Geology 11 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
hardest mineral
low albedo
Dark surface
hexagonal joints
tensional stress
foliation with micas
characterized as brittle deformation
amount capable of moving
Hylobatidae (Anthropoid ape)
Ex: Gibbons
Which chemical weathering process combines oxygen and
iron and is important in altering mafic minerals?
sedimentary rock consisting of material that was precipated by inorganic means (Limestone, Coquina, Chert)
spit is erosional or depositional
Human impact on mass wasting
two types of metamorphism
Contact, Regional
downward-arching folds. rock layers usually dip toward the hinge line. youngest rock unit exposed along hinge line.
What is a strike-slip fault?
Circular or slightly elongated structureDownwarped displacement of rocksYoungest rocks are found near the center, oldest rocks on the flanks
Eskers record streams beneath a melting ice cap.
where the original break happens, which spread (underground)
The contact between older sedimentary rocks and much younger sedimentary rocks where layering in both is parallel is called a:
Partially melting mantle rock produces a liquid with a _________ composition
Energy reflected by the earth
102 W/m^2
The transformation of sediment into rock.
occurrence: wide variety of igneous and metamorphic rocks
the recurrence
interval of a disastrous event. (High magnitude events occur at lower frequencies).
Artesian System
entire groundwater system associated with artesian conditions
frothy lava freezes to form sponge-like
Deep, gaping fissures in upper, brittle surface of glacier
where it steepens abruptly or bends around sharp curve
Old Precambrian Mountain/belts
(vertical crustal movements)
(continental sheilds, orgins)
-old rocks
-very flat in the U.S
-moutains change so much from erosion that now the land is flat
are tephra and pyroclastic rocks hazerdous?
not solid= gas, lava droplets, volcanic ash, and glass suspended in a superheated cloud moving fast and close to the ground. Created when all or part of erution column collapses
Wegner's Evidence
Coninents fit together like giant puzzle pieces.
An earthquake that occurs as a consequence of a previous earthquake of larger magnitude.
composite volcanoes
on ocean/ continental crust boundaries convergent and can be a mix of mafic and felsice
Fault Trap
fault traps oil/gas between crust layers
Tidal current
horizontal movements of water that accompany the rise and fall of tides
polar wandering
the apparent movement of the poles
Hardness = 10. Brilliant luster. Mined from South Africa, Botswana, Russia (top 3), Canada, Australia (w/ Russia - only non-African in top 15). India is the main place for cutting. 4 c's: cut, clarity, color, and carat. carat is .2 g, about 1/5 mass of paperclip. In 2005 approximately 900 metric tons worldwide $315 billion. Approximately 75% are industrial grade (not good for gems). Can shatter and burn. Formed in mantle w/ high pressures. Includes brown, yellow, black, blue, and colorless
Lamarch's mechanism for evolution
inheritance of aquired characteristics
Earth's magnetic field is recorded by magnetic materials in rocks that point to the poles like a compass needle.
minerals that have the same element combined with oxygen atoms
Name and Label the Rock Classification Chart
Estimating explosivity
USGS Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) 0-11 scale.
Solar energy energizes all of the following major components of the Earth system except the ____________.
this soil horizon is the uppermost layer that consists entirely of nondemposed and highly demcomposed organic material
these deposits form as heavy metal grains; accumulate in coarse sediment along streams
Formation of Pangea
PENN, supercontinent in Mesozoic, plate movements reach zenith in Miss.
common in the higher latitudes or elevations. Make about 9% of the world's ice free land surface
mass wasting events con be combination of any of the various process
-crystals form when they undergo a process of solidification-Under ideal conditions, a single crystal may form where all of the atoms in the solid fit into the same crystal structure-many crystals form simultaneously during solidification, leading to a polycrystalline solid
-The crystal form is the external expression of a mineral that reflects the orderly internal arrangement of atoms 
cold, thin CO2 atmosphere; polar caps; networks of valleys + channels suggest that it was relatively wet in its early history; 2 moons
plate tectonics
process of continental drift
*on exam 1
11). Fig. 6 illustrates the basic building block for all silicate minerals. This basic building block has four sides (each an isosceles triangle) and is called a tetrahedron. An oxygen atom occupies each corner and a silicon atom lies at the center of t
Along a river bank, there are deposits of
fine-grained silt. If lithified, this would
form a _____.
A structure of rock, wood, or concrete built roughly perpendicular to a beach to trap sand
fractional crystallization
process in which the crystals formed in a cooling magma are segregated from the remaining liquid
divergent plate boundaries
continental rifts, oceanic ridges and seafloor spreading
What is permeability?
Ability of rock to transmit water
measure of how fast the fluid can travel
Metamorphic minerals that form under a limited range of temperature and pressure are called
index minerals
continental drift
the gradual movement and formation of continents (as described by plate tectonics)
jet streams
narrow belts of strong wind with velocity sometimes greater than 300 kilometers per hour
_______ is magma that has reached the Earth's surface.
Easter Island
16th century thriving by 17th had collapsed
What is the dominant gas in the atmosphere?
Da Vinci
begins to make us think about fossils-1480
Part of the Milankovitch Cycles and is the position of Earth in its orbital path when seasons occur.
ranges from 0.004 to 0.06 mm in size
body waves
these are seismic waves that travel through the earth's interior spreading outward from the focus in all direction
41,000 year cycle
What is the cycle of obliquity?
Bishop James Ussher
Principles of Uniformatism Bible Earth Begin 4004 BC
high T high P in balance
mantle is softened, lil melted
S waves almost don't make it through this zone
when melted becomes basaltic magma upon ascent to the earths surface
U-shaped Valley
The character profile of a valley carved by glacial erosion
SAN ANDRESexample of
major transform fault(a large strike slip fault cutting thru lithosphere)
Small waves of sand that develop of the surface of a sediment layer by the action of moving water or air.
pertaining to, of the nature of, or caused by an earthquake or vibration of the earth, whether due to natural or artificial causes.
sedimentary structure
Any kind of bedding or other surface (such as cross-bedding, graded bedding, or ripples) formed at the time of deposition.
stress that pushes a mass of rock in opposite directions causing it to break or slip apart
Internal structure of minerals
elements and compounds. Isotopes are variants of the same element.
A continuous chain of mountains on the ocean floor.
Mid-ocean ridge
The way the elements are arranged
by the atomic number
refers to the amount of open space in a rock
which of the following types of volcanism best explains the Hawaiian Island chain?
hot spot volcanism
Pillow lavas
outer layer of lava erupting from sea floor instantly cools and solidifies, stretched by lava flowing underneath
if the rock is composed of more than 75% ash then it is a
Protolith and Temperature
Mineralogy in a metamorphic rock is dependent on what?
Subsidence near shoreline: Galveston, TX
consequences: entire subdivisions have permanent flooding by seawater b/c ground sinking. Closer packing process of voids & solids.  Only way to prevent this is to add layers on top. Net effect. A natural process except w/ water pumping from ground.
The volume of pore (void) space in a sediment or rock.
frost-wedging is
caused by expansion of water when bit freezes in cracks in the rocks (9% expansion)
Product of Weathering : Regolith
any loose unconsolidated sediment

formed by break down of rocks
compressional basins
The Dead Sea and the Sea of Galilee are ____.
feels the bottom
when the water depth is 1/2 the wavelength, the wave what?
simultaneously published their views on evolution in 1859
Alfred Russell Wallace and Charles Darwin
Definition of Gauging Station
Instrument to measure discharge of a stream
Which feature is most associated with a confined aquifer:
Recharge are or aquatard
thin section
a 3/100 mm thick slice of rock that can be examined with a petrographic microscope
Energy is transferred from the Sun's core to it's surface by...
Both radiation and convection
where were belts of concentrated subsea earthquakes found
-parts (3)
-fracture zones
-mid ocean ridge axes
Mixing ratio
mass of water vapor in a unit of air compared to the remaining mass of dry
standard geologic time scale
a world wide relative time scale - based on fossil assemblage
Humans altered the Impermeable Flood by
homes and other buildings, parking lots, roads, sidewalks, compacting soil--parking on lawns, increased chance of flooding
ways to remove CO2 from atmosphere
mechanical removal of CO2 from atmosphere, more trees (less deforestation, reforestation), iron in the oceans (makes plankton grow and take in CO2)
If groundwater discharge exceeds recharge:
• Amount of water in the aquifer decreases
• Water levels in wells decline
Law of Constancy of Interfacial Angles
Angles between faces on crystals of same substance are equal
Why are beaches strongly affected by erosion?
Massive erosion problems occur all along the U.S. coast line. This is the DIRECT result of damning rivers
Describe a topsset bed.
The sediment that rest on top of the Foreset Beds
What is the basic photochemical reaction?
Volatile organics + NOx + Sunlight = photochemicals
What is dew point temp?
Temp to which air must be cooled for saturation to occur.
Most important aspect of the scientific method
the ideas are tested by before being accepted
Calculations suggest that the inner core
spins at a faster rate than the rest of the Earth
In order to understand how and why the planet cycles between glacial and interglacial periods, geologists take samples from...
deep sea sediments and glacial ice cores
alluvial fan
six-sided crystal
Inner Core
1216 kilometes
revolves around the sun
common table salt
halite (NaCL)
common shape of crystal
sudy of old life
how reflective the atmosphere are
amount of energy absorbed by sun
pollutant that causes blue-babies disease
Pyroclastic materials
explosive materials
-explosion debris
-ash, dust
-block and bombs
Produced when explosive eruptions eject materials out into the air
an irregular piece of mineral
exceptionallly coarse (large) grained that cooled very slowly inside the earth (intrusive)
wave-deposited sediment platform that is flat or slopes slightly landward, usually dry only covered in water during storms.
what is solid?
maintain shape indefinitely
A sedimentary structure consisting of bedded material deposited by currents of wind or water and inclined at angles as large as 35 degrees from the horizontal.
Radioactive Dating
technique in which scientists calculate the actual age of a rock or fossil based on the amount of remaining radioactive element and rate of decay
asymetrical hills composed of till (Glacier)
Continental Margins
-Boundary between oceanic and continental crust lying beneath a thick blanket of sediment
free-falling pieces- type of movement common to mass-wasting processes that refers to the freefalling of detached individual pieces of any size
oil window
t/p range where oil forms
similar to Jupiter (gaseous), has rings of rock debris and 30 moons around it
tendency of mineral to break; identified by smooth, flat surface when broken; described by # of directions and agnles they meet at
distance the wind travels over water
stratisfied drfit
glacial deposits show borh stratification sorting
smallest identifiable part of an element

element specifies both the number of
nuclear protons and associated neutrons
who sits on a subduction zone
Which way water would run down
agents of metamorphism
heat, pressure, chemically active fluids, importance of parent rock
In order to locate epicenters using seismograms there needs to be a minimum of how many recording stations?
The ostracoderm is considered the 1st true what?
The actual location of the earthquake inside the center of the earth.
the most commone minerals in earths crust
term refers to igneous rocks with silica content typical of granite and rhyolite
fault slip
the distance of the displacement between two blocks that occurs during an earthquake when elastic rebound causes the blocks on either side of a fault to spring back to their undeformed state.
unicellular algae that employ two whip like structures for limited locomotion, but are transported chefly by the waters in which they are drifting
earth moves downslopes as a viscouos fluid - the process can be slow or rapid
the point on Earth's surface directly above an earthquake's focus
approximately 50% of the earths crust is made up of which element
Large section of Earth's oceanic or continental crust and rigid upper mantle that moves around on the asthenoshpere
scientific method
the processes in which scientist gather facts through observations and formulates scintific hypotheses and theories
Which of the following greenhouse gases accounts for 60% of global warming?
Carbon dioxide
hydraulic gradient
movement of groundwater, force of gravity is very slow
-darcy's law
The shininess or dullness of a mineral
some surrounding rock is "baked" by the magma_ recrystallizing it.
Which of the following sedimentary rock has the largest grain size? A. sandstone B. conglomerate C. silt
B.    conglomerate
An unconformity in which the younger sedimentary layers rest upon eroded igneous and/or metamorphic rock
transported soils
developed on and from unconsolidated sediments
An igneous rock texture characterized by two distinctively different crystal sizes. The larger crystals are called phenocrysts, whereas the matrix of smaller crystals is termed the groundmass.
Porphyritic Texture
o Pertains to earth's systems & changes (3rd fundamental concept)
o System conditions: Open vs. closed systems
o System input -output analysis
o Input = output → no change in size of pool/stock
o Input < output → pool/stock is reduced
o Input > output → pool/stock grows
o System changes: Types, rates, & scales, etc.
o Geologic time vs. human time
oRates of change: Average residence time
o T → residence time
o S → total size of stock
o F → the avg. rate of transfer
Types of Fractures
Concoidal (smooth and curved), Uneven (irregular and rough), Earthy (smooth but dull)
broad, many
Flood plains: mature: __ flood plains; __ meanders (oxbows)
cone of depression
cone-shaped lowering of the water table around a producing well
differential stress
a. confining pressure: acts equally in all directions
b. normal stress: directed perpendicular to a surface; compression vs. tension
c. shear stress: sideways motion
What is least likely to signal an impending volcanic eruption?
Native elements
have only one element in their formulas
Karst Terrain
a region underlain by caves in limestone bedrock; the collapse of the caves creates a landscape of sinkholes separated by higher topography or of limestone spires separated by low areas. Formed by dissolution
Singnatures of mountain building
1. Deformed (folded &thrusted rocks
2.metamorphic rocks heated rocks
3. Granite (oragany) builds on top
B horizon
(zone of accumulation) a soil layer characterized by the accumulation of material leached downward from the a horizon above
Surface waves
seismic waves consisting of a rhythmic side-to-side motion at right angles to the direction of wave travel.
What is the parent bedrock in S. African cave sites?
climate system
all the earth system components that determine climate on a global scale and how climate changes with time
which type of stream is not in equilibrium with sediment and water flow?
baymouth bar
a sand bar that almost completely crosses a bay
Giovani Arduino
1760 -Proposed first time scale, 4 divisions
Stratigraphic Column
USed to describe the vertical location of rock units in a particular area.
plate movement theories
either move by convection currents within the mantle or from the gravitational pull of the cold slabs of lithosphere sinking into the mantle
a very large body of intrusive igneous rock, usually granite, that has been exposed by erosion of the overlying rock.
sorting (141)
the degree of similartiy in particle size in sediment or sedimentary rock
what are the two types of texture?
Phaneritic, Aphanitic
gravity waves
waves that develop as more energy is transferred into the ocean. symmetric waves that have wavelengths exceeding 1.74 centimeters.
a wall built parallel to the shore to protect coastal property from waves
Cross Cutting Relationships
James Hutton developed a concept of faults and igneous instructions will cut through younger beds of rocks sometime after deposition this can be used for relative age dating of sediments and establish chronology
mammal fossils are more eaily identified than are
fossils of other vertebrates
Volcanic Explosivity Index
Provides relative measure of the the explosiveness of a volcano. scale of 0 to 8, that is a tenfold, non-linear increase. measures the total volume of products released.
Period (T)
time it takes for successive crests to pass a given point
Rayleigh Waves:
Causes ground to roll as if ocean waves were passing over it.
Urbanization influences soil erosion processes primarily because of ____ .
increased runoof from impermeable surfaces
A large set of rocks. This is larger than the pinnacles.
water deposited sediment
sediment deposited by water and is round and sorted
magnitude (earthquake

A measure of the strength or the strain energy released by an earthquake at its
      source.  (See moment magnitude, Richter magnitude).
basal sliding
water or wet slurry holds the glacier above the underlying rock
Explain what speleothems are and give some examples
stalactities, and stalagmites
Sources of error
A closed system is requiredTo avoid potential problems, only fresh, unweathered rock samples should be used
State the 4 categories of Dip-Slip Faults. What are they?
-Normal Fault
-Reverse Fault
-Thrust Fault
-Oblique Fault
An eruption of lava that pours out of vertical cracks along the flank of a volcano are referred to as a __________.
Fissure eruption.
principle of cross-cutting relationships
if an igneous rock crosscuts another rock, the igneous rock is younger
What are Mafic Minerals?
Dark Minerals- Dark Brown and Black Colors, contain iron and magnesium
what happens at Tidal Flats
Mass burial and sun bakes it
Subsidence: Effective Normal Stress
- exerted on saturated clay layer depends on weight of overlying sand layers minus pressure exerted by fluid in clay layer
- Extraction of ground water lowers the water table, which decreases fluid pressure at all depths below the water table – that increases value of effective normal stress
What is the following illustration showing us?
Circulation of seawater within young lithosphere at a mid-ocean ridge
what is Radial drainage pattern?
On a fairly symmertrical mountain, such as a volcano or resistan pluton, drainages flow downhill and outward in all diractions (radially) awat from the highest area
Factors that determine erosion along a river system:
velocity, discharge, channel shape, gradient
Where does the magnetic field originate and what causes the magnetic field?
a.The magnetic field originated from the flow of liquid iron. The patterns of flow in the outer core create variations in Earth's magnetic field. This is due to convection of the liquid iron. As fluid in the core rises, its path becomes twisted because of Earth's rotation. As a result, the fluid moves in spiraling columns that align with Earth's axis of rotation. Because the Fe-rich fluid is charged, it generates a magnetic field.
b.Convection of the liquid iron in the outer core causes a magnetic geodynamo that is responsible for Earth's magnetic field. Convection takes the form of spiraling cylinders that align with Earth's rotational axis. The Magnetic field is primarily dipolar, it resembles the field of a bar magnet or electromagnet. The patterns of convention in the outer core change rapidly enough that the magnetic field varies noticeably over our lifetimes. The magnetic field randomly reverses when the north and south poles swapping positions. A reversal takes a few thousands years and involves a significant decrease in the strength of the dipolar field. This is important because the magnetic field creates a magnetosphere around Earth that protects our planet from much of the sun'
Explain seismic wave velocity changes.
Seismic wave velocity changes as waves travel through the Earth's interior. The velocity of seismic waves increases with depth. Seismic waves travel faster when rock is stiffer.
How does plate tectonics cause long term climate change? (4)
1). supercontinentc cause less opportunities for water to flow around land (shape of ocean basins influences current patterns)2). high topography (i.e. Himalayas) effect atmosphere 3). whether continents are oriented over poles or the equator 4). amount of CO2 released by mid ocean ridges varies over time
farthest star away is 15 billion light years away. (1 light yr=10 trillion km)
15 Billion years ago.
What is the Ferrel Cell?
Driven by the Hadley Cell, air rises at 60 degrees and descends at 30 degrees.
A silica tetrahedral is composed of?
1 silica atom and 4 oxygen atoms.
What are some of the problems and issues addressed by geology?
Natrual hazards, resources, world population growth, and environmental issues
What is the latent heat of condensation?
It's when vapor condenses back into water, which releases energy.
By what two methods do glaciers advance?
By plastic flow and by basal sliding.
Give examples of species in Earth's history that have become extinct. What percentage of species have become extinct?
99.9 % of all plants and animal species. Dinosaurs, mammoths, triolobites
What are eight examples of rapid mass movement?
Rock fall, Rock slide, rock avalanche, Debris Fall, Debris, slide, Debris avalanche, Debris Slump, Mudflow
what is meant by the specific gravity of a mineral?
sg= m/v how much a mineral weighs compared to an equal volume of water
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