# Math exam 3 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
 What's data? Observations (eg. Measurements, survey responses) What are statistics? A collection method for planning studies and experiments, obtaining data and then organizing, summarizing, presenting, analyzing, interpreting and drawing conclusions based upon the data. What is population? The complete Collection of all elements to be studied What is sample? A subset of members selected from the population What is a parameter? A numerical measurement describing some characteristic of a population What is quantitative data? A numerical value, consisting of numbers representing measurements of some aspect of a sample What is qualitative data? Attitude, emotions, or how you feel...data which can be separated into different categories that are not numerical in nature What is nominal data? Consists only of names, labels, and categories...example - colors of cars What is ordinal data? More than just names, now we have order. Differences between data values cannot be determined or are meaningless. Ex - Likert scale..best1- worst5 What is interval data? Difference between data values that are meaningful, but there is no zero measurement. Ex - temperature scales or age What is ratio data? An interval scale with an affinative zero point. Ex - weights What are the types of observational studies? Observational, experimental, prospective vs. retrospective, cohort, and surveys What is an observational study? A study where you observe and measure but do not try to modify the subjects being studied. What is an experimental study? A study where one group has applied some treatment while a second (control) group is not and the difference between the groups are measured. Requires that the design is well regulated and the subjects are randomly placed into one of the two groups. What type of study looks forward in time or into the past? Prospective vs. retrospective What type of studies follow a person or group over a period of time? Cohort studies What are the 4 data classifications? Nominal, ordinal, interval, ratio. What is nominal data? Name only...characterized by data that consists of names, labels, and categories only. Ex: colors of cars, genders of groups What is ordinal data? More than just names, now we have order..characterized by data that can be arranged in some order. Differences between data values cannot be determined or are meaningless. Ex: Likert scale (1 is the best 10 is the worst) What is interval data? The difference between intervals has meaning..ordered data where the difference between any two data values are meaningful, but there is no zero measurement. Ex: temperature scales or age What is ratio data? Definitive zero point..an interval scale with a zero point. What is the mean? The arithmetic average of all values measured What is the median? The value in the middle when all measurements are ranked from top to bottom What is the mode? The most frequently measured value Measurement of variance Measures of central tendency don't tell the whole story. Looking at variation around the mean is important and core part of assessing a group of data. What is standard deviation? The width of bell shaped curve. A measure of the individual values around the mean of a sample. Usually a positive value, however it can be zero when all the values are the same (no variation). It can never be negative. A standard deviation value rises as more extreme outliers occur. Units for the standard deviation is the same as the original data values. What is probability? The number of ways something can occur/the number of simple events. (S/N). As the number of rolls are increased, the probability increases that we are approaching the true probability. Probabilities are similar to, but not the same (the odds of throwing a 2 is 1:5). What are the types of hypothesis testing? Null and alternative. What is null hypotheses? A statement that the values of a population parameter (it's mean or standard deviation) is EQUAL to some claimed value. What is an alternative hypothesis? A statement that the parameter has a value that somehow differs from the null hypothesis. What is the purpose of a research study? To reject the null hypothesis and accept the alternative hypothesis. Many research studies attempt to not only reject the null, but do it at s level of significance that says the results did not occur simply by chance. Evaluating test results? When we evaluate the test results, we can either reject the null hypothesis or fault to reject it. Both types of error are inevitable in any research type of study. What is a type I error? Rejecting the null hypothesis when it really is true. This is depicted by an alpha sign. What is a type II error? Failing to reject the null hypothesis when it really is false. This is depicted by a beta sign. What is the size of alpha? More evidence, more tests, more chances to minimize errors. The size of alpha is also known as the level of significance. Typically a study will have an (a) if 0.05, which mean that we can say with 95% confidence that the results (rejection of a null hypothesis) are not by chance. This is depicted as p > 0.05 P value A (p) value of 0.01 or 0.001 is even more indicative of a correct decision in rejecting the null hypothesis. What is matter? Anything that takes up space, has mass (weight) and can be perceived by the senses. If its something, it's matter. If its nothing, it's not matter. The primary states of matter are... Solid, liquid, and gas. What is heat? A form of energy, not matter. What are the divisions of matter? Pure substances (homogenous) vs Mixtures (homogenous or heterogeneous) What are pure substances? Homogeneous, elements, compounds..same throughout. What are mixtures? Homogeneous or heterogeneous, solution, suspension, colloid Matter is its simplest form is found how? In atoms, elements, molecules, or compounds Pure substances of matter are always... The same regardless of where they are found. Can pure substances be broken down? Pure substances cannot be broken down any further without a chemical or nuclear reaction. Pure substances are homogenous, uniform in structure or composition throughout. What are elements? An element is a pure form of matter. Other forms of matter include atoms, molecules, and compounds. Elements are large collections of atoms of the same type that cannot be broken down and still maintain its identity. All atoms have the same atomic number. Not bonded together, only existing together. What is the periodic table? A listing of all the elements known to man is called the periodic table The number on the top of an element is... The atomic number. Followed by the element name and abbreviation. What is the number (decimal) on the bottom of an element? The atomic mass unit (AMU) What are the elements of the universe? 91% of all atoms are HYDROGEN. 9% helium. The other 115 elements are found in traces. What is the major element of the earth's crust? 61% OXYGEN. 21% silicon, aluminum, hydrogen, calcium, magnesium, iron, and sodium. What are the major elements of the human body? Hydrogen, Oxygen, carbon, nitrogen How much of the human body is compromised of water? 2/3 of the body...or 66%. What is a atom? The smallest "particle" of an element. What is a molecule? The smallest "particle" of a pure substance (element or compound) BONDED together. A combination of similar atoms or a combination of different atoms. What are compounds? A substance composed of large collections of molecules. Can be broken down by chemical means into molecule or elements. Often will have properties unlike those of its constituent elements. What is the smaller particle of an element which still maintains the chemical properties of the element? An atom. The head of a pin could hold 100 trillion atoms. The nucleus is comprised of... Protons (+) nucleon, and neutron (no charge) nucleon. AND electrons (-) in the outer shell A long tail on the right = A positive skew A long tail on the left = A negative skew Wide bell shape curve = High standard deviation A narrow bell shape curve = A low standard deviation Interpreting a graph.. If something starts high and ends low, it's has a negative correlation. If something starts low and ends high, it has a positive correlation. As the number of dice rolls are increased.. The probability increases that we are approaching true probability. Ex: 1:5 ratio With research studies we are trying to... Form a hypotheses, you want to try to prove something right or wrong For alpha be able to recognize the P value 95% that its not by luck and 0.05% that its luck. If you have a p value of 99% you would have a 0.01% chance that its like. Smaller values are harder to prove. What is the nucleus? A small dense positively charged center of a atom that contains protons and neutrons. The nucleus contains 1/100,000 of the size of the atom even though it constitutes the vast majority of the atom's mass. The purest form of matter is an...? Element The universe is made of mostly...? Hydrogen The earths crust is mostly...? Oxygen 4 four major electrolytes Sodium, potassium, chloride...also magnesium, phosphorus, potassium are needed for muscle contraction and proper body function. If you are on a ventilator for a long period of time these macronutrients will be missing and your body because your not eating food, these are all added into tube feedings. The number of protons equals the... Atomic number The atomic number and the number of protons are equal to... The number of electrons Atomic number on the top of the element is equal to... The number if protons and electrons Electrons determine.. Size Nucleus determines.. The mass How do you figure the number of neutrons.. The atomic mass - the atomic number! (number on the bottom, Minus the number one top) The number of neutrons also determines the number of isotopes. What is an isotope? One of two or more atoms having the same atomic number but different mass numbers. Same number of protons, same number of electrons, different number of neutrons. What is the atomic number? The number at the top that that is the number of protons and electrons. What is the atomic mass or Atomic mass unit? AMU - the mass of the most frequently found for of an element in nature. This is a measure made up by scientists. The mass of an atom made up of? Protons and neutrons (found in the nucleus) The neutrons determine the _____ properties? Physical properties. Ex: boiling point, solid, liquid, gas.. The electrons determine the ____ properties? Chemical..how it acts in relation to other elements or how it acts in a chemical reaction What is an element? A large collection if atoms of the same type that all have the same atomic number. Substances cannot be broken down further than its individual atom, and still maintain its identity. What is the smaller particle of an element? An atom - protons neutrons and electrons. What is configuration? The specific arrangement or electrons in an atom shell What are valence electrons? The number of electrons in the outer most shell and have the most energy (most reactive of the electrons in the atom) What are Lewis Dot Structures? When you put the dots around the symbol. The dots = the number if valence electrons Groups of elements are based on their____properties. Chemical..used to be physical properties (metals, non metals, metalloids) What column of elements is 1A? Alkali metals - shiny, soft, low melting metals that react rapidly with water and are ELECTRON DONORS. What is in column 2A? Alkaline metals - lustrous, silvery metals, but are LESS reactive than 1A. They are never found in pure states in nature. DONOR ELECTRONS. What is in column 7A? Halogens are found in nature combined with other elements. (Ex: sodium chloride) RECIPIENT ELECTRONS What is in column 8A? Noble gases that are co,ores gases if very low chemical reactivity. Some don't even combine with anything but theirselves. STABLE What are the inner transitional elements? Rare elements, many found in china..they don't follow the octet rule meaning they can have more than 8e- in the outer shell. Bonding usually occurs with... Elements on opposite sides if the periodic table. What is a chemical reaction? A reaction that takes place when valence electrons are lost, gained or shared by other atoms to form a molecule. What is a diatomic element? 02..2 of same atoms What is a compound? 2 or more different atoms (H2O) Molecule if a diatomic elements? Similar atoms sharing 2 electrons (oxygen + oxygen = O2) What is a molecule of a compound? Atoms sharing one electron (oxygen + hydrogen = H2O) What is neutrality? All elements are neutral in their pure state because the number of electrons is equal to the number of protons ( balanced ) What is stability? Except for the noble gases, all elements are unstable. Their outside shells are not full and they are looking for electrons. Most of the elements we typically deal with in medicine are usually looking to fill their outer shell with 8 electrons. Stable atoms = Atoms with 8 electrons in their outer shell What can oxygen do to become more stable? Become diatomic (sharing with 2 of the same elements ) or become a compound (sharing two different elements) Metals usually become.. Cations (lose an electron and become more positive) Non-metals usually become... Anions (Gain electrons And become more negative)
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