A duel process of interaction and development through which humans learn
– Who they are
– How they are connected to the social world they live
– The orientations used as a basis for behavior and group life
expected behavior by a social
group in a particular situation
– Occupational roles
– Family roles
teaches members of a society their
a set of expectations
– Set of expectations by society
|Social norms can||
either facilitate or impede an
individuals movement development
– e.g., adolescent boys should be athletic
– e.g., older adults don’t exercise
~ how much we believe ourselves
to be competent, successful, significant, and
– Involvement in directed play or physical education
can enhance self-esteem in children
perception of self
~ overall value that one places
on oneself as a person
|Social Influences - Infancy||
• First year of life relatively asocial
• Newly developing movement activities facilitate
and expand social interactions
• Infant becomes more actively involved in the
|Social Influences ~ Childhood||
– Primary socializing agent
– Major socializing force
– School may become the major socializing force
– Activity that is always pleasurable and that the
participant always cherishes
– Motivation to play is intrinsic.
– Unproductive, spontaneous, and voluntary
– Involves active participation by the payer
– Crucial part of leaning the rules of society
2 to 2 ½ years
– Child is more interested in his/her own ability
– Child playing side by side will pay little attention to each other…
– 2 ½ to 3 ½ years
– Still play self
– More aware of other children around them
– May subtly copy each other’s play behaviour
– 3 ½ to 4 ½ years
– Begin to exchange toys
– No group goCooperative Play
– 4 ½ to 5 years
– Purposeful, group-oriented play
– Group games, leaders, cooperational
– Most important socializing force
– Family’s view on physical activity determines child’s
– Family can be an important predictor of a child’s
future involvement in sport
– A nonrestrictive environment encourages motor
|Predictors for boys’ sport participation (all studies)||
– Fathers, teachers, peers, self-efficacy, enjoyment,
sports media, non-authoritarian parents
|Predictors for girls’ sport participation||
– Fathers, mothers, sisters, knowledge about exercise,
level of social support, non-authoritarian parents
• Peers replace parents as primary influencers.
• Movement and peer influence is bi-directional.
– Movement ability plays a role in peer group selection
(e.g. making school team).
– Peer groups pressure members to conform to
• Social norms (e.g. athletic ability or not).
|• Benefits of team play||
– Learn to work toward team/group goals
– Learn division of labor
– Learn through sport’s intellectual demands
– Learn social responsibility
• Learn to reward teammates successes.
• Need to learn how not to scorn or blame teammates for failures
– Learn how to succeed and fail
|Gender Role Identification||
– Degree to which individuals identify with the role ascribed to their gender.
– Usually begins early in childhood.
– Often related to quality of child’s association with parent of same sex.
– Adolescent peer group also influences how adolescents may identify with their gender.
|• Gender Role Conflict||
– Emotional trauma that individuals’ may experience due to engaging in a sex role that may be in
|• Gender Role Conflict EX||
– E.g. Sometimes experienced by girls who participate in sport as they are not supposed to be
aggressive and independent.
– E.g. Sometimes experienced by boys who do not participate in sport as they are supposed to be
aggressive and independent.
reasons that individuals provide for outcomes.
– E.g. Girls and women attribute positive performance to
external sources and negative performance to internal ones.
– E.g. Boys and men attribute positive performance to internal sources and negative performance
to external ones.
|3 Social Influences||
• Social Norms (ability beliefs)
• Social Inequality
Beware of the “mythopoetic status of sport”
A few examples:
• Decreased moral reasoning
• Homophobic norms
• Hegemonic norms of masculinity