Prof school psy Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Founder of school psychology
Witmer (Galton's lab in England???)
Related fields in school psychology
Doctoral level – clinical psychology– abnormal behavior and psychopathology; counseling psychology– normal development and adjustment issues of life. School psychology – unique in that it's specific focus is in school setting and on educational and learning issues
PL 94 – 142
IDEA – education for all handicapped children act – FAPE; reauthorized 1990, 1997, and 2004
IDEA's impact on school psychology
First – mandate appropriate special education eligibility assessment of students (greater number of SPs required expanded number of programs, significant expansion of SP); second – entrenched SPs as a gatekeeper or sorter of students (has been highly resistant to change, RTI, etc.) third – shaped professional practice in general, definition of learning disability in the law, recent changes allowed for RT which is changing roles of SP's
1971 accredited for school psychology PhD program. 2010 – 60 APA school psychology accredited PhD programs in the US.
1988 folio reviews began; joint approval for APA programs
Began in 1988; met training standards and passed exam; increases in recognition (2005 – 21 states); 11,500 NCSP's in 2010; 2010 – 156 – specialist level programs and 63 Doctoral
Requires every child receive a free, appropriate, public education
14th amendment
Education is not a fundamental right of the citizens of the US; must provide equal protection and due process to all citizens; due process includes the right to an education, provided by each state;
Brown versus board of education (1954)
One of the first cases to indicate a violation of the 14th amendment with the use of separate learning facilities; not specifically about children with disabilities but does apply here; separate does not equal equality
IDEIA – 2004
Four parts – part a – Gen. provisions; part B – assistance for Education of all children with disabilities; part C – infants and toddlers with disabilities; part D – national activities to improve education of children with disabilities
Key in terms of service provision
IDEIA – 2004 – part B and C
IDEA – 97 Part B
FAPE requirement for ages 3 to 21. Students with disabilities must be evaluated and identified as having a disability (One of 13, or developmental delay for ages 3 to 9). Child find laws
Child find Laws
Identify, locate, evaluate: evaluations every three years - technically sound; not discriminatory; native-language; thorough
Changes from IDEA 97 to IDEIA – 04
Language regarding evaluation of LD's
Must not require the use of severe discrepancy
Must permit the use of a process based on the child's response to scientific research-based intervention
Greater emphasis on prereferral interventions
Allows LEAs to spend up to 15% of their IDEIA funding to assist students who are not yet identified with the disability
Individualized education plans
Evaluation results are used to develop a written IEP
IEP must be reviewed once yearly – annual reviews
Team-based decisions – SPED, GEN Ed, parent, LEA, result interpreter, child, etc.
Reasonable timeframe for parents
Must include: PLOP; measurable annual goals; services, modifications, supports; explanation of exclusion from/inclusion with nondisabled peers; test modification; dates frequency, location and duration of services; progress monitoring; transition plan (16+)
Procedural safeguards
Highlights importance of parent involvement
Right to be present at all meetings
Right to request independent evaluation
Consent to evaluate – must receive a copy of safeguards
Consent for placement
Right to mediation – due process – civil court
Discipline – procedural safeguards
10 days (consecutive and maximum)/school year
Can be placed in alternative schooling
Up to 45 days
Weapons or drugs
Danger to self or others
After 10 days:
IEP meeting
Manifestation determination
If not result of disability subject to same disciplinary procedures as students without disabilities – must still have FAPE
Least restrictive environment
Special Ed Law encourages mainstreaming – but only to the extent that it does not prevent a child from receiving educational benefit
School district must be able to document that the least restrictive setting does not allow the child to benefit – can be placed in more restrictive setting
IDEA - 97 Part C
Early intervention programs for infants and toddlers from birth age 3
EIS services available but not required to apply
Can charge parents
State must ID agencies to provide EIS
Child can receive services if delays present, physical problems may cause delays
Services to be in natural setting
Public awareness of EIS and how to refer
45 days to evaluate
Can continue to provide services after age 3
Released – 2006
LD requirements changed
Case-by-case basis for change in placements
Annual goals – no ST are OBJ required
Transition plans at 16
Member excusal
IEP changes
Three years re-evals
One eval per year
15% pre-referral
Can't require medication
Section 504
Rehabilitation act of 1973
Lacks funding
Office of civil rights
Especially affects kids with ADHD
Americans with disabilities act – 1990
Similar to section 504
Applies to employment and schooling organizations regardless of whether they receive federal financial assistance
Definition of disability remains the same as 504
Allows parents access to records
Allows parents to request changes to records/reports
Must have consent from parents to release information
Testing in reading/math
95% take standardized test and compare
3% alternative assessment
All students proficient by 2013 – 14
If not met two years school choice
Three years additional instruction
Four years corrective measures
Five years state take over
Report cards Highly qualified teachers
Arnold Gisell
First named school psychologist
1915 – 1919 in Connecticut
First book on school psychology
Psychological service for school problems 1930
Boulder conference on clinical psychology
1949 – post WWII
Clinics established
Resulted in:
Scientist – practitioner model
Models for credentialing psychologists
Legitimized the applied field
Thayer conference
Advanced and shaped the training, credentialing, and practice of school psychology
First comprehensive picture of the field
APA division 16 established
No national credentials
PhD debate
State to state differences
NASP established
First conference in St. Louis – 1969
Considered to have bridge the gap between school psychology as an emerging field and school psychology as a professional identity
Stages of school psychology development
Hybrid years – 1892 to 1969

Thoroughbred years – 1972 to 2000
Models of training
Scientist practitioner model
Practitioner - professional practice
Practitioner – Scholar
Clinical scientist
Scientist practitioner model
Emphasis on research – first defined at Boulder conference 1949
Practitioner model
Professional and clinical practice 1970s dissatisfaction with practitioner quality
Practitioner scholar
Bridges scientist practitioner model with practitioner professional practice model
NASP standard for school psychologist
Minimum 60 hours +1200 hour internship
Two years coursework at 12 to 16 hours per semester
Doctoral curriculum for school psychologist
Three years of study plus one year internship for doctoral program
Dissertation or comprehensive project
Typically five years to complete all requirements
NCSP credential
Praxis two – specific for school psychology
State Board of examiners and psychology
Specialty credentialing
State credentialing/licensure
School psychology in nonschool settings
PhD most often required
Clinical – hospitals; community mental health; private practice
Similar application procedures
Consider the fit
Where do school psychologists typically work
77% public schools
5.4% University
5.1% private practice
2.4% private schools
1.2% mental health
.8% residential
.4% state Department of Education
School psychologist in the school
Average three schools
Mass ratio 1:1000 students
National average 1:1500 students
Salaries of school psychologists
Average equals $49,000
Vary by state
Working days:
Average 197 (nine – 10 month contracts)
Roles of school psychologist
Intervention– helping not doing
Actual versus ideal
Demographics of school psychologist
72.6% women
80% grad students
70% practicing psychologist
Ethnicity – European 91% nonwhite 15 to 17%
Specialist level degrees
Age and experience
Increase in retirees equals job supply
Demographics continued
PhD's 28% – 67% psych graduates female – males outnumber in academia – 30% programs are doctoral – 30% enrollment – 17% graduate
Autism (federal def)
A developmental disability significantly affecting verbal & nonverbal communication and social interaction, generally evident by age 3, that adversely affects a child's educational performance.
Other characteristics of Autism
Engagement in repetitive activities and stereotyped movements; resistance to environmental change or change in daily routines; unusual responses to sensory experiences.
Arkansas law -Autism - Puzzle pieces
Social history - IQ & Achievement - adaptive behavior - communication - observation - medical exam
Intellectual disability - federal definition
Significantly sub average general intellectual functioning existing concurrently with deficits in adaptive behavior and manifested during the developmental period that adversely affects a child's educational performance
Intellectual disability - Arkansas Law
Social history- IQ Achievement - adaptive behavior - comprehensive language screenings - programming: subject areas, functional skills assessment.
IQ below 70 to 75 range
Onset before 18
Significant weakness in two more areas of adaptive skills – reflected in multiple contexts.
OHI– Federal definition
Limited strength, vitality, or alertness, including a heightened alertness to environmental stimuli that results in limited alertness with respect to the educational environment
Due to chronic or acute health problems
Adversely affects a child's educational performance
Other health Impairment Arkansas definition
Social history – developmental, health, and Medical focuses
IQ and achievement
Adaptive behavior
Comprehensive language screening
Medical exam – written physician statement
Justification of adverse effect on educational performance
Emotional disturbance – federal definition
Condition exhibiting one or more of the following over a long period of time: inability to learn not explained by intellectual, sensory, or health factors -
Inability to build and maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships -
Inappropriate types of behavior or feelings under normal circumstances -
general pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression -
A tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears associated with personal or school problems
Emotional disturbance – Arkansas definition
Social history
IQ and achievement
Adaptive behavior
Comprehensive language screening
Clinical diagnosis of ED by licensed psychologist
Behavioral observation
Learning processes
Specific subject areas
Learning disability - federal definition
A disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, that may manifest itself in an imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, write, spell or do mathematical calculations
Perceptual disabilities, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia, and developmental aphasia
Does not include learning problems that are primarily the result of other disabilities, culture, or economical disadvantage
Learning disability – Arkansas identification
Social history
IQ and achievement
Adaptive behavior
Comprehensive language screening
Learning processes
Processing areas noted to the deficit areas
Learning disability determination – Arkansas
Involves team of qualified individuals and parent
– Regular education teacher
– Person qualified in diagnostic examination
Specific learning disability present if. . .
Child does not achieve adequately for age; does not make sufficient progress; exhibit a pattern of Strengths and weaknesses and performance
Not the result of other areas of deficit;
Discrepancy or use of RTI process allowed
LD: Arkansas Law
Cannot be LD if lack of appropriate instruction - eligibility statement must contain: whether child has SLD - Basis for making such a decision - relevant behavior observation - Medical findings - lack of achievement/lack of progress/strengths and weaknesses - Determination of exclusionary factors. Response to interventions (strategies & data, parent notification) - all must sign and date conclusions and date of eligibility report and agreement with conclusion.
Initial evaluation
The data gathering process where procedures are used selectively with an individual student. It doesn't incl. basic tests administered or procedures used with all students in a school, grade, or class.
Initial eval. Conducted
W/in 60 days from consent
Initial eval characteristics
Tests: non-discriminatory & in native language - use a variety of tools & tailored assessment instruments - assesses all areas of suspected disability.
Review existing data: info from parents; classroom based assessments & observation, state/local tests - observations;
Re-evaluations determine...
If the child is a child w/, or continues to have, a disability - Present level of perf. & edu/dev needs - need for sped or continued sped. Additional mods to meet goals of IEP.
Re-eval details
Pub agency determines the edu or related services needs of child warrant it OR requested by teacher or parent; conducted once every 3 years unless otherwise agreed; no more than one per year; done before changing eligibility
30days; team of qualified individuals; copy of eval decision; (not a child w/disability if... Lack instr. in reading or math - limited English proficiency- does not otherwise meet criteria.
APA & NASP - areas of main focus: competence; professional relationships; privacy/confidentiality; Intervention and assessment; research; training/supervision; record keeping; ethical decision making
Ethics and law
Child abuse and neglect;duty to protect; tarasoft v the regents of the University of California.
Why ethical training is needed
School psychologists work w/ children. Is especially vulnerable to ethical dilemmas: serve several populations whose interests may differ from one another - schools are government agencies subject to regulation, employment law, etc. - schools' primary concern is the development of academic skills.
How prepared are school psychologists to handle ethical dilemmas
Most don't feel fully prepared - ethical standards may be unclear or ambiguous; often, situations involve competing ethical principles. Sometimes ethical principles conflict with one another.
Credentialing authorities
Dept of edu. Board of psych
Top three ethics related concerns
Admin pressure; unsound edu practices; assessment related concerns
Four general Ethical principles
Respect for the dignity of person
Responsible caring
Integrity and professional relationships responsibility to community and society
Part of comprehensive services
Standardized testing versus problem-solving – Favored
Outside versus inside eval
Assessment standards
NASP and APA standards; standards for educational and psychological testing; code of fair testing practices in education
Intelligence testing
Theories of intelligence – general factor (G); multiple factors; big names in intelligence.: Spearmen; Catell – Horn and Catell – Horn– Caroll; Sternberg; Gardner
Definitions of intelligence
What do IQ tests measure
An estimate of current intellectual functioning – not linked with intervention – verbal and nonverbal, STM
Academic skills
More face validity
Traditional (norm-referenced) versus alternative (CBA/CBM; progress monitoring) assessment - Assessment should always link to intervention
Training and usage
Assessment of academic skills
Standardized achievement test
Curriculum-based measurement
Brief experimental analysis
Standardized achievement test
Co-Normed with IQ test
Examples: broad tests; narrow tests
Curriculum-based measurement
Standard procedure, technically sound, standardized measurement task, specific administration and scoring
Moving to RTI model
Why use curriculum-based measurement
To decide if moving through the tiers
RTI ties assessment and intervention
Brief experimental analysis
Typically behavior assessment
Can use to observe academic skills
Rationales for poor performance: motivation/want to; has not spent enough time; Not enough help; different presentation/output expected; difficulty level too high
Behavior and Socio emotional functioning
8.4% of the special education population
Increase in ADHD identification
OHI increase 400% from 1991 to 2001
Measures: projective techniques; scales; interviews; observations; FBA
Projective test
Oldest form of assessment
Drawing, thematic, sentence completion task
One third use and one third-don't.
Controversy over use
Behavior rating scales
Attacking and withdrawing behaviors
Broadband versus narrowband
Question about symptoms and obtain background info
Types: clinical, structured, semi structured; pros and cons
Assessment in contact; several behaviors can be observed; time and training are extensive; multiple problem behaviors, one positive behavior, and use peer compares
Self-report measures
Writing skills
Broad or narrow
Functional behavioral assessment
Types: indirect (interviews), direct descriptive (observation), functional behavior analysis (mini experiments)
Three functions of behavior
Self stimulation
Diagnosis and classification
Issues with classification: self-fulfilling prophecy; not all classified; no direct link to intervention; categories not reliable
Assessment in problem-solving
Received referral question
Clarify and obtain additional details
Develop hypothesis
Select assessment materials and methods
Conduct assessments
Review data
Develop intervention plan
Implement intervention
Evaluate intervention
Continue intervention or reassess problem
/ 92

Leave a Comment ({[ getComments().length ]})

Comments ({[ getComments().length ]})


{[ comment.comment ]}

View All {[ getComments().length ]} Comments
Ask a homework question - tutors are online