Geology Flashcards

Terms Definitions
wavelength,
barrier islands
Ø  Consider the video, “The Fallacy of Global Warming”.  How would one check to see if man had an impact on the global climate?  What are some sources of older climate data?
ؠ What are earthquake shadow zones?
ؠ What factors are believed to cause ice ages (long-term causes)?
ؠ What are stream divides and drainage basins?
Ø  Consider the video, “The Great Floods”.  Briefly explain how the Channeled Scablands formed.  Be sure to include which type of glaciation was involved.  What key geologic feature (sedimentary structure) indicates the volume of water that was i
Ø  Consdier the video, “The Little Ice Age, Big Chill”.  What are some of the consequences of a small change in the temperature on humankind?  What factors contributed to the advance of the Little Ice Age?  Could global warming lead into global c
What do seismic waves tell us about the earth's interior?
ؠ How does the abundance of glacial ice affect sea level?
What is a long shore current? And how does it move sediment?
Phosphate
apatite
V
Vanadium
Inner core
Solid
zone of fractice
crevasses
Gneiss
Metamorphic-foliated, gneissic texture, product of directed pressure,light and dark bands, found in and around Boiling Springs,NC
O horizon
organic matter
gastrlyst
gizard stone from dinosaurs
Solar Power
most expensive energy
stress
force per unit area
Creep
• Slow (mm/yr)
• Unconsolidated material moves down slope via gravity
• Vertical objects slant over time
Diagenesis
chemical, physical, and bioloical changes that take place after sediments are deposited.
mineral properties
hardness, color and shine
Andesite
Intermediate in composition and color
Occurs most frequently near continental margins at convergent plate boundaries
Evaporites
Inorganic, precipitates formed from hypersaline water. Form in hot, dry climates where water is shallow and evaporation rates are high, which concentrates salts. Usually form along sea coasts, or in desert salt lakes.
interior planet characteristics
small and rocky
moraine
sediment transported by a glacier
Fragmental texture
Same as pyroclastic texture.
Age of Earth
4.5 billion years old
mountain
Evidence of plate tectonics: _________ ranges match up
Lithification
involves compacting the sediments with burial and cementation of the sediments forming a sedimentary rock
single
a _____________pole stood still whild teh continents split apart and rotated as they diverged
parts included in the climate system
atmosphere
hydrosphere
geosphere
biosphere
cryosphere (ice&snow)
evidence of pangea
-geographical fit of continents
-glacial imprint
-faunal evidence; plants and animals
Outer core is how thick?
2255 km
magmatic differentiation
processes that operate during transportation toward the surface or during storage in the crust that can alter the chemical composition of the magma. (assimilation, mixing, fractional crystallization)
Dissolved load
dissolved salts (ions in solution)
saprolite
forming sediment from rocks: rock weathers in place, feldspars convert to clays. Rock does not change in appearance.
Fjord
Deep, glacier-carved valley filled by an arm of the sea
Lava lakes and Lava falls
lava feature
In which layer does weather occur?
Troposphere
recrystalization
development of more stable minerals from less stable ones
matterhorn
produced by 3 glaciers forming a horn
siliciclastic sediment
Clastic sediment produced by the weathering of rocks composed largely of silicate minerals.
joints
a series of parallel fractures in rock
In the evolution of many landforms mass-wasting is the step that precedes weathering. (TRUE or FALSE
false
Scarp
exposed surface from a slide, occurs in upward sequence
Focus
The point at which the slip begins.
Examples of Plutonic Rock
Granite, Diorite, Gabbro, Peridotite
wampum
used among the Iroquoians both as money and as a record of treaties
Basalt
A fine-grained ifneous rock of mafic composition.
Ultramafic
A compositional group of igneous rocks containing mostly olivine and pyroxene it is the composition of the mantle
magma
mobile, liquid molten rick with some gas contained within the molten rock is:
Name of major European city destroyed by massive earthquake in the 18th century?
Lisbon
the driving for for place tectonics?
radioactive decay
glacial till
an unassorted mixture of rock materials deposited as a glacier melts
evaportites
Minerals form as water in solution goes from liquid to gas phase (salt, gypsum)
pluton
large mass of intrusive igneous rock believed to have solidified deep within the earth
bituminous coal
dull black intermediate rank coal formed at temps between 100 and 200 degrees Celsius
Geyser
Intermittent fountain of hot water in which hot columns of water are ejected with great force.
erratic
boulders that have traveled a long ways ontop of a glacier
Salt wedging
Pushes apart the surrounding grains and so weakens the rock that when exposed to winf and rain, the rock disintegrates into separate grains.
folds
rocks bent into series of wavelike undulations
(during mtn building especially)

-microscopic to hundreds of meters

-result from COMPRESSIONAL stresses
-->the shortening and thickening of crust

PARTS:
limbs
axis
axial plane
What is a Barrier Island?
Offshore sandy barrier
felsic
(feldspar & silica) A term used to describe granitic igneous rocks
halite
clear to gray to read, h=2.5 three perfect cleavages meet at right angles, cleavage surfaces may dull and partially dissolve with prolonged exposure, salty taste
normally in an atom
# protons= # of neutrons
The hydro-logic cycle
15% evaporation from lakes, rivers etc.
85% from oceans
80%precipitation to ocean
20% moist air to continent
Rocky Mts.
elv 15,000 ft,old,flat peaks b/c no compression forces and erosion
Terminal Moraines
Moraines that are deposited at the low-elevation end of a glacier as the ice retreats due to ablation
zone of aeration
Zone immediately below the ground surface within which pore spaces are partially filled with water and partially filled with air.
outward downward
glaciers with a positive budget push ______________ and __________________
graded
this type of stream is one that exhibits a delicate balance between its transporting capacity and the sediment load available to it
sulfides
compounds that consist of one or more elements combined with sulfur
evolution
the gradual change in a species over time
bedding planes
flat surfaces where tend to break; separate strata
All silicate minerals contain which elements?
Silicon and oxygen
Lithosphere
the solid, outer layer of the earth that consists of the crust and the rigid upper part of the mantle
Current accepted age of the Earth
4.6 Billion years
Spheroidal Weathering
Any weathering process that tends to produce a spherical shape from an initially blocky shape.
Sedimentary Rock
These rocks formed in layers.Formed by Weathering, erosion, deposition, compact, compression, and cementation.
beach face
steeply concave part of the foreshore zone formed where the swash of the waves actively scours the sand.
Permeability
The ability of a liquid to migrate through a liquid of a rock
chemical sedimentary rock
formed from the precipitation of dissolved material (i.e. carbonate)
Secondary Porosity
New pore spaces in rocks (from weathering), created some time after a rock first forms
What is Fossils?
Remains, traces, imprints of a plant/animal that is preserved in the rock record.
90
6 minerals make up ___ percent of the Earth's crust
Advection Fog
warm, moist air moves over a cool surface
Intrusive rock
An igneous rock formed by the entrance of magma into preexisting rock.
p-waves, s-waves, love waves, rayleigh waves
fastest to slowest waves
all of the genes available to an interbreeding populations constitute its
gene pool
Glacial Striations
Long scratches on rocks that occur do to glacial abrasion
Definition of Recharge
When water moves into an aquifer (mostly precipitation)
biochemical oxygen demand
Amount of oxygen required by aquatic bacteria to decompose a given load of organic waste;a measure of water pollution
Metamorphism
the process in which one type of rock changes into metamorphic rock because of chemical processes or changes in temperature and pressure
Metamorphic rock
rock that has been changed due to pressure and heat
Oxygen and Silicon
two elements are dominant in the crust
Erosional Features: Striations
gouges or scratches cut into bedrock by the process of glacial abrasion.  They are usually parallel grooves representing  the movement of the sediment-loaded base of the glacier. 
What is the scientific model?
representation of some
aspect of nature based on set of
hypotheses; can test by comparing
predictions with observations
talus slope
Sections or rock that has been wedged loose and collects at the base of a cliff.
dip-slip faults
fault blocks move up and down in the vertical plane; caused by compression or extension
perched
what water table is at the top of a body of ground water separated from the main water table beneath it by a zone that is not saturated
Heat, Pressure, and Chemical Fluids
The agents of metamorphism are ________.
Effect of Carbonic acid on Limestone
Breaks Carbon/Calcium bonds in Limestone and dissolves it
normal polarity
A magnetic field that is the same as that which exists at present.
Loma Prieta (1989)
- 7.1m in santa cruz
-7 billion in damage
-67 died
-greatest intensity in SF
Overturned
A fold in which both limbs dip in the same direction
The atmosphere is divided into several layers based on temperature gradients. In order upward, they are:
troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere.
Types of mechanical weathering: be able to explain each one -
frost wedging, crystal growth, thermal expansion and contraction, mechanical exfoliation, root wedging, abrasion
geologic time scale
earth is not static but moves on this time scale - millions and billions of years
Which is a ferromagnesian (dark) mineral?
Minerals containing iron and magnesium (amphibole, pyroxene, biotite, and olivine)
A well sorted clastic sedimentary deposit is characterized by grains that have a A. a small range of sizes. B. large range of sizes.
A.    a small range of sizes.
transform plate boundaries are typically associated with
divergent margins where the rate of spreading is different along different segments of the spreading ridge
How much water pollution is there in TN?
5,800 miles of impaired streams
the budget of a glacier
1. Zone of accumulation - where snow accumulates
2. Zone of wastage - loss of ice and snow
a. Melting of snow and ice
b. Calving - breaking off of large pieces
(origin of icebergs)
c. Ablation - overall loss of snow and ice
at glacier's lower end
What are the sources of energy that drive the earth system?
1. Sun2. Earth's Interior3. Gravity
What is a hypothesis? What is a theory? What is the difference between them?
A hypothesis is a "tentative explanation" or an educated guess. A theory is a hypothesis that has been tested and proven true. The difference is a hypothesis has not been tested.
what is a point bar
a pile of sediment on the inside of the loop
Wave Formation
1)Wind, Collision, Disturbance 2)Waves are formed 3)More Surface Area 4)Waves formed and continue to move
Why does the US have more tree diversity than Europe?
something to do with birds mountains and possibly earthquakes in europe?
Why were there no rocks in the Hadean age?
The rocks were destroyed by the impacts of meteorites
playa
http://classconnection.s3.amazonaws.com/207/flashcards/773749/png/flo.png
Cirque
lake systems
lacustrine
dewpoint
temp at saturation
Galena
Cleavage- 3
very heavy/dense
metallic
Excess Runoff
Rainfall- infiltration
pillow structure (pillow basalts)
...
1 is a horn
ture
Bed Load
Larger grains, boulders
decreasing particle size
conglomerate sandstone siltstone
subduction
one plate descends beneath another.
the Archaeopteryx appeared during the
Jurassic
Molybdenum
auto parts, stainless steel, construction
igneous rocks
solid crystals in magma
Mineral
a naturally occuring, inorganic substance, with a chemical formula and a well-arranged internal atomic/ionic structure.
What is aa?
rough, jaged texture
Continental-Continental Convergence
Continental collision

create mountain ranges
anticline
a deformed upfold of layered rocks
Foreshocks
Small earthquakes that occur before the major earthquake
symmetrical
indicate a shoreline (lake or ocean)
Nevadan-Type Mountain Belts
Related to plate rifting.
Moment magnitude
Better estimates very large earthquakes
-Determined by amount of displacement along a fault
ash
Fine pyroclastic material erupted from a volcano.
"Normal" magnetized crust at the spreading center formed during the _______epoch.
Brunhes.
nonconformity is a
gap in geologic record
aretes, horns and moraines are associated with?
glaciers
Corals
All have stinging cells. Reef builders.
Rock flour
-Transport of Sediment by Glaciers
Very fine particles produced by crushing and grinding in basal ice
storms
*magnify effects of tides, waves, etc*normal part of beach evolution
Gneiss?
grains visible, course layers of alternating light (QUARTZ/FELDSPAR) and dark (AMPHIBOLE/PYROXENE); minerals appear intergrown
What is Crystalline
Has a crystal structure
Shield volcanos
Huge in size, gentile slopes,passive eruptions of basaltic magma. Moana Loa + Mauna Kea in hawaii
eon
The largest division of geologic time, embracing several eras; the Phanerozoic eon, from 543 Ma to the present.
which layer of the atmosphere does weather occur?
troposphere
Cumulonimbus
Tornadoes can be associated with this cloud type.
Precambrian
88% of earth's history beginning with formation of earth and ending with diversification of life
spit
A finger-like projection of a beach into a body of water such as a bay. (parallel to the shoreline)
sorting
the degree of similarity in particle size in sediment or sedimentary rock.
Blackfoot
the strongest Aboriginal nation on the Plains
igneus rock types
extrusive- volcanic, above ground, FINE grained
intrusive-plutonic, magma, COARSE grained
How do we affect the environment?
urbanization, pollution,
Strike slip
Shear (strike slip) transform plate boundries
formation of minerals
crystallization from melt (igneous rocks)
precipitation from water
biological activity
change to more stable state
precipitation from vapor
Hydrolysis
chemical reaction of water with a mineral
Marrella
Burgess Shale fossil that looks like halo helmet. Elegant and stream-lined.
Igneous
Type of Rock-Result form the cooling of liquid rock both above and below ground. Two types Extrusive and Intrusive (Plutonic)
parent isotope
a radioactive isotope that undergoes decay
longshore drift
the movement of sedimentary materials along the coast created by swash and backwash
flow parallel to the coastline and move vast amounts of sedimentary material
Naming Igneous Rocks - Intermediate (Andesitic) Rocks
Andesite-extrusive-aphanitic texture-gray to black volcanic rock with between about 52 and 63 weight percent silica (SiO2). -often resembles rhyolite
 
Diorite-Plutonic equivalent of andesite-Coarse-grained-Intrusive-Composed mainly of intermediate feldspar and amphibole 
Buried sediments are influenced by _________.
increasing lithification
ductile deformation
rock flows after elastic limit surpassed
When was the Mesozoic Era?
251MYA to 65MYA
Addition of weight
can be natural or human induced
San Andreas Fault
A Transform fault-where Pacific Plate scrapes against North American Plate
Fig. 2 illustrates the kanji that collectively mean "tsunami". Taken separately in Japanese, these two kanji mean
harbor wave
Deep and secure burial
approach to managing long-lived wastes
degree of damage
the mercalli intensity scale uses ______ __ ______ to measure earthquakes
rock correlation
the methods by which the age relationship between layers of rock is established, Matching the rock types/minerals in the rock layer
roches moutonnees
areas where the bedrock is more resistant to erosion stand out after glaciation - usually elongated parallel to the direction of glacier flow-rounded knobs (rock -fleece)
transpiration
the process of givng off or exhaling water vapor through the skin or mucous membranes
igneous rock
HEAT; rocks that form from cooled magma or lava; burnt looking, has crystals or airholes
When glaciers grow during ice ages, their weight-- the surface of the crust, and when they melt, the surface--
Depresses, rises.
atomic number
number of protons in an element determine
Rhyolite
A fine grained igneous rock in which K-feldspar is a dominant phase.
Unconformity
a break in the geologic record created when rock layers are eroded or when sediment is not deposited for a long period of time
plate tectonics
the geological theory that states that pieces of Earth's lithosphere are in constant, slow motion is the theory of....
aquifer
a subsurface rock unit that holds and transmits useful quantities of water.
shield volcanoes
oproduced by the accumulation of fluid basaltic lavas and exhibit the shape of a broad, slightly domed structure that resembles a warrior's shield.
oMost shield volcanoes begin on the ocean floor as seamounts, a few of which grow large enough to form volcanic islands.
Example Hawaiian islands, canary islands, the Galapagos, and easter island
oNon-violent explosions
The rate of decay of radioactive isotopes strongly depends on temperature and pressure.A. falseB. true
A.    false
Recumbent
An overturned fold in which the limbs are essentially horizontal
2 Types/Groups of minerals
Ferromagnesium minerals - darker, denser minerals -olivene, pyroxenes (augite), amphiboles (hornblende)Non-ferromagnesium minerals - lighter, less dense minerals-micas/clays, framework silicates (feldspar, quartz, orthoclase)
The process by which most igneous rocks melt.
Partial melting
Define geology
the scientific study of the planet Earth
Terrigenous Sediment
Located in layer 1 consists of sand silt and clay eroded from the continents and carried to the deep sea floor by gravity and submarine currents
Franklin mobile belt
most northerly mobile belt in North America; extends from northwestern Greenland westward across the Canadian Arctic islands
Slump
Downward sliding of a mass as a unit along a curved surface. has a crescent shaped scarp at the head. Occurs on over steepened and over loaded slopes. Common along river valleys and eroding shore lines.
metamorphic minerals
when rocks are altered by changes in pressure, temperature, or chemical make up.
Stream discharge
The volume of water flowing past a certain point in a given unit of time. (Typically in cubic meters or feet per second--measured by multiplying the stream's cross sectional area by its velocity).
Valley walls
These are high ground on both sides that ar its boundaries
The Mesozoic Era was characterized by:?
Dinosaurs ruled the Earth.
what are 3 major categories of rocks
Igneous, sedimentary, metamorphic
Thrust Fault
a geological fault in which the upper side appears to have been pushed upward by compression
ground moraine
a thin, hummocky layer of till left behind on the land surface during a rapid glacial recession
The ultimate source of the energy in fossil fuels is ________.
the sun
Pyroclastic Flows
ash, gas and rock fragments. move at about 200 to 560 mph or 100 to 250m/second. Incredible destructive and leave deposits behind called "tuff"
Origin of Earth
1. big bang (larg explosion sending all matter of universe flying outward at high speed)2. debris (mostly H and He) colled/condensed into first stars/galaxies---in our galaxy=milky way=our solar system formed3. Nebular Hypothesis*earth & other planets formed from same material as sun4. Layered structure of earth developed 5. dense material moves to center of earth... light material stays at shallow levels
Supply and Demand for Oil:• Supply
o Reserves: Estimate of the economically extractable oil in known deposits in a given area.
 Recoverable with existing technology
 Commercially viable
o Proven reserves and unproven reserves
 Describes the level of uncertainty of the estimate
• Geological
• Technical/Engineering
• Regulatory/Political
o Strategic petroleum reserve: emergency store of oil by the US government (Dept of Energy)
Principle of Correlation: Three Ways
Time of formation, Lithology (rock type) and Fossil Content
What is a Tsunami
Seismic sea wave caused by the disruption of the sea floor. Its energy is concentrated on shorelines and barely noticed in open seas. It travels great distances and causes damage far from its source
intrusive igneous rock
an igneous rock, such as granite, that has coarse grains. It cools slowly beneath Earth's surface
Desert Varnish
Is the dark coating which is found on exposed rock surfaces in arid environments but it only forms on physically stable rock surfaces
less then 1%
amount of water on earth avabile for human use?
What are elements?
substances that are made of only one type of atom
Left lateral fault
movement of the opposite block is to the left.
Metamorphism at transform plate boundaries is typified by high pressures and low temperatures that create blueschist facies rocks.
False. This is characteristic of convergent margins, where subduction carries rocks to great depth.
mountain ice caps
peaks and ridges at the crest of a mountain range
Understand ideas behind regional metamorphism (p. 244)
Most metamorphic rocks are produced by regional metamorphism. This happens during mountain building when large segments of Earth's crust are intensely deformed along convergent plate boundaries. It also happens a lot during continental collisions when blocks of rock are folded and faulted.
Triggers and controls of erosion
earth quakes - water (heavy & lubricates) - oversteepening - fire (vegetation loss - roots are anchors)
long term prediction of volcanoes
hazard maps (look at previous lava flows and ash dispersion over a landscape)
What is a Laccolith?
Parallel to layering of rock, but has a bent layers above it into a dome
the composition of igneous rocks is determined largely by
the composition of the parent magma
Streams: head and mouth:
The headwaters or source of a river is found in the mountains.
The mouth (base level) is usually the sea, but can be a lake or a larger river.
what kind of melting occurs in intraplate setting
melting of either mantle or continental crust
the average time between each activity
What is a recurrence interval on a fault?
Definition of storms based on wind speeds;
; Category 1, 74-95mph, Category 3, 96-110mph, Category 3, 111-130mph, Category 4, 131-155mph, Category 5, anything above 155mph.
What is a Kame?
A round hill or short ridge of sand or gravel deposited by a melting glacier. Inverse topography
What is the importance of the Wopmay Orogeny? When did it occur? What does it tell us about the size of continental landmasses at this time?
It is the earliest modern style orogeny which tells us that proto-continents were beginning to form large cratons.
What are the different motions of P and S waves?
The P waves move in a compressional motion similar to the motion of a slinky, while the S waves move in a shear motion perpendicular to the direction the wave is travelling.
fossilization
-----
differentiated earth
gravity
beta particle
electron
A,B,C
Pedocal Arid climate
mesic forest
wet forest
longitudinal profile
cross sectional view
Neptunist
Werner was a ____
WHat is Ultramafic?
beyond mafic
Cretaceous new forms
Angiospersm (flowering plants)
Marsupials, insectivores
theory
a comprehensive explanation that integrates well-accepted hypotheses
Eosuchians
ancestors of lizards and snakes
Mantle
Thickest layer and second layer
Neanderthals made specialized
tools and wepons
Septic tanks,gas stations,landfills,farms
Sources of contamination
ridge push
Continental rifts; spreading centers form new crust and push it downwards
Dendritic
A drainage pattern that resembles branches of a tree and forms in regions of uniform lithology
core
the central zone of the earth
Laki Fissure
Largest eruption in human history
Plutonic rocks are usally ____
course grain
34
the heighest wave measure was ___________meters
1950
Deep Sea Drilling Program was created
Marine magnetic anomalies define?
Distinctive, alternating bands.
What is not a sedimentary structure?
Vesicles.
where does orbital motion die out
L/2
Slate/Phyllite
What metamorphic rocks are in Waterville?
Catastrophism
Catastrophism is the idea that Earth has been affected in the past by sudden, short-lived, violent events, possibly worldwide in scope.
batholith
A very large igneous intrusion extending deep in the earth's crust
fossil fuels
-Oil, gas, and coal -non-renewable-Rate of use> Renewal rate
cap rock
impermeable layer that halts upwardly mobile oil/gas
gravity
the greatest force of erosion, causes water and ice to flow downhill and causes material to fall.
semi-arid
between 10 and 20 inches of precipitation; good for grasses
Chemical sedimentary rocks
result from evaporation, deposits; occur in water bodies; minerals precipitate from the water and can form thick deposits; ex. limestone
Which algal group was the probable ancestor to cascular plants?
Green
Limitiing factors of Biogeogrpahy
temperature, diversity towards equator
lava
molten rock that has reached the surface
The common oxidation state of hydrogen is _____.
+1
Cementation
When a mineral precipitates from water that percolates through sediment, open spaces are filled and particles are joined in a solid mass
Porosity
percentage of open spaces vs the volume of rock
The tendency for variations in current velocity to segregate sediments on the basis of particle size is called
sorting
epicenter
the point on the Earth's surface directly above the focus of an earthquake
Common Silicates
Most important rock forming minerals, makes up 95% if the crust by volume. Feldspars are the most common.
What are Cross-cutting relationships
younger cuts through older
distributaries
smaller channels that carry water away from the main channel in different paths to the base level
courser
high energy makes courser or finer material
actualism
uniformity of processes but rates of processes have varied with time. linear history, consequences of long geologic time periods-slow processes have large effect, rare catastrophic events will occur, earth is affected by gradual and catastrophic processes, all changes are a result of natural processes
Pleistocene
a division of the quaternary period.  The Pleistocene began about 1.8 million years ago and ended roughly 10,000 years ago.  It was the last great ice age. 
Least silicate magma to most silicate magma
basalt--andesite--rhyolite
















What Are The Three Layers Of The Earth Based On Their Physical
Properties?



Lithosphere - outer layer of Earth (crust & upper mantle)Asthenosphere - weak material that is easily deformedMesosphere - lower mantle
What is the Atmosphere driven by?
Solar Energy
Deposition
Process of laying down a deposit of something.
porphyroblast
A large crystal surrounded by a much finer grained matrix of other minerals in a metamorphic rock.
Erosion
the physical removal of rock by an agent as running water, glacial ice, or wind.
Cold
A wind shift from south or southwest to northwest is commonly associated with the passage of a(n) ______ front.
suspended load
the transported material in a stream, controlled by water velocity and settling velocity of grains.
saltwater intrusion
drawdown due to pumping allows salt water to rise. barrier wells put water back in so no drawdown.
most recent era beginning about 65 million years ago, first appearance of Homo Sapiens 400 thousand years ago.
Cenozoic era
culture area
an area where people share many features of the same culture
cross bed
A lamination inclined to the main bedding; it represents the slip face of a layer deposited in a current.
31
Clouds form from water vapor in the atmophere as it condenses into small drops of liquid water or particles of ice.
Heating from the sun causes water at the surface of the earth to evaporate. This water vapor is carried aloft by warm air. As air containing the vapor rises, it begins to cool. Once the dew-point of this air reaches the temperature of the surrounding air, the air becomes saturated, which means it cannot hold any more moisture. The water vapor is then able to condense around particulate matter that is in the air, usually dust. When this condensation occurs, it causes an exothermic reaction, meaning it releases energy in the form of heat. This release of heat energy, also known as latent heat, causes a chain reaction. If conditions are right. condensation acts as an accelerator in the formation of the cloud. The visible cloud consists of tiny droplets of water, or ice in higher clouds.
Once the cloud becomes large enough and updrafts and downdrafts of air are sustained, cloud droplets begin to collide forming bigger drops. The longer the updrafts of air suspend the droplet, the larger the droplet may be. Once the droplet becomes too large to be suspended by the updraft, or gets caught in a downdraft, it falls to the Earth as rain. Where the water is sufficiently cooled by the air, it falls as crystals of snow. Where droplets form and then freeze, the result is frozen rain, or sleet. Ice crystals that fall from cirrus clouds normally sublimate back into water vapor.
Four families of clouds are: cumulus, stratus, cirrus, and cumulonimbus.
___% of the atmosphere is below 3.5 miles
50
escarpments
more or less continuous line of steep slopes, facing in the same direction which have been subjected to erosion
What kinds of sandstone is the most poorly sorted?
Arkose.
Describe constructive plate margin.
-Plates move appart.
-New lithosphere created - molten material lifts (1-15 cm/yr).
-Mid oceanic ridges (e.g. Iceland).
-Magnetic polarities.
Seafloor spreading
theory developed by Harry Hess that the seafloor separates at mid-ocean ridges and new magma forms new crust which moves away on each side of the range.
Subduction type volcanism is known for what characteristic?
violent eruptions
medial moraine
formed when two glaciers come together (the moraine in between them)
Burial metamorphism involves processes of:
Heat and confining pressure
Joint
a fracture in rock along which there has bgeen no movement
3. photosynthesis: origin of O2 due to plants
CO2+sun-->sugar+O2
a portion of a rock unit that possesses a distinctive set of characteristics that distinguishes it from other parts of the same unit
sedimentary facies
natural gas has been found in
eastern US (marcellus shale)
Mountain of rock that juts out from an ice cap?
Nunatek
The global wind pattern of Fig. 20 includes regions of high pressure and low pressure. The prime factor which maintains the illustrated regional pressure differences is the descent of air from the upper troposphere onto the world's great deserts. At least
equatorial regions.
Stratified Drift
rock material that has been sorted and deposited in layers by water flowing from the melted ice of a glacier
translational slide
which kind of slip is where the descending mass moves along a plane parallel to teh slope of the surface
fossil
a trace of an organism that has been preserved in the geological record
negative feedback mechanism
maintaining the status quo and works to stabilize the environment
What is mass movement
Downslope movement of earth materials due to gravity
EMERGENT COAST
sea level is falling relative to land: terraces
Base Level
lowest elevation to which a stream can erode its channel. Essentially this is the level at which the mouth of a stream enters the ocean, a lake, or a trunk tream.
the major greenhouse gas on both earth and venus is?
carbon dioxide
Drainage basin
The region drained by a single river or river system
strain
changes in shape or size of rock body from stress
Where within a mountain glacier is the movement fastest?
At the top.
beaches, spits, baymouth bars, tombolos, barrier islands
5 mot common deposititional features that can form along shorelines?
what is a volcanic neck or plug
exposed solidified central conduit
What did herbivorous dinosaur eat?
␣ Mesozoic land dominated by gymnosperms ␣ Flowering plants evolved
ablation
the removal of ice at the toe of a glacier by melting, sublimation (the evaporation of ice into water vapor), and/or calving
What are submarine canyons?
canyons that sometimes extend up to and across the continental shelf. Found on continental slopes. Steep-sided with a V-shape depression
Water gap
a pass through a ridge or mountain in which a stream flows
Emission of alpha particles?
2 neutrons & 2 protons; atomic number goes down by 2, atomic mass goes down by 4.
What is thermal energy?
It refers to the work that affects temperature.
What are Terrestrial planets?
are the ones that resemble the Earth. Have a atmosphere, crust, mantle, and metallic core.
-an increase in pressure
-interaction with a hydrothermal fluids
-an increase in temperature
Which of the following processes will cause metamorphism?
Explain the "principle of cross-cutting relationships", and give three different geologic examples.
when a fault cuts through other rocks, or when magma intrudes and crystallizes, we can assume that the fault or intrusion is younger than that rocks affected
Moment magnitude - Mw
Mo = (Average fault slip S) x (rupture area A) x (rock strength )
Best measure of the relative size of quakes with magnitudes > 8.0
Who said "we are evaporating our coal mines into the air?" when did he say this? wyhat did he mean? what did he think a doubling of co2 do to global temps?
Swedish chemist Svante Arrhenius. 1896. Atmospheric co2 was rising and pegged its source to the burning of fossil fuels. He thought that a doubling of co2 loads in the atmosphere would lead to a worldwide rise in average temperatures of several degrees.
Explain climate change from volcanism
ash and sulfur dioxide are sent high into the atmosphere where they block significant amounts of incoming sunlight and cause decreased global temperatures; sulfur dioxide can also aggravate ozono depletion
How does fracturing a rock affect weathering?
Physical weathering breaks rocks into smaller pieces, providing more surface area on which weathering processes can operate
How does tension and crustal stretching work? An example of this? What else does it create?
magma weakens rock and the Earth gets pushed apart from below, Afar Depression. Creates oceans too
Alfred Wegner proposed all of the following as evidence in support of continental drift EXCEPT:
The age of sea-floor rocks and sediments
Which mineral group makes up most of the crust? What two elements do they contain? What is the basic geometric shape of these elements?
) Silicate minerals are the most abundant and contain silicon and oxygen. Basic structure is silica-tetrahedron (SI+4O)
What are S waves? What are their main characteristics (i.e. type of motion, velocity relative to other waves, materials they travel through)? (p. 310-311)
S waves, secondary waves, are the second to arrive. S waves "shake" the particles at right angles to their direction of travel. P waves travel about 1.7 times faster than S waves, and surface waves travel roughly 10% slower than S waves. S waves are not transmitted through liquids and gases.
The height of high tide along a coast varies throughout the month. When is the height of high tide at its lowest?
When the moon is at right angles to an imaginary line connecting the Earth and Sun
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