Geology 3 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Core
...
Pt
Platinum
discharge increases
degredation
groins
slow sand transport
Location of Yellowstone
Wyoming
uneven weathering
differential weathering
Tensional stress
Pulls rocks apart
Scoria
Igneous-Formed Outside The Volcano,Very Fast Cooling,Basic Lava
Coal
organic. Lignite, biuminous, anthrocite
Io
Fire, most volcanic-innermost moon, does not have plate tectonics,close to jupiter,gravitational feild is crushing it ex. sponge/nerf ball-jupiter moon
domes
unwrapped displacement of rocks, circular or slightly elongated structures. oldest rocks at the center, younger rocks are on the flanks
cyclothem
vertical sequence of cyclically repeated sedimentary rocks resulting from alternating periods of marine and nonmarine deposition; commonly contain a coal bed
ingneous rocks
formed from cooling magma
Sediment
Loose materials transported and deposited by erosion.
Beach Erosion
Wearing away of coastline
Pyroxene mineral group
ferromagnesian
 
silica tetrahedra being formed into long chains - each tetra connected to two others via O (offsets neg charge)
 
planes with few atomic bonds and cross no bonds and cross no bonds bw silica tetra (strong) - defines cleavage planes, natural places of weaknessmeet at right angles
weathering
The disintegration and decomposition of rock at or near the surface of the Earth.
Potholes
A bowl-shaped depression carved by abrasion or sand in whirlpools
earthquakes
rocks moving underearth plate slide down and other plate slides up
Fault
a break in thee earth's surface
Age of Earth
4.6 billion years old
Isotope
element with varying number of neutrons (protons are the same)
crater lake
mount mazama, most ash, "caldera"
Orthoclase
KAISi3O8
Hardness of 6
2 cleavages at 90 degrees
Usually pink
Wavy striations
paleomagentism
the history of earth's magnetic field
slate-schist-gneiss
This shows progressively higher grade metamorphic rock types.
transportation
dispersal by wind, surface water, ice
GLACIER
Permanent ice body, formed from recrystallized snow, that displays downwardloutward
movement due to gravity; found at high latitudeslaltitudes
Stratovolcanoes
aka composite volcanoes; form from alternating eruptions of lava and pyroclastics of intermediate-high silica content
Tarn
a small lake in a cirque.
transitional environment
shoreline, tidal flats, lagoons, deltas
Fractures
Breakin in the Earth along which movement does not occur.
quartzite
A very hard, white granoblastic rock derived from quartz-rich sandstones.
Volcanic
(extrusive) - type of igneous rock. surface. lava, volcanic glass, pyroclastic debris
Type of stress... Reverse or thrust fault
Compression
Geyser
water quickly changes to steam and erupts, heat comes from igneous rock
Intraplate Earthquakes
small percentage of eq originate within plate interiors, mostly occur on continents. Many occur on old faults that were once parts of ancient plate boundaries. These faults no longer form plate boundaries but remain zones of crystal weakness that concentrate and release intraplate stresses.
Plutonic rocks
are course grained - ex. granite
Pyroclastic
An igneous rock texture resulting from the consolidation of individual rock fragments that are ejected during a violent volcanic eruption.
Clastic`
from the greek work "broken", consist of discrete fragments and particles that are cemented and compacted together. Although cement is present in the spaces between particles, the openings are rarely filled.
travertine
in yellowstone NP at mammoth hot springs, as the water, which had been flowing through strata, flows out of the spring, it deposits a mineral. what mineral is forming and being deposited?
T/F Gypsum weathers to form clay minerals?
False
when magma crystallizes or volcanic ejecta, ash, and accumulation and consolidation
igneous rock
The three main rock groups are igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic
true
Intermediate igneous rocks
mixture of light and dark
extrusive-andesite (andes mtns)
Intrusive-diorite
earthquake belts
Almost all tectonic plate boundaries can be recognized by:
Precambrian
the interval of geologic time between Earths formation about 4.57 Ga and the beginning of the Phanerozoic Eon 542 Ma
Fumarole
A vent that releases volcanic gases, including water vapor (steam).
Sand Transport- Longshore Drift
Movement parallel to beach
Polymorphs
Two minerals that have the same chemical composition bug a different crystal lattive structure
Transform Fault
Types of strike slip fault

-cuts through the lithosphere and accommodates motion between 2 large crustal plates

-many cut thru oceanic lithosphere & link spreading ocean ridges

*EX. SAN ANDRES
What chemical components does the river carry?`
• Calcium • Sodium
hydrothermal solutions
The hot, watery solution that escaped from a mass of magma during the latter stages of crystallization. Sych solutiong may alter the surrounding country rock and are frequently the source of significant ore deposits
Latitude
the distance in degrees north or south from the equator
In earth
waves change direction and speed with density
6- triggering mechanisms
-e.g. earthquakes, heavy rains, snow melt, volcanoes, etc.
R.T Hill
mapped and named most of the cretaceous formations in Texas. Father of texas geology
Internal Flow
Type of glacial movement that's also called creep, results from deformation of the ice crystal structure; crystals slide over one another
acquiclude
an impermeable rock layer that is so dense as to exclude water
negative
if a glacier decreases in volume is has a ___________budget
divide
a ridge or strip of hight ground dividing one drainage basin from another
sedimentary rock
rocks fromed from sediment derived not only from rock fragments but also from plant and animal remains. majority of rocks are sedimentary.
continental drift
the gradual movement and formation of continents (as described by plate tectonics)
isotopes
atoms with same # of protons but different # of neutrons
Marble and quartzite are in which rock category?
Metamorphic
Mantle
the layer of rock between the earth's crust and core. Highly Viscous. 40-2900 km depth. Mostly O, Mg, Fe, Si
Hot Spot
Where the mantle plume has broken through to the crust and is waiting to erupt magma.
Hanging Wall
The rock suface immediately above a fault.
Biological reactions
Acids from decaying plants can break the mineral into their constituent elements
hydrologic cycle
The continual circulation of water in its three states (liquid, solid, and vapor) through the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and lithosphere.
temperature mechanical weathering
expansion and contraction caused by extreme temperature changes (forest fires, hot and cold days, etc.)
igneous to sedimentary
igneous rock goes through weathering, transportation and deposition. once turned to sediment, it goes through cementation and compaction (lithification)
Talus Apron
A wedge-shaped pile of rock fragments that accumulates at the base of a cliff
What is the Lithosphere?
The crust and uppermost mantle
igneous
what type of rock is most abundant in the crust (65%)
Shield volcano
low, broad volcano with a wide crater formed from thin layers of lava
What is potable water?
Water that is safe to drink
Oceanic fracture zones
cracks and steps cross the seafloor mostly at right angles to the mid-ocean ridges
our solar system began as a cloud and then
condensed
Sand Dune Formation
Sand dunes need:
1) Ready supply of sand
2) Steady wind
3) Obstacle to trap sand
Bacteria and Plankton Fossil Fuels
Oil and natural gas (liquids)
heat capacity
water has the highest of all solids and liquids; the number of heat units needed to raise the temperature of a body by one degree; water stores so much heats and circulates it
Foliated Rock
a kind of metamorphic rock in which heat and pressure arrange the minerals in the rock into layers
volcano
an opening in the crust of Earth that ejects lava gases and ash
Magma
a body of molten rock found at depth, including any dissolved gases and crystals
Depositional Features: Erratics
Rock transported on top, within, or below a glacier from one location to another location far from where the rock was originally located
Double-Chain Linkages (Inosilicates)
• double chains linked by shared oxygen atoms
• adjacent double-chains can be linked by cations
magmatic differentiation
The formation of one or more secondary magmas from a single parent magma is called this.
Semidiurnal tidal pattern
tide having two high and two low waters per tidal day with small inequalities between successive highs and successive lows; tidal period is about 12 hrs 25 min solar time; semidaily tide
reverse fault
A type of fault where the hanging wall slides upward; caused by compression in the crust.
Parts of the Earth from inside, out
- lithosphere, asthenosphere, mesosphere
#1 and #2 localities for Earthquakes
Pacific Belt and The Mediterranian-Himalayan Belt
hydrosphere includes
all the water at and near the earth's surface
if rock deforms in a brittle fashion, what will be produced under shear stress
strike slip faults
Ultra Low Velocity Zone
the undulating border at the core mantle boundary, may be partially liquid.
Describe the Abyssal Floor
The ocean's floor divided into basins and hills
How pressure affects metamorphism
More pressure is exerted on rocks at depth than at Earth's surface. Lithostatic or confining pressure pushes on rocks in all directions. Grains become smaller and denser at depth. Pressure greatest at contact point between grains. Bonds can break, ions migrate and re-bond, rock becomes compressed.
name 3 soil forming factors
1) time 2) parent material 3) climate
Old Faithful is associated with what kind of events?
Geysers (heating of groundwater caves)
what is the earth's albedo?
the fraction of solar energy reflected by the earth's surface
What are the 3 ways magma forms?
1. Decompression
2. Add violatiles
3. Heat transfer
What are some examples of environmental hormones?
Hormones used to treat animals for food production can enter the environment, as well as endocrine disrupting chemicals(which are synthetic organic chemicals used to confuse the hormone system, such as DDT which is used to breka down detergents)
The Geologic Work of Groundwater - Caves and Karst Topography (3)
1. Groundwater is often slightly acidic and will dissolve calcite in limestone
2. Cave Formation
3. Karst Topography
Which one of the following statements is FALSE
basalts are produced by partial melting of andesite or diorite.
What catastrophic event is related to the K-T boundary
Meteorite impact 65 million years ago in the Yucatan peninsula - proposed by Luis and Walter Alvarez
what is the base level
the lowest point to which a stream can erode
What is Principle of faunal Succession ?
Fossils change through time as you move upward in the rocks record
What happens in longshore transport of sediment?
Sediment moves up the beach at an angle and reenters the ocean going straight down the beach.
What is matter and what are the three forms?
Anything that takes up space. Liquid, solid, and gas
carbonate
CO3
-2
anion
negative
metallic bonds
malleable
around volcano
location: hornfel
Mercalli
Measures earthquake damage
rigid solid -
lithosphere
Sedimentary: Chemical
Biological things die
syncline
youngest beds at core
OTEC
Ocean thermal energy conversion.
slate
fine-grained, slaty cleavage, parent rock is shale
Absolute Dating
Dating using radioactive decay
where are batholiths found?
mountain ranges
Crynoids
Missipian = age of the?
3 Igneous textures
Phaneritic, Aphanitic, Glassy
Basalt
a fine-grained mafic igneous rock
Color
Generally unreliable in mineral identification and often highly variable due to slight changes in mineral composition.
Types of unconformities
Angular Disconformity Nonconformity
Slump
Movement along a discrete surface- Mass Wasting
stress
_____ causes strain-can theory (step on a can with/without a board)
Most abundant Gases?
NO Woman And Child
Mudpots
Hot springs that surface through volcanic ash and become viscous slurry
Conduction
Transfer of heat through physical contact (ex- sensible heat flux)
- Fast moving molecules of one substance collide with the slower moving molecules of another substance, forcing molecules of the second substance to move faster
erosion
The combination of processes that separate the rock or regolith from its substrate and carry it away.
Aftershocks
a smaller earthquake (tremors) that may follow a larger earthquake
cement is what % of concrete
80%
Sinkhole
Surface depression formed by a solution of limestone or collapse over a subterranean void such as a cave
ocean
most water evaporates and precipitates where?
Flash floods
-Desert Streams and Fluvial Landforms
Sudden, swift; can transport large quantities of sediment;
steep-walled channels with flat bottoms
load
 
the amount of material (mostly alluvium, but also plants, trash and dissolved material) that is transported by a stream
in the uplands, most streams have relatively steep gradients, so the streams cut narrow, Vshaped valleys.
near their heads, tributaries are quick to transport their ___downstream where it combines with the ___of other tributaries
therefore the ___of teh tributaries is transferred to the larger stream and eventually to the main river
the __is eventually depostied at the mouth of the river, where it enters a lake ocean or dry basin
Caldera
craters that accompany BIG volcanic eruptions
What is released from subducted plate?
Water
Subduction Zone Volcanism
-Descending plate creates magma, forming volcanoes.
-If one oceanic playe goes under another continent, a consinential volcanic island arc forms and sometimes fold Mts,as well.
- Due to their lower density, continents can't be subducted.
bioturbation
The process by which organisms rework existing sediment by burrowing through muds and sands.
hematite
The soil of color red means ______
Strike
Trend direction of rocks (Stairs of staircase)
Unconformities
gaps in the rock record that represents a long period where deposition ceased, erosion removed perviously formed rocks, and deposition resumed
basalt eruptions
______________on the redge crest are related to rising rock
Textures of Igneous rock
Phaneritic, Pegmatitic, Aphanitic, Porphyritic, Glass, Vesicles, and Amygdaloidal
episode of intense rock deformation or mountain building
orogeny
volcaniclastic deposits
Any fragmental aggregate of volcanic parentage containing >60% volcaniclastic grains and <40% other types of clastic and/or biogenic material.
coal-bed methane
surface disturbance, gross H20 pumped out, fracking
Define Oceanic crust
Thin Crust that is Mafic
Tsunamis
Japanese: Harbor wave. Has nothing to do with the tides.
The light-colored regions visible on the Moon's surface correspond to the ________.
Lunar highlands.
Transform
Shallow earthquakes are found in _ faults
marble
metamorphic rock is a favorite of sculptors due to its softness and uniform texture
Area of Commercial coal
PENN--Pennsylvania, West Virgina= Appalachia, Eastern Canada
Profitable concentrations of metallic variable factors
technology, economics, politics
500km
the largest asterod at the present time has a radius of about
intrusive rocks
rocks that develop below earths surface
Floodplain
flat valley floor composed of sediment deposited by the stream
albedo
measure of the fraction of reflected incident sunlight
What is a barrier island?
Offshore sandy barrier
Electron Capture
type of radioactive decay when you GAIN an electron
Oxbow Lake
A crescent-shaped lake shaped along a stream course when a tight meander is cut off and abandoned
pumice
igneous- very light gray to a medium gray- contains a large number of gas bubbles each surrounded by a thin layer of volcanic glass- looks something like a sponge- very light weight- most pieces will float in water- flow lines or bands may show
Feature associated with erosion by a stream?
cut bank
What are placers
minerals deposited in stream bed largest source of iron on earth.
Inner Core
solid center; iron and iron oxide; 4,000 miles; 4,000-4,700 degrees
rift valley
deep, down faulted structure along the axis of the same ridge segments
longshore drift
the movement of sediment parallel to shore when waves strike the shoreline at an angle
mechanical weathering
Weathring by physical means, such as erosion.
Divergent boundaries go hand in hand with what?
Sea-floor spreading
Continental Margins
shallower portions of the ocean floor made up of continental crust and a thick wedge of sediment
_____known as the "king of energy" in 1900s, also very dangerous, and was polluting
coal
Gradient
The slope, i.e drop in elevation per unit of distance. 10cm-40m Increasing Gradient increases velocity
asthenosphere
Lying beneath it is an ~200 kilometer thick layer that is weak and plastic and probably contains as much as 3‐5% melt. This weak plastic layer is contained entirely within the mantle and is called the
Nebular Hypothesis
Immanuel Kant proposes that the origin of solar system could be traced to a rotating cloud of gas and fine dust.
____________ cannot be used for earthquake prediction
seismic risks maps
interaction among plates
 
 
1. pulling apart from one another
 
2. colliding
 
3. slipping sideways past one another
Ground Morraine
A blanket of till material deposited by a glacier
fault scarp
long low cliffs produced by vertical displacement along dip slip fault
Any weathering process that tends to produce a spherical shape from an initially blocky shape.
spheroidal weathering
earthquake
a series of vibrations induced in the earth's crust by the abrupt rupture and rebound of rocks in which elastic strain has been slowly accumulating.
partial melting
The incomplete melting of a rock that occurs because the minerals that compose it melt at different temperatures.
principle of uniformitarianism
Processes that act upon the Earth today are the same processes that have acted upon it in the past. The present is the key to the past.
Beach drift
swash and backwash of water that moves sediment in a zigzag pattern along the beach
Rock Cleavage
the tendency of rock to split along parallel, closely spaced surfaces; these surfaces are often highly inclined to the bedding planes in the rock
Plate boundary along North America
convergent plate boundary (subduction zone)
Convergent boundary:
a boundary at which two plate move toward each other so that one plate sinks (subducts) beneath the other; only oceanic lithosphere can subduct
what type of seismic wave is depicted by the ray path in the diagram aboce
P wave
The dark regions visible on the Moon's surface correspond to the what?
Lunar maria.
when material fails or ruptures due to stress it is
brittle behavior
Olivine and pyroxene
Basalt will yield soil rich in what?
Principle of fossil succession
proposed by William Smith, fossils succeed one another in a definite and determinable order
way to measure health of a stream
dissolved oxygen (dO)
Formation of Ocean Basin
-Initial stretching and faulting of continental crust-Embryonic Stage-Immature stage
What is meant by the term erosion?
movement of sediment
The Principle of Original Horizontality
Rocks that were originally deposited as horizontal layers of sediment
Tsunami caused by
sea floor dropping and all water being put into motion. Wave base is much lower
ancient plate boundaries can be recognized by their
associated rock assemblages and geoloic structures
what is the adverage depth of deep earthquakes and where do they most commonly occur?
>300km
subduction zones
for synclines, the rock layers dip in what direction
towards the center
well
a hole in the ground dug or drilled in order to obtain water
Where do rainshadow deserts occur?
Backside of mountain ranges, as pressure rises water is squeezed out over the mountain and becomes a "cold sponge." Once elevation drops moisture is sucked up creating a desert.
Rock cleavage or slaty cleavage
Closely spaced planar surfaces along which rocks splitCan develop in a number of ways depending on metamorphic conditions and parent rock
Law of inclusions
a rock "included in a host must have existed before the host
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act 1976(RCRA)
Mandates federal regulation of waste and encourages solid waste planning by the states.
Addresses the problem of hazardous waste.
Surface water problems and ground water quality.
Mandated "cradle of the grave" approach to waste.
Which rocks indicate high grade (temp) or low grade (temp) metamorphism
Index Minerals.
Slate Schist and Gneiss
How are submarine canyons formed?
fast moving sediments can overload on the shore and they flow down, picking up sediment as they gain speed and erode a slope then called a submarine canyon
Grain Size Effect on Differential Weathering
fine grained particles weather quicker than coarse grained
The taconic orogeny, which began in the___ can be related to the______.
Middle ordovician, closing of the lapetus.
What are fault traps?
Strata are dsplaced in such a manor as to bring a dipping reservoir rock into position opposite an impermeable bed
What materials make up an aquifer and is it good for a well?
sand, gravel, sandstone, limestonegood for well
What are the negative effects of photochemicals?
Direct effects on people and animals include irritation of eyes, lungs, and other mucous membranes. Plants may suffer stunted growth and death. (secondary pollutants)
What is the importance of Steno's principles
basics for all future studies of sedimentary rock
4). When a lithospheric plate cracks and the opposite sides diverge, the Earth acquires new crust. What are the consequences of this crustal addition? As expansion of the Earth occurs around an opening crack, the usual consequence is that …. [A] a compa
A] a comparable volume of surficial rock is lost by subduction
what is meant by the big bang?
the big bang begins with the theory that all matter was condensed into what Lemaitre callwd the primeval atom. then the atom exploded, and the matter expanded into space
What are sheet joints and how do they form?
Sheet joints are fractures that more or less parallel exposed rock surfaces, especially rocks now at the surface that formed under great pressure at depth. These joints form in response to pressure release; that is, when the rocks formed, they contained energy that is realesed by outward expansion.
P-wave=
compressional
Chlorides
halite sylvite
breccia
angular sediment
mid-continental crust
location: amphibolite
cations
positively charged atoms
liquid -
outer core
Volcanic rocks are ALL:
Extrusive.
Ocean Floor topography
Mid-Ocean Ridges
Trenches
sensitive clay
See quick clay.
Lava
magma that reaches Earth's surface
Mesozoic Era
Age of Middle Life
Body waves travel through the
earth
devonian
evergreens and scale trees when?
vertical stratigraphic relationships
identifying bedding contacts
mineral
a homogenous, naturally occurring, solid inorganic substance with a definable chemical composition and an internal structure characterized by an orderly arrangement of atoms, ions, or molecules, in a lattice. Most minerals are inorganic
Diagenesis
chemical, physical, and biological changes that take place after sediments are depositedOccurs within the upper few kilometers of Earth’s crust at temperatures usually less than 200oC
shield
igneous and metamorphic cores of ancient mountain belts
Chlorofluorocarbons
Produced to make refrigerants and styrofoam. Catalyze the breakdown of the ozone
Climate
Statistics of weather on a long-time-scale that can be predictable
dissolution
When minerals dissolve in water; breaks relatively weak chemical bonds.
Biosphere
The living things on the Earth.
minerals are what kind of compunds
chemical
Falls
Material free-falls, as from a vertical face
oblique slip faults
hanging wall slips diagonally
Catabolism
"Breaking down" larger molecules to smaller ones - releases energy
Groundwater
All water in the ground
(occupying the pore space in bedrock and soil)
-3rd most abudnant reservoir on earth
-most of it from rainfall
examples of intraplate volcanism?
hawaii and yellowstone
slow cooling promotoes the growth of_____ crystals
large
Oceanic Ridges
-An undersea Mt. Range wxtending through all the ocean basins.
-Spreading occurs along the central part of ridges.
-Mid Atlantic Ridge
Comets
Dirty snowballs that form a great distance from the sun
Sierra Madre Occidental
Extensive volcanism. Late Cenozoic back arc range. 45 Ma
Age of Solar System
4.65 billion years old
Contact Metamorphism
Forms a halo around igneous intrusions, Shallow, Low pressure, Local
generally credited with developing the concept of continental drift
Alfred Wegener
Magnetic Reversal
The phenomenon involving the complete reversal of the north and south magnetic poles.
Causes of waves
wind, landslides, faultings, and volcanic eruptions.
Tidal Channel (2)
sand with structures indicating opposing current directions
abundant cut and fill structures
Viscosity
Is resistance to flow, molasses vs. water, controlled by silicate.
A clastic sedimentary rock composed of medium-grained (1 mm across) particles is called a ______.
Sandstone.
Fire
___ is associated with earthquakes and is the main source of destruction in cities
divergent boundaries
the mid-atlantic ridge, east pacific ridge, and southeast indian ocean ridge are all located on
Sigillaria
lycopsid scale tree, bark looks like reptillian scales: in PENN
Pyroclastics
Cinders and blocks that can be dangerous.
porphyritic
a variety of igneous rock consisting of large-grained crystals, such as feldspar or quartz
Desert
any arid region that receives less than 25 cm of precipitation per year
A fountain of hot water ejected periodically from the ground.
Geyser
clarify
to make (an idea, statement, etc.) clear or intelligible; to free from ambiguity.
Analogous Structure
organ serves same function but have different embryological development example: flying-look same-not the same
Williston Basin
DEVONIAN Western Canada, reefs full of oil & gas reservoirs, 4 kinds of up to 750m of evaporites, stromatoporoids abundant, Canada #1 exporter of potash
What mass wasting process involves the most amount of water?
mud slide
Water Resources
20% of global population without clean water.
permeability
a measure of the ease with which fluids flow through a porous rock
continental volcanic arc
mountains formed by igneous activity associated with the subduction of oceanic lithosphere beneath a continent
summer beach
which season of beach has long wavelength and low energy waves - which gradually returns the sand from the sandbar back onto the beach
unconformity
A break in the geologic record created when rock layers are eroded or when sediment is not deposited for a long period of time.
chemical properties
describe a substance based on its ability to change into a new substance with different properties.
Sedimentary layers deposited with the oldest at the bottom and youngest at the top
Law of Superposition
John Jolly
Salinity of waters. Earth is 90 million years old
Discharge
The volume of water flowing past a point per unit of time. Increasing the discharge increases the velocity.
basic
if the rock contains between 45 wt% and 55 wt% SiO2, then it is
chemical sedimentary rock
sedimentary rock that forms when minerals precipitate from a solution or settle from a suspension.
How are geological resources used?
-Renewable resources: forestry, agriculture, fisheries, grazing, water, soil
-Non-renewable resources (take 1,000 million years to produce) : metallic minerals, non-metallic minerals, energy resources, water (groundwater)
How are the magnitude and frequency of natural hazard events typically related?
inversely
explosive eruption
felsic magma - higher viscosity - better at trapping water
 
underneath hot liquid but when reaches surface explosively decompresses into steam
 
Mt. St HELENS1q!1111
Angular Unconformity
An unconformity in which the older layers dip at different angles than the younger layers
lateral moraine
ridges of till paralleling sides of the valley-made by alpine glaciers-ice erodes sides of valley & debris is collected on edges of moving glacier-ice melts & debris is dropped next to valley walls
A term for a linear arrangement of textural features often exhibited by metamorphic rocks.
foliation
fossil
any remains, impression, or trace of a living thing of a former geologic age, as a skeleton, footprint, etc.
relative age
The age of one geologic event in relation to another.
hardness
a measure of how easily a mineral can be scratched.
Outwash plain
associated with the end morane of an ice sheet
quadrant bearing
- when compass direction along a line from one point to another is expressed in degress east or west of true north or south
Atomic number
determined by the number of protons in the nucleus
Ozone hole:
an area of the atmosphere, over polar regions, from which ozone has been depleted
Which of the following layers of the Earth's interior is liquid?
outer core
The longest and deepest canyon in the solar system is called _______.
Vallis Marineris.
when the axial plane is horizontal you get what fold
recumbant fold
Mud cracks (sedimentary structure)
Record periodic drying of depositional surface
Cast
hollow space of a mold is filled with mineral matter
Spinels(oxide)
Gahnite GalaxiteMagnetite SpinelChromite Franklinite
OSERVATION OF Mohorovicic discontinuity
Average velocity of P waves increases~200 km from earthquake source
as a rift basin when Africa pulled away from North America during the break of Pangea
how Piedmont formed
Neap tides
Tidal range is less at the quarter of the moon
how long ago did the Earth form?
4.6 billion years ago
What does the continental crust consist of and how thick is it?
Granite / 30-60 km thick
Convergent Plate Boundary
A boundary in which two plates move together. Causes oceanic lithosphere to be thrust beneath an overriding plate. Also causes mountains.
describe the different between continental crust and oceanic crust
Continental crest is thicker then oceanic crest.
four mobile belts that formed around the margin of the North American craton during the Paleozoic
Franklin, Cordilleran, Ouachita, and Appalachian
Site Leaks.
Casing Leaks.
Upward Migration
Could cause earthquakes and waste cold move up into the water system.
Why is Deep Well Injection a bad idea?
Which of the following is or was not produced by plate tectonics?
Earth's magnetic field
What is the geological feature for an Ocean transform? A continent Transform?
Ocean: Transform faultContinent: Transform fault
Differentiated Planet - Layers
Top to Bottom -

Continental Crust - Oceanic Crust
Rigid Upper Mantle
Asthenosphere
Transitional Mantle
Lower Mantle
Outer Core
Inner Core
Changes in the mineral structures
What causes the sharp increase in the velocity of S waves at 400 and 670 km depths in the mantle?
transform faults are associated with?
strike slip on a ridge. san andreas fault
What is typical of a urban flood.
More intense over a short time
many eruption volcanoes over the last 40,000 years
Mt. St. Helen has a history of
how has the High Plains Aquifer been affected by agriculture?
irrigates 1/5 of U.S. crop plants
What is acid rain and how does it form?
Results from the chemical reaction between water and certain compounds in the atmosphere. Carbon Dioxide, Sulfur Oxides (SOx), Nitrogen Oxides (NOx)
Faith Based Approaches to Interpreting Phenomena
If you can't prove it, its not a scientific issue (religion emphasizes this) EX: God put boulders where they are
Name the different type of Seismic Waves of an Earthquake.
Body waves (P and S) and Surface waves (L and R)
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Definition:

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