Ch3 Anatomy Flashcards

cell division.
Terms Definitions
how does medicine get into bloodstream
it hitches a ride on the cell
what are the three main parts of a cell
plasma membrane , cytoplasma , nucleus
is the internal living material of cells. It fills the space between the plasma membrane and the nucleus,
Two layers of phosphate-containing fat molecules form a fluid framework for the plasma membrane
Numerous specialized structures
plasma membrane
surrounds cell, performs life - preserving functions for the cell
perform a very complex function: they make enzymes and other protein compounds. Thus they are aptly nicknamed “protein factories
endoplasmic reticulum
The tubular passageways or canals in the ER carry proteins and other substances through the fluid cytoplasm of the cell from one area to another. There are two types of ER: rough and smooth.
what does the rough ER do
receives, folds, and transports newly made proteins
what does the smooth ER do
manufactures new membrane.
Golgi apparatus
chemical processing and packaging center, mucus is an example of a by product
energy-releasing chemical reactions occur continuously. Because these reactions supply most of the power for cellular work, mitochondria have been nicknamed the cell's “power plants.”
contain enzymes that can digest food compounds, they have the nickname “digestive bags.” Lysosomal enzymes also can digest substances other than foods. For example, they can digest and thereby destroy microbes that invade the cell.
paired organelles ,composed of fine tubules that play an important role during cell division., these structure exsit in every cell
are small fingerlike projections of the plasma membrane of some cells. These projections increase the surface area of the cell and thus increase its ability to absorb substances.
are extremely fine, almost hairlike extensions on the exposed or free surfaces of some cells, they are organelles capable of movement.
is a single projection extending from the cell surface. Flagella are much larger than cilia, sperm cell
what are the nucleus fuctions
. The nucleus ultimately controls every organelle in the cytoplasm. It also controls the complex process of cell reproduction.
is a dense region of the nuclear material that is critical in protein formation because it “programs” the formation of ribosomes in the nucleus
chromatin granules
in the nucleus are threadlike structures made of proteins and hereditary molecules called DNA
how many chromsomes are given and how many pairs does that make
46 chromosomes and 23 pairs
is produced in the mitochondria using energy from nutrients and is capable of releasing that energy to do work in the cell. For active transport processes to occur, the breakdown of ATP and the use of the released energy are required
a good example of a passive transport process, is the process by which substances scatter themselves evenly throughout an available space, from high consentration to a low concentration
substances dissolved in the water
is the diffusion of water, but not solutes, across a selectively permeable membrane.
is the movement of water and solutes through a membrane as a result of a pushing force that is greater on one side of the membrane than on the other side, from high to low pressure !!
hydrostactic pressure
which is simply the force or weight of a fluid pushing against some surface (an example is blood pressure, in which blood pushes against vessel walls)
they immediately lose water from their cytoplasm into the surrounding salty solution, and they shrink
if red cells are placed in a hypotonic solution; they swell as water enters the cell from the surrounding dilute solution
active transport
is the uphill movement of a substance through a living cell membrane. Uphill means “up a concentration gradient” (that is, from a lower to a higher concentration
The word is appropriate because this process permits a cell to engulf and literally trap and eat bacteria , white blood cells use this process
cystic fibrosis (CF)
for example, is an inherited condition in which chloride ion (Cl−) pumps in the plasma membrane are missing Because chloride ion transport is altered, cells that rely heavily on chloride transporters may die and their remains then thicken the secretions of many exocrine glands. Such is the case when abnormally thick mucus in the lungs impairs normal breathing; frequently this leads to recurring lung infections.
is a bacterial infection that causes cells lining the intestines to leak
During this process a cell divides to multiply; that is, one cell divides to form two cells. Cell reproduction and ultimately the transfer of heritable traits is closely tied to the production of proteins.
is a specific segment of base pairs in a chromosome
what happens during transcription
the double-stranded DNA molecule separates or unwinds, and a special type of RNA called messenger RNA or mRNA is formed
is the synthesis of a protein by ribosomes, which use the information contained in an mRNA molecule to direct the choice and sequencing of the appropriate chemical building blocks called amino acids.
transfer RNA (tRNA)
molecules assist the process by bringing specific amino acids in to “dock” at each codon along the mRNA strand
includes the initial growing stages of a newly formed cell, followed by a period during which the cell prepares for possible cell division. During this preparatory part of interphase, the DNA of each chromosome replicates itself.
The chromatin becomes “organized.” Chromosomes in the nucleus have formed two strands called chromatids, the two chromatids are held together by a beadlike structure called the centromere . In the cytoplasm the centrioles are moving away from each other as a network of tubules called spindle fibers forms between them
the nuclear envelope and nucleolus have disappeared. the chromosomes have aligned themselves across the center of the cell. Also, the centrioles have migrated to opposite ends of the cell, and spindle fibers are attached to each chromatid.
, the beadlike centromeres, which were holding the paired chromatids together, break apart. As a result, the individual chromatids, identified once again as chromosomes, move away from the center of the cell. you can start to see the cleavage furrow
cell division is completed. Two nuclei appear, and chromosomes become less distinct and appear to break up. As the nuclear envelope forms around the chromatin, the cleavage furrow completely divides the cell into two parts.
refers to an increase in cell size
refers to a decrease in cell size
Sometimes cells respond to changes in the internal environment by increasing their rate of reproduction—a process
The new mass of cells thus formed is a tumor
is a condition in which cells change in orientation to each other and fail to mature normally; that is, they fail to differentiate into a specialized cell type
benign tumors
Neoplasms may be relatively harmless growths
malignant tumor
If tumor cells can break away and travel through the blood or lymphatic vessels to other parts of the body,the neoplasm is cancer
what are the four main kinds of tissue
epithelial, connective, muscle, nervous
areolar connective tissue
area between other tissues and organs, its function is connection
adipose connective tissue
under skin, fuctions in protection and insulation
dense fibrous connective tissue
tendons ligaments , fascia , and scar tissue , functions are flexable but stong connction
bone connective tissue
skeleton, functions in support and protection
cartilage connective tissue
disk between vertebrae, external ear, part of nasal septum,functions in firm but flexible support
hematopoietc connective tissue
red bone marrow , functions in blood cell formation
epithelial tissue
covers the body and many of its parts. It also lines various parts of the body. some of the parts it lines are mouth, esophagas, stomacch , intestines, urrinary bladder, kidney tubules
tissue typing
is a screening process in which cell markers in a donated organ or tissue are identified so that they can be matched to recipients with similar cell markers
rejection reaction
When the immune system mounts a significant attack against the donated tissue,
what are the three types of muscle tissues
skeletal, cardiac, and smooth.
skeletal muscle tissue
or striated, muscle is called voluntary because willed or voluntary control of skeletal muscle contractions is possible.
cardiac muscle
forms the walls of the heart, and the regular but involuntary contractions of cardiac muscle produce the heartbeat
(visceral) muscle is said to be involuntary because it is not under conscious or willful control.
what is the function of nervous tissue
is rapid communication between body structures and control of body functions
glia or neuroglia
special connecting and supporting cells of the nervous tissue
This growth of new tissue
which tissues have the greatest capacity to regenerate
Epithelial and connective tissues
are thick scars that form in the lower layer of the skin in predisposed individuals.
female , male
xx , xy
factors that cause damage to DNA
chemical or mechanical irritants, radiation, bacteria, and viruses
what is the most abundant tissue in the body
conduction cells in nervous tissue
/ 74

Leave a Comment ({[ getComments().length ]})

Comments ({[ getComments().length ]})


{[ comment.comment ]}

View All {[ getComments().length ]} Comments
Ask a homework question - tutors are online