GEOL EXAM Flashcards

Terms Definitions
headwaters
source
disintegration
physical breakdown
Stratus clouds:
Flat clouds
gelifluction
earthflow controlled by permafrost/bedrock
oceanic crust
gabbro and basalt
barrier island
depositional coastline landform: ridges of sand that parallel the shoreline and extend above sea level (often create lagoons)
stock
surface expression of pluton <100km2
Joints/Fractures
• Fractures across which no displacement or offset has occurred.• Columnar joints are a very special (6-sided) type of joint system found typically in basaltic lava flows
Mesozoic Vertebrates
Amphibians: turtles, thecodonts, crocodiles. Also included dinosaurs and birds.
Earth's layers by chemical composition
crust
mantle
core
What makes Ice look Milky
dissolved gasses.
Strike-slip faults
Results from horizontal shear stress
*Know how to distinguish a right lateral from left lateral strike-slip fault
true
A factor that controls the characteristics of metamorphic rocks is temperature (true or false)
Volatiles
Gasses dissolved in the melt, including water vapor, carbon dioxide, & sulfur dioxide.
Earth's major boundaries
Mohorovic discontinuityCore mantle boundaryLehman discontinuity
Abrasion
• Caused by rock movement sliding over rock, “sanding” it down• Produces rock flour and glacial striations
Wien's Law:
Hotter objects radiate shorter wavelength energy
stack
erosional remnants of headlands left behind as the coast retreats inland
disconformity
rocks on either side are parrallel
Tambora
Indonesia 1815 most violent & explosive eruption of last 200yrs "the year w/o a summer"
wave refraction
waves are refracted and converge behind a point (such as around an island)
horn
a pointed mountain peak surrounded by at least 3 cirques
compressional
______ stress results in squeezing and shortening of a material.
submarine fan
land-derived sediment at base of submarine canyons
What are surges?
Extremely rapid movements in glaciers
A rise...
Spreads faster and is less steep
Gaining streams
• Streams that gain water from groundwater
calderas
collapsed area due to: sinking of shield volcano summit or very large Plinian eruption, most calderas for explosiveley in stratovolcanoes (Crater Lake, OR)eruptions form continental hotspots may collapse large areas of the crust
Together, the Pennsylvanian and Mississippian periods are known as:
The Carboniferous Period
rectangular pattern
a drainage pattern in which tributaries have frequent 90 degree bends and tend to join other streams at right angles
atomic number
distinguishing feature of an element the number of protons in the nucleus of each of its atomsnumber of electrons and neutrons in the atoms of a given element can vary, but the number of protons is constant
deccan traps
killed dinosauras, on the opposite side of the planet from where an asteroid hit Yucatan, so could be a combination of rifting and mantle plums caused by extraterrestrial impact
From what period did the Psilophyton come from?
Late Devonian
confined aquifer
an aquifer that is completely filled with water under pressure; separated from the surface by an impermeable layer (aquitard)
Male competition
males compete with one another to attract females
u-shaped
Which type of valley is formed by glacial erosion?
Melt
A liquid portion of the nature of magma composed of mobile ions.
Role of volatiles
• As you increase volatiles (like water) you decrease melting temperature• Important factor where oceanic lithosphere (mixed with water rich sediment) descends into the mantle
Styles of volcanic eruption
Effusive eruption: Low viscosity, basaltic lavaFissure eruption: Basaltic lava erupting from a fissure rather than a point sourceFlood basalts: Build up thick plateau of basaltRhyolitic to andesitic eruptions: Explosive, produces alot of ash.
When did subduction begin for the Cordillerian?
Devonian period.
formation
mappable rock unit that is defined on the basis of lithology (phys, chem characterisitics od the rock)
NOT by age
brittle
a type of behavior that rocks exhibit at stresses higher than their elastic limit (like a rubber band will break if stretched too far)
rift valleys
the slower the spreading rate, the more prominent the rift valley (no rift valley with fast spreading rate)

steeper slope with slower spreading rate
Composite volcano/Stratovolcano
a composite volcanic cone built of interlayered lava flows and pyroclastic materials
Thawing permafrost
One study suggests that a three degree C increase in average summer air temperatures could increase erosion rates in the eastern Siberia Arctic by three to five metres a year. In some part of the Arctic, toxic and radioactive materials are stored and contained in frozen ground. Thawing may release these substances in the local and wider environment with risks to humans and wildlife alongside significant clean up costs.It is the likely cause behind the draining away and disappearance of Arctic lakes in Siberia during the past three decades over an area of 500,000 square km.
glacial advance
when the rate of accumulation of ice exceeds the rate at which ablation occurs, the toe moves outward
Michigan and Illinois basins:
formed within the continent, probably due to Paleozoic collisional tectonics in the Appalachians or processes in the mantle.
Solar Energy hard to utilize....
-diffuse
-highly variable on a seasonal/daily basis
-difficult to convert into more usable forms of energy
what was once part of the eastern overthrust belt?
- Appalachians
Global climate is dependent upon:
11-year solar cycle, Milankovitch cycles, plate tectonics, atmospheric composition, ocean circulation
inner delta plain
swamps yield thick coals and shales with nonmarine fossils.
1-7 Major Concept
The major structural features of the ocean floor are:a - the oceanic ridgesb - the vast abyssal floorc - long, narrow, and incredibly deep trenchesd - seamountse - continental margins
What is a syncline?
It happens when tensional stress causes the young rocks to sink down in the middle
baymouth bar
ridge of sediment that cuts a bay off from the ocean
What does landslide prediction rely on?
-Close monitoring of potentially unstable slopes to identify sudden changes or anomalies that could indicate an upcoming failure
Transform Fault sequence:
if the rocks along the fault lock while:1) the STRESS from plate motion continues;2) STRAIN builds up in the rocks on either side of the fault so that they;3) DEFORE/bend, storing up elastic energy like a spring ever drawn tighter4) when the spring snaps, rocks on either side of the fault jerk violently past each other and earthquake shock waves are sent out in all directionsthe crust is neither created nor destroyedfault between them is called "STRIKE SLIP FAULT" - not all SSF's are plate boundaries, but those are ARE plate boundaries are called, "TRANSFORM FAULTS"
River Sediment Deposition Features
Alluvial Fan
build at base of mtn front
sediment rapidly dropped near stream source- carried to mouth
What is the waveperiod?
the time interval between the passage of two successive crests
Large crystals require:
more time to grow, so form at depth where rocks can cool more slowly.
In July 1996, a 162,000 ton mass of granite pulled away from a canyon wall and slid down 540ft, then launched into the air for a 1,640-ft drop in an arcing trajectory, reaching a speed of 270mph before hitting the valley floor at
Yosemite National Park.
What are the 4 levels of petroleum investigation? from level of assessment
1)Sedimentary Basin
2) Petroleum system
3) Play
4) Prospect
What makes a vertebrate a vertebrate?
backbone, and head where the sense organs are located.
What is the capillary fringe?
The extension up from the water table. It is when groundwater is held by surface tension in tiny passages between grains of soil or sediment
How could dallas during the non-attainment for ozone show that they have met EPA standards classifed under NAAQS in the CAA?
To acheive attainment in 2007, D/FW area ozone monitor could not show more than 3 exceedances of ozone standard 125 ppb over a 3 conecutive summer seasons (2005 - 2007)- more exceedances required for more additional control measures
Problems with adjusting to life in air
support (due to no buoyancy), drying out, extreme temperatures, gas behavior is different in the air than in the water (it is dissolved in water), there is no nutrients in the air.
How do you avoid error in radiometric dating?
only fresh, unweathered rock samples should be used
What are early plants thought to be like?
largely aquatic, living in swamps and marshes.
Heat moves from one latitude to another
by means of the oceans and the atmosphere
How was O2 in earth's new atmosphere important?
O2 is necessary for the evolution of life and small organic molecules. - Increased atmosphere O2 created ozone in stratosphere (O3) which is important to shield UV light from primitive organisms- H20 vapor condensed as temperatures cooled and created oceans - large ocean reservoir created a sink for atmospheric CO2, leaving N2 as dominant atmospheric gas
Plantae
slab avalanches
slides
Flood tide:
rising tide
s-wave
shadow zone >130 degrees
Gyres are ____ currents.
surface
accretion
addition of material through collisions
liquefication
intense ground shaking during earthquakes that cause water-saturated surface materials to lose their strength and behave as fliudlike masses that flow
Stream sediments
• Generally well sorted• Velocity separates the particles by size (sorting)• Bars: sand and gravel deposited in a channel.
arete
sharp divides bw glacial valleys
A horizon
mineral and organic matter
Ethanol
made renewably, from plants, which naturally soak up the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (more commonly known as drinking alcohol, is touted by some as a viable alternative fuel for vehicles)
Metamorphic rocks
Consists of minerals that recrystallize in a SOLID STATE
On continents mafic magma erupts as:
basalt.
lahar
debris flows composed mostly of volcanic material on the flanks of volcanoes
Asthenosphere
• Beneath the lithosphere, in the upper mantle to a depth of about 600 km • Behaves plastically and can mechanically detach and move independently of the lithosphere.
Graded streams
• Maintain the exact velocity required to transport materials and neither erode or deposit. • A natural state for streams
Spreading boundaries produce:
Ridges and rift valleys
erratic
an ice-transported boulder that has not been derived from underlying bedrock
strike-slip fault
dominant displacement is horizontal and parallel to strike of fault
What is stress also known as?
Force
wave-cut platform
erosional coastline landform: a nearly horizontal bench of rock formed beneath the surf zone as a coast retreats by wave erosion
Sheeting/exfoliation
The separation of rock into layers parallel to the land surface.
-Occurs only in massive, homogeneous rocks
-Driven by pressure release
-Tremendous pressure release and expansion occurs as deep-level rocks are exhumed
(example of MECHANICAL WEATHERING)
544
The paleozoic era began ____ million years ago.
Transport
The movement of water through the atmosphere.
Other volcanic landforms
Fissure eruptions and lava plateausLava domesVolcanic pipes and necks
Artesian wells
• Wells that flow to the surface• Water rises above the top of the aquifer• An aquitard must both be present
stratovolcanoes
a series of vulcanian and plinian eruptions, can be several thousand meters tall, consists of alternating ash and lava layers, central or side vents, have snow and ice because altitude is high, water vapor freezes
cracking
breakup of large HC molecules to obtain lighter ones
incised meanders
meanders that retain their sinuous pattern as they cut vertically downward below the level at which they originally formed
Listric Fault
*fault plane becomes closer to horizontal with depth
*normal and thrust can be listric
**PICTURE**
Theory
a generally accepted explanation for a set of data or observations; its validity has usually been tested by the scientific method
what do some plants specialize in?
colonizing disaster areas
earthquake surface hazards
ground offset (along fault scarp); ground shaking (more in soft soils); liquefaction; tsunamis; fires - *fault scarp is seen when there is a component of vertical movement
false
Breccia is a type of sandstone (true or false)
Hawaii is:
three large volcanoes and two smaller volcanoes. Mauna Loa is the world's largest volcanoa above sea floor. Kilauea is the world's most active volcano.
convergent
a plate boundary in which plates move toward one another
Types of chemical weathering
• Dissolution: Some components of rocks can be soluble and essentially dissolve. • Hydrolysis: Reaction of a substance with water. Feldspar changes to kaolinite clay • Oxidation: Loss of oxygen molecules to oxygen, rusting.
Where does magma form on Earth?
-Mid-ocean ridges-Mantle plumes-Subduction zones
Mesozoic Overview
Begins and ends in extinction. Spans 160 million years (three periods). Evolution of many new plants and animals. Two new vertebrate classes appear. Pangea rifted apart. 
playa lake
very shallow lakes created by runoff water in desert areas
left-lateral fault
a stream or other displaced feature would appear to the left across the fault
deep-sea fans
deposited sediments at the base of continental slopes
Chemical sedimentary rock
form from crystals formed by precipitation or growth from solution
which type of mass wasting is the most costly (in terms of dollars)?
creep
ClORPT
Soil property s = f(Cl O R P T)
Climate, Organisms, Relief, Parent material, and Time
tides
rise and fall of sea level caused by gravitational attraction of moon and sun
source of oil and gas (source rock)
organic-rich black shale
What CAUSES Travertine?
at Mommoth Hots Springs, hot water dissolves subterranean limstone
Closed system
No input or output of energy or matter; enclosed cycle
saturated zone
the subsurface zone in which all rock openings are filled with water
MATTER
An atom is the smallest unit of an element that possesses the properties ofthe element. It consists of a nucleus of protons and neutrons and a surroundingcloud of electrons.There are three states of matter: gas, liquid, and solid. Each state is distinguished by unique physical properties. Processes in Earth&#8217;s dynamics mostly involve the changing of matter from one state to another.
What are hanging valleys?
valleys of tributary glaciers, left standing about the main glacier trough
factors that determine response to stress
temperature, composition, rate of strain (how fast or slow the strain is)
What are slope failures?
The falling, slumping, or sliding of relatively coherent masses of rock
Freshwater that passes through uplifted sediments containing quick-clay changes the sea-saltcontent, leaving quick-clay with _________.
weak structure(b) grains mostly less than 0.002 mm in diameter(c) water contents commonly in excess of 50 percent(d) a low salt content
alluvial fan
a large, fan or cone shaped pile of sediments that usually forms where a stream's velocity decreases as it emerges from a narrow mountain canyon onto a flat plain
What is porosity?
the percentage of total volume of rock or sediment that consists of pore spaces
Resistant areas or layers outlast erosion of less resistant ones:
an erosional remnant of tilted sedimentary rock.
Water weakens earth materials in which of the following ways
interplay with clay minerals(b) decreasing the cohesion of rocks(c) subsurface erosion(d) pressure in pores of rocks and sediments
Carribean Sea/ Gulf of Mexico Don’t hit west coast of the US as much as Atlantic hurricanes hit east coast b/c…
Trade winds blow most of the hurricanes westward out into the Pacific There is a marked diff in seawater temperatures Pacific is bathed by cold water from the California Current coming down from Alaska
When did the tetrapods make their full move to the land?
the end of the carboniferous
what triggered the modern ice age?
-formation of land bridge between N and S America which changed oceanic circulation (isthmus)
Important Mineral Products of Late Paleozoic
-Fossil Fuels: coal, oil and gas present in the East. 
-Coal was present in all Devonian rocks. 
-Metallic ores
what is the benefit of laid eggs?
features to protect and nourish the fetus
what is the western overthrust belt?
- part of the N. American Cordillera- collisions with Pacific-derived suspect terranes during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic have shoved parts of the Rocky Mts 65 km eastward
How was the world in the Carboniferous?
It was covered with huge swamps and that is where much of our coal comes from
How is a Spirometer Designed?
- It is shaped like a cylinder with a closed top- open end is submerged in a tank of fluid- valves can be opened and cloed to expose the inside of the cylinder to the atmosphere- flud should be at room temperature and care is taken to ensure equilibrim between internal/external pressure- advantage, simple and inexpensive- disadvantage not portable
What are common features of a semiarid zone?
precipitation less than 60 cm per year and the average temperature around 20 C
point bar
supernova
large star explodes
River Erosion Location
Downcutting
crater
opening over central vent
Four Earth spheres
LithosphereAtmosphere HydrosphereBiosphere
sediment
unconsolidated particles created by the weathering and erosion of rock, by chemical precipitations from solution in water, or from the secretions of organisms, and transported by water, wind, or glaciers.
fault trap
displacement creates permeability contrasts
Aquifiers
• Sediments or material that transmits water freely
What mineral makes steel strong?
cobalt
nonconformity
intrusive igneous rock interaction with sedimentary layers
dissolution
acid dissolves minerals; common in limestones (made of calcite)
Deposition
Occurs when there is insufficient power for system (river or wind) to transport sediments of a given size
-
Sometimes there is no power, so even the smallest sediment is deposited
Travertine (limestone):
forms as chemical-rich waters precipitate calcite, such as from temperature changes or when two different types of water mix.
oceanic-continental
a convergent plate boundary where dense oceanic crust sinks below continental crust at a subduction zone, volcanoes and mountains form, great earthquakes may occur
Lithosphere
• Consists of the crust and uppermost mantle • Relatively cool, rigid shell • Averages about 100 km in thickness, but may be 250 km or more thick beneath the older portions of the continents
Subsurface erosion by groundwater can cause
piping
Humidity:
Amount of water vapor in air
dissolved load
soluble products of chemical weathering processes
primary (P) waves
push-pull motion

travels through solids, liquids, gases

in solids, travels 1.7 times faster than S waves
What are horns?
sharp pyramid like peaks
wind effects
EROSION: blowouts of dry sediment, abrasion (sandstorms), ventifacts - TRANSPORT: dust plumes/dust storms - WIND DEPOSITION: loesses (deposits of wind-blown silt & clay), sand dunes (mounds of sand built up by the wind)
Erosion
transports sediment away from where it originate
251
The mesozoic era began ____ million years ago.
pelagic
sediment made up of fine-grained clay and skeletons of microscopic organisms
oil& gas hail from?
plankton and marine algae
Impact metamorphism
• From meteorites (parts of comets or asteroids)
Lava Fountains
develop when lave rises sufficiently fast that the gases dissolved in it do not have time to escape fore it reaches the surface so that frothing and eruption occur simultaneously
ignimbrite
thick layers of ash and pumice deposited by pyroclastic flows, often "welded" in center
What environmental impact is related to the smelting of sulfide ores?
acid rain
rip current
narrow currents that flow straight out to see in the surf zone, returning water seaward that breaking waves have pushed ashore
Deformations in Rocks
*folds: bent structures (ductile deformation)
*Faults: brittle with offset
*Fractures: brittle with no offset (result from bending/stress/cooling volcanic rock
Isotopes
atoms of a given chemical element having the same atomic number but different atomic mass numbers
How long did the temnospondyls survive
until the cretaceous
shielded herbivores
frill or shield on back of head
cleavage
the ability of a mineral to break along preferred planes of weakness is called _____.
Rock salt:
forms when ocean and lakes containing sodium, calcium, and chloride evaporate.
Laurasia, Gondwana
Pangea broke apart and split into _______ and _______.
Structure of minerals
• By definition every specimen of mineral has the same internal structure• Internal structure can be expressed by external crystal structure
Two large mass extinctions
dates
Permian-Triassic 250 mya
end Cretaceous (K/T)  65 mya
oil shale
not shale, not oil. made from kerogen
translational slide
the descending mass moves along a plane approx parallel to the slope of the surface
major mountain belts
chains thousands of kilometers long composed of numerous mountain ranges
dip-slip faults
movement parallel to dip of fault surface
fissure eruptions
(Icelandic eruptions) lava purs out of linear vents or long fractures in the volcano
Lazarus Taxa
A taxon that due to migration it appears, disappears then reappears in an individual fossil record
What is peat?
-A biogenic sediment formed from the accumulation and compaction of plant remains
compression
pressure is not equal from all sides - found at convergent plate boundary - forms folds - changes orientation - develop foliations and change in shape of the rock, becomes elongated
Krakatau represents what?
- one of the greatest natural explosions in history
Oceans experience ___ evaporation than precipitation
greater evaporation than precipitation
headward erosion
the slow, uphill growth of a valley above its original source through gullying, mass wasting, and sheet erosion
Gas is said to be &quot;sweet&quot; or &quot;sour&quot;, based on the absence or presence of?

A) H2S
B) CO2
C) N2
A) H2S
What are natural levees?
strips of coarse sediments bordering the channel are gently sloping structures that are created by repated floods. They form parallel to the stream channel
Cretaceous sea lizard
large head, short neck, long body and tail, extinct
What two basic cycles glaciers are part of?
Hydrologic cycle, rock cycle
Which of the following is most likely to occur in Kansas in the next 100 years
an F5 tornado
rotational slide (slump)
movement along a curved surface - the upper part moving downward while the lower part moves outward
What is an alluvial fan?
a fan shaped deposit of sediments
What causes chemical sedimentary rocks to form?
-Result from the lithification of sediments
-Such sediments are formed by the chemical precipitation of minerals from water
Zones of plinian eruption
-Gas thrust region: Gas and ash ascend due to pressure of expanding volatiles-Convective ascent region: Gas and ash rises due to contrast in temp with surrounding air-Momentum driven ascent-Neutral density level: Umbrella that forms at top of eruption plume
What is a stream's load?
the transported material carried by a stream
when does C-14 stop accumulating?
when organism dies, C-14 is lost by radioactive decay
What are the features of convergent plate boundaries?
• Plates move together and collide so you have compressional forces• Active margins: mountain building, earthquakes, and andesite (explosive) volcanoes.• Most dangerous type• Earthquakes up to 9.5 in subduction zones• Andesite volcanoes: very explosive• Tsunami potential where you have subduction.
how and when do hydrothermal ores appear?
disseminated within or forming veins around intrusives
We have evidence that jaws were invented when?
Silurian (but the fossil record is sparse and poorly understood)
In a video shown in class, houses were seen to move as fast as 18 miles per hour on top of
a flow of quick clay.
What did the bony fish of the Ordovician have?
no internal skeleton, a hard outer skin
What is another name for air pollution? not smog. What makes them different?
Haze is often used to describe air pollution, and is related to smog due to reduction of visibility.- they are different due to haze is not very intense and describes a wide scale low level pollution that causes visibility reduction in the midwest, northeast, and south east.
How do waves move sand along the beach?
Waves that reach the shoreline at an angle (oblique waves) cause the sediment to move along the beach in a zigzag pattern called beach drift
intermediate
52-66% SiO2
lava
extrusive molten rock
Shale
sedimentary, derital/clastic, individual particles too small to see, bedding planes clearly visible in rock
Diorite (intrusive)
• Phaneritic, coarse grained• Looks like gray granite
Strike Slip Fault
*horizontal movement
**PICTURE**
mantle
Middle semi-liquid concentric zone (layer) of Earth
radiolarians
single celled planktonic protozoans that secrete skeletons of silica
 
form siliceous ooze on ocean floor
Cenozoic
age of
65 my - present
mammals
bajada
a broad, gently-sloping depositional surface formed by the coalescing of individual alluvial fans-very extensive with a gently rolling surface
Phyllite
metamorphic, foliated, composed of fine crystals of muscovite, minerals not large enough to be seen, glossy sheen, wavy surfaces
tillite
lithified sediment deposited at base of glaciers
paleoclimates
5 geologic features that support evidence for continental drift are the fit of continents, mountain belts, fossil distribution, glaciation, and ________.
anticlinal trap
a structural arch traps oil
Intermediate/Felsic Lava (Andesite/Rhyolite)
High viscosity: explosive• High silica, high volatiles, low temperature
*$7.8 Billion Economic Loss
Port-au-PrinceHaiti Economic Loss
geothermal power
energy from magma heating groundwater
travel-time curve
plots seismic-wave arrival time against distance
Siccar Point, Scotland
time gap in record
Illinois
number one in nuclear development for a state it accounts for 48 percent of there total power it also ranks first in the amount of waste that is produces
uniformitarianism
the concept that the processes that have shaped earth in the geologic past are essentially the same as those operating today
batholith
Which is larger: a stock or batholith?
How is sediment transported by a glacier?
-
differential stress
'directed pressure' - compression and shearing stress
Changing a magma's composition
1 Magmatic differentiation2 Assimilation3 Magma mixing4 Partial melting and magma formation
Thunderstorms occur where warm, moist air has absorbed enough heat and moisture to be significantly____________ than the surrounding air
less dense
Permeability:
Ability of rock to transmit water; function of how interconnected pore spaces are.
A-Horizon:
Second layer. Mix of organic and mineral matter.
focus
the point within the earth where seismic waves first originate
tensional stress
enlongates or pulls apart rock body
Island arc
chain of volcanic islands formed parallel to a subduction zone, on the overriding plate
capacity
max amount of material a stream can carry
subduction zone
A long, narrow zone where one lithospheric plate descends beneath another.
syncline
A downward fold in rock formed by compression of Earth's crust (youngest rock layers are in the core)
elastic strain
the rock recovers its original shape when stress is gone
surface runoff
portion of water which does not infiltrate the soil but flows over the surface of the ground to a stream channel
Unconformities
• An unconformity is a break in the rock record produced by erosion and/or non-deposition of rock units
benefits of volcanoes
recycle chemicals necessary for life, replenish soil, gather water in snow, rain, and ice, create valuable ore deposits
Flooding
Recurrance Interval
R= (N+1)/M
N= number of years of record
M= rank of individual flow within the recorded years
superposed stream
-shows the origin of mountain ranges that have steep-sided river valleys slicing directly across them-and old river could have been there and eroded the mountain
1-2 Atmosphere
unique in the solar system - composition78% nitrogen, 21% oxygenearly atmosphere - carbon dioxide and water vaporpresent atmosphere - developed as limestone began forming in oceans tying up carbon dioxide; oxygen added later when plants evolved
Roderick Murchinson first name the ____ Period and the ______ Period
Silurian Period
Permian Period
What is the wavelenght?
the horizontal distance between crets
S-wave (Secondary Wave)
wave that exists within the Earth's body; slower (arrives second); transverse wave; have a side-to-side motion (perpendicular to the direction of wave propagation
cross beds
In sandstone, a thick bed will often consist of a series of thinner inclined beds called _________.
slump
the downward sliding of a mass of rock or unconsolidated material moving as a unit along a curved surface
How does continental rifting occur?
Continental crust pulls apartLarge amount of sediment producedForms lakes and rivers, finally an ocean
Which of the following cities has not experienced significant coastal subsidence
Portland, Maine
Overview of Pangea
Begins with the Iapetus ocean closing (between Baltica and Laurentia), then in the Devonian period, the Acadian orogeny continued south. The Pennsylvanian collision then created Gondwanaland and Laurasia. In the Late Permian, at the end of the orogeny, Pangea was complete, Panthalassa created.
crustal rebound
the rise of the crust after the removal of the ice
Lyell's Principle of Inclusions
fragments within larger rock masses are older than the rock masses in which they are enclosed
What did some green algae evolve to move food quickly between cells?
a transport system
drainage basin
The _____ is the total area drained by a river and its tributaries.
gneissic rock
shows bands of minerals - rock is on verge of melting and rock becomes plastic - denser elements move down and forms layers (bands)
dry pressure release melting produces..
mafic magma, low silica, low viscosity, low amounts of water and CO2
What is Kimberlite Pipes
the rock formation where diamonds can be found.
Who else uses the fish bubble trick?
turtles, crocodiles, insects, and spiders
Name the transformation of snow to glacial ice
Snowflake, granular snow, firn, glacier ice
Where is the worst place to build on a barrier island?
Primary dune
What is a seawall/
a barrier parallel to the shore and close to the beach to protect property. It stops waves from reaching the beach areas behind the wall
What happens when calcite in limestone is replaced by the mineral dolomite?
-A different rock results, called dolostone
what forms an oil reservoir?
when a slab cracks and rides over itself, the result is an overthrust... then great pressure can push oil and has up through porous sandstone until both are trapped beneath an anticline of impermeable rock to form... oil reservoirpermeable = leakyporous = holeyimpermeable = sealing
San Andreas Fault is an example of what and what is it separating
transform fault-separating the the North American plate from the northward-moving Pacific plate
What does the evaporation of lake water typically yield?
-More exotic minerals, such as sodium carbonate and borax
What is the thermosphere and what characterizes it
The thermopshere extends from 90 - 1000 km in earths atmosphere- high thermodynamic temperatures around 1200 degrees Celsius- solar energy absorbed by N2 and O2 which result in photo-ionization and ionized layer called ionosphere
Are the climate above the ground and the soil profile underground closely related?
-Yes
-The soil profile in an arid region is quite different from that in a region with abundant rainfall
What makes up the bottomset beds?
they are composed of sil and clays and are settled out the farthest from the mouth
What is the zone of fracture on a glacier?
The crevasses that from in the brittle ice from the tension of the movement in the uppermost 50 meters
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