-supplied by autonomic nerves
Bronchial tree
-comprised of increasing smaller hollow tubes (25 generations)
-conducts air to the respiratory portion of the lungs
-begins in the neck as the reachea
-right and left primary bronchi
-lobar (secondary) bronchi (2 left, 3 right)
-divisions continue for 20 more generations
-smaller airways
-walls are composed mainly of smooth muscle and elastic fibers
-can easily constrict
-gas exchange takes place in the alveoli
-dilatation of air spaces with destruction of alveolar walls
-associated with cigarette smoking
-lungs are soft with large hollow spaces
apex of lung
rises into the neck above the clavicle
base of lung
diaphragmatic surface
hilum of lung
-on the medial side
-structures that enter or leave pass through here
-bronchi, pulmonary arteries, pulmonary veins, and many lymph nodes
right lung
-3 lobes: superior, middle, & inferior
-2 fissures: oblique & horizontal (separates superior from middle)
left lung
-2 lobes: superior and inferior
-1 fissure: oblique
pulmonary arteries
-right and left arteries branch from the pulmonary trunk
-carry deoxygenated blood to the lungs
pulmonary veins
-2 from each lung drain into the left atrium
-carry oxygenated blood to the left atrium
pulmonary lymphatics
-network of lymph vessels throughout the lung
-pick up inhaled dust, carbon particles, and extracellular fluid
-numerous located at hilum and near trachea
serous sac enclosing the lungs
visceral pleura
-on the surface of lung
-continuous around the hilum with the parietal pleura
parietal pleura
lines the thoracic wall
pleural cavity
-between the visceral and parietal layers
- right & left cavities do not communicate
-normally only a potential space cuz the visceral and parietal layers are in contact
-trauma to chest wall allows air to enter the pleural cavity
-lung to thoracic wall is broken
-lung collapses
-space develops in pleural cavity
-air, blood, fluid in pleural cavity cause lung to collapse
-skeletal muscle divides the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity
-major muscle of respiration
-supplied by the phrenic nerves
-thoracic cavity increases and diaphragm decreases
-intrathoracic pressure goes down
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