VST201-Lab animal Flashcards

Terms Definitions
What are some historical figures?
Aristotle, Erasistratus (discovered physiology and difference b/t veins and arteries), Works of Galen (animals for medical research), Andreas Vesalius (found of modern anatomy), William Harvey (developed theory of reproduction), Stephen Hales (measure BP directly modeling on horse), Louis Pasteur (understand animal disease and help human health), John Call Dalton MD (physiologist, experiments on live animals), Alexi Carrol (1st person to do an organ transplant on cats and dogs), Simon Brimhall VMD (1st vet to fill a lab animal certified in laboratory animal medicine)
What are some benefits of animal research?
polio: development of a vaccine using non human primates and mice
diabetes: discovery of insulin using dogs and fish
Rh factor: discovery using non-human primates
small pox: cause and discover of a vaccine using cows
rabies: cause and discovery of a vaccine using dogs and rabbits
What does the biomedical team consist of?
principal investigator
research technician
laboratory animal technician
What does the principal investigator do?
develops hypothesis and writes proposal
plans and coordinates the animal study
reports findings to the public
What does the research technician do?
performs treatments and assists/performs w/ surgeries
assists the co-investigator or principal investigator w/ study related procedures
What does the lab animal technician do?
performs animal husbandry
monitors animal environment
oversees animal health
What does the veterinarian do?
advises investigator on animal model
oversees maintenance of the animal colony health
responsible for regulatory compliance
What is the role of the veterinary technician?
provide professional animal care services for animal related studies
provide technical expertise to principal investigators in the conduct of their studies (animal housing, etc.)
advise principal investigators in matters of regulatory compliance in the conduct of their animal studies
advise principal investigators in matters of animal housing
advice principal investigators and assist lab animal vets in matters of animal health for all animals house
What is the vet tech's role in small animal practice?
provide expertise in matters of handling/restraint of exotic pets
perform technical procedures such as blood and tissue collection of exotic pets
perform nursing procedures as directed by the vet for client animals
act as a resource in matters of breeding, nutritional, housing, and regulatory issues w/ respect to exotic pets
What is laboratory animal science?
scientific and technical information and techniques that apply to laboratory animal care
What does this lab animal science include?
Laboratory animal care consists of what?
application of veterinary medicine and animal science to the acquisition of laboratory animals and to their management, nutrition, breeding and diseases
also relates to the care that is provided to animals as an aid in managing injury and pain
What does laboratory animal medicine consist of?
specialty field of veterinary medicine recognized by the AVMA that is concerned w/:
diagnosis, treatment and prevention of diseases in animals use as subjects in biomedical activities
methods of minimizing pain or discomfort in research animals and the identification of complicating factors in animal research
What does comparative animal medicine consist of?
study of the nature, cause and cure of abnormal structure and function in people, animals and plants for the eventual application to and benefit of all living things
What is animal experimentation?
scientific study of animals, usually in laboratory, for the purpose of gaining new biological knowledge or solving specific medical, veterinary medical, dental or biological problems
What does AVMA stand for?
American veterinary medical association - set policy on animal matters such as euthanasia
What does ACLAM stand for?
the american college of laboratory animal medicine - specialty field est'd in 1957
What is AALAS?
american association for laboratory animal science - membership consists of individuals and institutions w/ a focus on the production, care and use of lab animals. est'd in 1950 as animal care panel.
What is AAALAC-1?
Association for assessment and accreditation of laboratory animal care international - private non profit org.
promotes the humane treatment of animals in science through a voluntary accrediation program
What is ILAR?
Institute for laboratory animal research - prepares authorative reports on subjects of inportance to the animal care and use community. Est.'d 1952 as institude for laboratory animal resources
What is USDA?
US dept. of agriculture - agency of the federal gov't - regulatory enforcement animal care (REAC)
oversees the enforcement of the animal welfare act
What is APHIS?
Animal and plant health inspection service - branch of USDA - safeguards resources from exotic invasive pests and diseases, monitors and manages agricultural pests and diseases existing in the US
What is FBR?
foundation for biomedical research - promotes public understanding and support of the ethical use of animals in scientific and medical research. est'd in 1981, works w/ NABR
What is NABR?
National association for biomedical research - provides the unified voice for teh scientific community on legislative and regulatory matters affecting lab animal research.
Animal welfare - how long have animals been associated w/ man?
as far back as the first recorded history at around 28,000 BC
What were animals used for?
food, fiber, labor and companionship
The animals well being should always be uppermost in the mind of who?
the technician
What are animal rights?
commonly held view is that animals have rights in much the same way as people do
What are 2 versions of philosophical views?
Automation or mechanistic: Rene Descartes: French man who believed animals are machines and feel no pain
What are religious or dominion?
justinian believes, animals put here by God
What is subjugation vs. custodial?
you were made in God's image so animals put on earth for men's benefit (can use for research) is subjugation view and is your God given right to do research on them. Custodial says they are God's creatures and you should protect them and serve his will by protecting both creatures. Both agree: not morally equal
What is utilitarian?
Peter Singer, animals suffer pain, favors a reduction in animal use, benefit must outweigh suffering.
What did Tom Regan believe?
in animal rights, all beings have right to not be tortured or have pain inflicted upon them, ban the use of animals.
What is SCAW?
scientists center for animal welfare. non profit, support the idea that humane treatment is complementary to good science, est'd 1979
What is UFAW?
universities federation for animal welfare. approaches animal welfare from the animal's point of view. Thorough review of animal's behaviors and needs, hold to the 3 R's of research: proposed by Russell and Burch.
What are the 3 R's?
Reduction, replacement, refinement
What is reduction?
compliance ensures the pubic that the minimum number of animals is used that will serve the useful purpose, yield statistically sound data, and produce scientific benefit. Use least amount of animals possible to get good results.
What is replacement?
replacement of animals by cell or tissue culture or by mathematical models where possible.
What is refinement?
reviewing procedures to minimize stress or pain to animals when possible. Stress changes variables, makes experiment invalid. Using anesthetic agents when possible. Some drugs interfere w/ project. Whenever possible try to minimize pain we cause animals
What is the 4th R?
Ron Banks: Responsibility to research and teach animals, the public, scientific and medical integrity, appropriate stewardship of animal resources.
What is PETA?
people for the ethical treatment of animals - est'd 1980, focus of animal rights, ingrid newkirk
What is ALF?
Animal liberation front - highly secretive, focus on animal rights, abolishment of all animal use, FBI classifies as terrorist group
What is ELF?
environmental liberation front - hipocracy at its' best - burnt down hummer dealership, worried a/b the environment and being green but harmed environment by burning cars
What is the 28 hour law of 1873?
1st law that ever protected animals against cruel or abusive treatment. Livestock being transported to market must be rested and watered at least once every 28 hours during their journey.
When was the next law written for animals?
What is the controlled substance act?
it governs the use of barbituate anesthetics, narcotic analgesics, and other controlled substances that have potential of abuse in animals and humans. Drugs classified by different stages. Class 1 has no recognized benefit.
what is the biological hazards act?
it's enforced by center for disease control, office of biosafety, it governs the control of any human pathogens such as ebola, rabies and anthrax.
What is the Lacey Act?
law that governs the import, export and interstate commerce of foreign wildlife. USDA responsible for it. Restricts importation of live specimens of harmful species (fruit bats, indian wild dog)
What is the endangered species act?
law came into efffect 1973, provide conservation of endangered threatened species, fish, wildlife and plants. Fish and wildlife services of US dept. of interior.
What is the marine mammal protection act?
requires that all marine mammals and parts there of (fins, tusks), need to be under permit if being imported, taken, sold, bought, etc. US fish and wildlife services of US dept. of interior
What is Good laboratory practice regulations?
1978 - FDA oversees it, deals w/ regulations regarding lab practices, color in food or additives, human and animal drugs, biologic products (vaccines), electronic products (speaker on iPhone), all regulated.
What is the animal welfare act?
public law 89-544 - president lyndon johnson 1966, intended to protect dog and cat owners from having their pets stolen, evolved through several ammendments to deal w/ far more than just pet-napping.
What does the secretary of agriculture decide?
which animals will be regulated AWA covers nearly all species of warm blooded animals used in research. No laws for cold blooded animals An amendment to the AWA in 2002 excluded: birds mice of the guns Mus and rats of the genus Rattus
What does AWA not regulate?
animals used in elementary or secondary education, farm animals that are used for agricultural research.
Who is charged w/ enforcing the Act?
USDA's APHIS - enforcement
What is REAC?
regulatory enforcement animal care, all research facilities undergo unannounced inspections by personal from REAC
How are dealers classified?
based on source of animals: class A - raise animals on own premises (mice come from charles river)
Class B -buy and resell animals - random source, wherever they happen to get them from. In NYS it's illegal to obtain dogs from a shelter to use for research.
Covers indoor and outdoor facilities - primary enclosures (runs, cages, hutches, pools, etc. All covered by AWA
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