Geology - Quiz Flashcards

Terms Definitions
extension fault
Fossiliferous Limestone
marine magnetic anomaly
Toxic Gas
Invisible clouds.
how is travertine formed?
dentistry, electronics, jewelery, coins
precipitation, evaporation, infiltratiom, runoff, transpiration, storage in lakes and underground
Hydrologic Cycle?
-largest intrusive body
-surface exposure > 100 + km2
-core of mountains
-intrusive igneous feature
-lots in the west coast
you or anything breathe out
Triggering Earthquakes
Underground nuclear explosions generate earthquakes and may also activate weak faults and cause additional earthquakes. The weight of water behind dams may put pressure on faults and produce earthquakes. As mentioned earlier, water may also lubricate faults and trigger earthquakes.
The hardest mineral is __________.
preserved remains of ancient organisms
low grade metamorphic rocks
slate phyllite
preserved remains
animals preserved in ice
fractures in rock allowing displacement to occur-sudden movements along faults cause most earthquakes
Hurricanes in the western pacific ocean are called...
Milankovitch Theory
orbital eccentricity; tilt axis varies; precession
The driving force behind hydropower electrical generation is
smaller objects that orbit a planet
the principle stating that Earth processes occurring today are similar to those that occurred in the past
snake like shaped -unsually shaped associated with former ice sheets and some very large valley glaciers -long sinuous ridge of water deposited sediment (can be up to 10 meters high)
minerals have five features
inorganic, non-living
naturally occuring
crystalline solids
have a fixed composition
contain physical properties
submarine volcano south of large island in Hawaii
Hot spots
localized hot plume of mantle,
refers to the general temperature conditions of metamorphism with low grade representing low temperatures at relatively shallow depth while high grade represents higher temperatures at deeper crustal levels
a streamlined, elongate hill formed when a glacier overrides glacial till
A(n) __________ streams gains water from a aquifer.
An explanation for observed phenomena that has a high possibility of being true.








is a floodway district and what activities are allowed with in it?

Lower mantle
from 660km down to 2,900 km
Stream Terraces
Step-like landforms found above a stream and its flood plain
Mantle convection
mantle of Earth slowly convectively (rotating) overturns (maybe)
between schist and amphibulite in continental crust
location: granulite
The quality and intensity of light reflected from the surface of a mineral
Mid-Atlantic Ridge
Separated Pangaea. Not straight, has transform faults
- degree of difference on a topographic map
- a diagram at the margin of every topographic map shows this degree of difference between MN(magnetic north) and GN(grid north)
Grains visible to the naked eye, Intrusive rocks
slow cooling = large grains
A miniature space shuttle is a __________- model
When magma cools underground it forms igneous rocks with
A) ash particles.
B) microscopic crystals.
C) visible crystals.
D) no crystals.
True or False: Tsunamis are produced by tidal forces which is why they are called tidal waves.
an organism that gets energy by breaking down the remains of dead organisms or animal wastes and consuming or absorbing the nutrients
the study of strata (layers) in rocks.
Preventing Landslides
Impossible to prevent large _________; can reduce risks of _________; Drainage Control; keep surface water from seeping into ground; install drainage tubes; Grading; reduce slopes or create benches; Slope Supports, retaining walls
Contact Metamorphism
occurs when rocks are immediately surrounding a molten igneous body are baked and therefore altered from their original state.
o Primarily rock, iron, magnesium and silicates-silicon and oxygen
o Density 4.5 grams/cm3
o Takes up most of the volume of the earth
Rock formed when exposed to extreme heat and pressure; rock that has changed form
lateral spreading
The horizontal movement on nearly level slopes of soil and mineral particles due to liquefaction of quick clays.
The Great Debate
-inability to provide a mechanism capable of moving continents across the globe
-Wegener suggested that continens broke through the ocean crust, much like ice breakers cut through ice
-this was correct in principle, but contained incorrect details
-Earth's magnetic pole (where lines of forceare vertical) is 11 degrees from the geographic pole... in N Canada
-Magnetic declination is the angle b/w true north and magnetic north, measured in a horizontal plane
The region that collects water that feeds into a given drainage network
Working Group II
assesses vulnerability to warming ofEcosystemsSocieties
Which of the following rock forming minerals weathers to form most of the clay found in soils and regolith?
change due to a catostrophic event is ______
principle of uniformitarianism
The principle that the geologic processes we see in action today have worked in much the same way throughout geologic time; that is, "the present is the key to the past".
stages of glaciation in illinois
Wisconsinian, Illinoian, Kansan, Nebraskan
The San Andreas Fault is a...
Transform Plate Boundary
Mass Wasting
The transfer of soil and rock downslope under the influence of GRAVITY. this geological process often follows weathering. Combined effects of this and running water produce streams. It can be caused by addition of water, oversteepened slopes, removal of vegetation, and earthquakes.
regional metamorphism
occurs over very large areas (regions) such as deep within the cores of rising mountain ranges and generally is accompanied by folding rock layers - caused by large igneous intrusions that form and cool over long periods (thousands to tens-of-millions of years) - the moderate to extreme pressure and heat associated with deep burial or tectonic movements of rock and/or the very widespread migration of hot fluids from one region to another along rock fractures and pore spaces
(geology) a crack in the earth's crust resulting from the displacement of one side with respect to the other
rocks that form when an existing rock is exposed to extreme heat and pressure are
The name Alfred Wegener proposed for a supercontinent consisting of all Earth's landmasses at the end of the Paleozoic Era.
part of the stream where velocity is at it's maximum
Isostatic uplift
removal of weight from the crust causes the lithosphere to rise
properties of minerals
habit (shape), color, streak, luster, cleavage, density, hardness (based on mohs hardness scale)
Write in order decreasing particle size.
Conglomerate, sandstone, siltstone.
the number of different types of soil found in the united states
The last 10,000 years of the Earth's history, corresponding to the time since the final retreat of the last great ice sheets. The Holocene has been characterised by relatively warm temperatures.
a period of time during which glacier grew and covered substantial areas of the continents
a wedged shaped deposit of sediment on the inside bank of a meander
Reverse Fault
Footwall moves downputs older rocks on top of young rocksconvergent boundaries
Intermediate magma is made up of
_______ colored minerals
light and dark
Which of the following is LEAST likely to be a product of a volcano with an andesitic lava?
Valley train
a relatively narrow body of stratified drift deposited on a valley floor by melthwater streams that issue from the terminus of a valley glacier
are the basic building blocks of all elementsthere are over 100 known
A boundary at which one plate slips along the side of another plate
transform boundary
The top part of the rock moves the opposite way of the bottom part.
1-Slope angle
mass wasting is more likely on steeper slopes
atomic mass number
the total number of neutrons and protons in an atom
Stratovolcano (e.g., Osorno, Chile)
most common volcano type; steeper slopes built from alternating layers of tephra and medium viscosity lava (andesite); form on plates overriding subduction zones at convergent plate boundaries
the time in early solar system history when there were numerous crater-forming impacts is known as the time of
heavy bombardment
coarse grained texture
when magma solidify far below surface; mass intergown crystals
The range of the period of common swell is ____ to ____ seconds.
6, 16
How are individual minerals defined?
chemical composition and atomic structure
Raleigh waves
like ocean waves - up and down motion
Which of the following is not a sedimentary rock? A. shale B. breccia C. marble
C.    marble
Principle of fossil succession
states the fossil organisms succeed one anohter in a definite and determinable order, time perior can be recognized by it's fossil content
Angle of repose
the steepest angel at which loose material remains stationary without sliding downslope
what is partial melting?
only some rock melts, moves out
dams levees require large capital investments and constant maintenance
measures used to control floods
Infiltration rate is the function of...
Porosity, permeability, and the presence of water already in the soil.
1872 mining act
whoever finds a deposit can claim the deposit, but not the land. must make improvements of $100/year
The prograde part of a metamorphic P-T path occurs during __________.
Burial and heating.
what is a hydrologic drought?
when reservoir levels drop, mountain snowpack declines, streamflow decreases, and groundwater mining increases
What is the soil profile?
soil forming processes operating from the surface downward. vertical layers called horizons. E- horizon= organic matterA horizon= organic and miner ^^top soilOEAB= solum or true soil
a crack in rock along which there is a distinct separation
Senile River Valley
A river with a low gradient and low erosive energy
recent finds of Protoavis in Triassic rocks may represent
a bird older than Archaeopteryx
When the dip of the limbs is neither equal nor in the same direction, a fold is said to have?
an asymmetrical profile
What is seafloor spreading?
Suggested by Harry Hess. It is the theory that hot, less dense material below Earth's crust rises towards the surface at the mid-ocean ridges. Then, it flows sideways, carrying the seafloor away from the ridge in both directions
What are the oceanic ridges?
A continuous mountainous ridge on the floor of all the major ocean basins and varying in width from 300 - 3000 miles. The rifts at the crests of these ridges represent divergent plate boundaries.
What human activities tend to increase flood risk and damage?
Building levees too close to riverbanks.
The Earth's major layers include (from outermost to innermost) ___________.
crust, mantle, outer core, inner core
How would one tell the difference between intrusive and extrusive igneous rocks?
Intrusive rocks have large crystals while extrusive rocks have small crystals
What is mass wasting?
the transfer of rock and soil down a slope under the influence of gravity
What is the importance of the impact event at meteor crater?
Meteor Crater in Arizona: 50,000yrs old youngest meteor found and identified by Eugene Shoemaker.
The temperature at which a mineral melts:
Is the temperature at which it crystalizes.
Compared to the mantle beneath a mid-ocean ridge, the mantle above a subduction zone __________
contains more water and melts at a lower temperature
landmass or lie on top of banks rising from the seafloor
carbonate shelves may be attached to a
Steam takes up __ to __% more space when it transforms from being water.
Steam takes up 90 to 100% more space when it transforms from being water.
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