# Logic 1000 - Definitions Flashcards

Terms Definitions
 Affirming the Antecedent (MP) Valid - if p then q, p, therefore q Affirming the Consequent Invalid - if P then Q, Q, therefore P Antecedent The first part of a conditional statement (if P the Q) Cogent Argument A strong inductive argument Conditional Statement An "if-then" statement; consists of the antecedent and the consequent Consequent The part of a conditional statement introduce by the word "then" Deductive Argument An argument intended to provide logically conclusive support for its conclusion Denying the Antecedent Invalid - if P then Q, Not P, therefore Q Denying the Consequent (MT) Valid - if P the Q, Not Q, therefore Not P Dependent Premise A premise that depends on at least one other premise to provide joint support to a conclusion. Disjunctive Syllogism Valid - Either P or Q, not P therefore Q Hypothetical Syllogism Valid - if P then R, if R then S, therefore if P then S Independent Premise A premise does not depend on other premises to provide support to a conclusion. Inductive Argument An argument In which the premises are intended to provide probable, not conclusive support for its conclusion Sound Said of deductively valid argument that has true premises. Strong Argument An inductive argument that succeeds in providing probable, but not conclusive, support for its conclusion Appeal to Common Practice Arguing that a practice is ethical or wise merely because a substantial number of people do it Appeal to Emotion Using emotions in place of relevant reasons as premises in an argument Appel to Ignorance Arguing that a lack of evidence proves something false. Appeal to Popularity Arguing that a claim is true merely because a substantial number of people believe it Appeal ad Hominem Rejecting a claim by criticizing the person who makes it rather than the claim itself Appeal to Tradition Arguing that a claim must be true just because it's a part of tradition Argument by Analogy (Analogical Induction) An argument makes use of analogy, reasoning that because the two are similar in several respects, they must be similar in some further respect Begging the Question Attempting to establish the conclusion of an argument by using that conclusion as a premise Burden of Proof Weight of evidence or argument required by one side in a debate or disagreement Composition Arguing that what is true of its parts is also true of its whole Division Arguing that what is true of the whole is also true of its parts Equivocation Using a word in two different senses in an argument Fallacy An argument form that is both common and defective; a recurring mistake in reasoning False Dilemma Asserting that there are only two alternatives to consider when more exist Faulty Analogy A defective argument by analogy Genetic Falacy Arguing that a claim is true or false solely because of its origin Hasty Generalization Drawing a conclusion about a target group on the basis of too small a sample Red Herring Deliberately raising an irrelevant issue during an argument Slippery Slope Arguing, without good reasons, that taking a particular step will inevitability lead to further, undesirable steps Straw Man Distorting, weakening, or oversimplifying someone's position so it can be more easily attacked or refuted Tu Quoque (you're another) A type of ad Hominem fallacy that argues that a claim must be true or false just because the claimant is hypocritical
/ 37
Term:
Definition:
Definition: