Logic 1000 - Definitions Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Affirming the Antecedent (MP)
Valid - if p then q, p, therefore q
Affirming the Consequent
Invalid - if P then Q, Q, therefore P
The first part of a conditional statement (if P the Q)
Cogent Argument
A strong inductive argument
Conditional Statement
An "if-then" statement; consists of the antecedent and the consequent
The part of a conditional statement introduce by the word "then"
Deductive Argument
An argument intended to provide logically conclusive support for its conclusion
Denying the Antecedent
Invalid - if P then Q, Not P, therefore Q
Denying the Consequent (MT)
Valid - if P the Q, Not Q, therefore Not P
Dependent Premise
A premise that depends on at least one other premise to provide joint support to a conclusion.
Disjunctive Syllogism
Valid - Either P or Q, not P therefore Q
Hypothetical Syllogism
Valid - if P then R, if R then S, therefore if P then S
Independent Premise
A premise does not depend on other premises to provide support to a conclusion.
Inductive Argument
An argument In which the premises are intended to provide probable, not conclusive support for its conclusion
Said of deductively valid argument that has true premises.
Strong Argument
An inductive argument that succeeds in providing probable, but not conclusive, support for its conclusion
Appeal to Common Practice
Arguing that a practice is ethical or wise merely because a substantial number of people do it
Appeal to Emotion
Using emotions in place of relevant reasons as premises in an argument
Appel to Ignorance
Arguing that a lack of evidence proves something false.
Appeal to Popularity
Arguing that a claim is true merely because a substantial number of people believe it
Appeal ad Hominem
Rejecting a claim by criticizing the person who makes it rather than the claim itself
Appeal to Tradition
Arguing that a claim must be true just because it's a part of tradition
Argument by Analogy (Analogical Induction)
An argument makes use of analogy, reasoning that because the two are similar in several respects, they must be similar in some further respect
Begging the Question
Attempting to establish the conclusion of an argument by using that conclusion as a premise
Burden of Proof
Weight of evidence or argument required by one side in a debate or disagreement
Arguing that what is true of its parts is also true of its whole
Arguing that what is true of the whole is also true of its parts
Using a word in two different senses in an argument
An argument form that is both common and defective; a recurring mistake in reasoning
False Dilemma
Asserting that there are only two alternatives to consider when more exist
Faulty Analogy
A defective argument by analogy
Genetic Falacy
Arguing that a claim is true or false solely because of its origin
Hasty Generalization
Drawing a conclusion about a target group on the basis of too small a sample
Red Herring
Deliberately raising an irrelevant issue during an argument
Slippery Slope
Arguing, without good reasons, that taking a particular step will inevitability lead to further, undesirable steps
Straw Man
Distorting, weakening, or oversimplifying someone's position so it can be more easily attacked or refuted
Tu Quoque (you're another)
A type of ad Hominem fallacy that argues that a claim must be true or false just because the claimant is hypocritical
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