Geology Exam Flashcards

Terms Definitions
stony meteorites
absolute age
radiometric dating
Sedimentary-biological chemical precipitate, skeletal remains of protozoans such as foraminifera, calcium carbonate, user for lime and chalk
pea-sized pyroclastic material
eras based on what?
fossilized, condensed carbon-rich fuel; found in ancient deltas, coastal swamps during warm periods with high sea level) cheaper but pollutes
Mic (Muscovite)
1 dimension cleavage-sheets
silicate, common,granite, 60% earths crust,potassium alum,crystallizes in cooling magma,hard 5-6 good cleavage,vitreous luster,white streak,pink and white color
bed load
gravel and sand, moves
the place where spreading happens
The two most fundamental characteristics that most distinguish minerals are:
A) chemical composition and crystal structure.
B) color and hardness.
C) weight and transparency.
D) bonding and atomic number.
Positively charged cations form when atoms
Visibly crystalline, granular "sugary" look, made of quartz, forms from sandstone.
ash, pumice, and rock fragments
metamorphism of limetsone or dolomite
Describes intrusive igneous masses that form parallel to the bedding of the surrounding rock.
Headward Erosion
Process wherein rapid erosion lengthens the channel upslope
Evidence of plate tectonics: _________ match up
more viscous lava; much explosive (pyroclastic) debris; large; emitted from central vent; when bring water down processes allow rock to melt, when water release, changes rock above; most common type; felsic
what evidence verifies wegner's ideas about polar wandering -which he based on paleoclimatic evidence
Index fossil
geographically widespread fossil that is limited to a short span of geologic time
lava type associated with strato volcanoes, contains the most muscovite, LEAST fluid lava
Inner core is how thick?
1215 km
if two magmas with different compositions happen to come in contact with one another, they could mix. the mixed magma will have a composition somewhere between that of the original two magma compositions
What percentage of our energy consumption is based on fossil fuels
underwater lava
pillow basalts and columnar jointing
Broad, flat surface eroded across bedrock; thinly or discon1:inuously
veneered with alluvium; slopes away from mountain
What is tephra affected by?
wind patterns
a narrow, knifelike ridge separating two adjacent glaciated valleys
cinder cone
-built from ejected lava fragments
-steep slope angle
-small size
-frequently occurs in groups
rocks within ice act like snadpaper and smooth surface
shock metamorphism
Metamorphism that occurs when minerals are subjected to the high pressures and temperatures of shock waves generated when a meteorite collides with earth.
occurs where ever current slows. sand and gravel bars, deltas, alluvial fans
Gneiss forms when a protolith is subjected to very high pressure and temperature
Ground water problems
intense irrigation, land subsidence, contamination by pollutants
Are P waves similar to sound waves?
coarse grain extrusive rock
Granite, Diorite, Gabbro, Peridotite
Henry Hess
Father of Modern Plate Tectonics. Analyzed rock specimens. Pattern: rocks got increasingly older as you move away from ridge. Only 200 mill years old. Brand new rock at ridge.
Nuee Ardente
Incandescent volcanic debris bouyed up by hot gases that moves downslope in an avalanche fashion.
The main minerals of detrital rocks?
Clay, Quarts,Micas,Feldspars
the second stage of the mountain building process in mountain belts can be characterized by the collision or convergence of plates. the early stages of the collision of the appalachian belt can be characterized as which type of convergence?
The weathering of calcium - rich plagioclase to clay is known as?
what major mineral group does the mineral quartz belong to
An earthquake measuring 5 on the Richter scale has 1.5 times the energy release of an earthquake measuring 4 on the Richter scale
more crystals
when rocks cool slowly there are....
magnetic anomaly
the difference between the expected strength of Earth's main dipole field and the actual measured strength
changes that happen to sediment or sedimentary rock during a subsequent to lithification but at temperatures less than that of the lowest grade metamorphism
Harmonic Tremor
A continuous rhythmic earthquake that indicates motion of magma below the surface.
repetion of planar surfaces or layers in a metamorphic rock
 Incongruent Dissolution
Dissolution of a mineral with decomposition or reaction in the presence of a liquid, converting one solid phase into another
structural geology
studies architecture of crust & processes responsible for deforming it
What is a Perennial Stream?
A Seasonal stream
The change in compostion of a magma body caused by the incorporation of foreign materials
black to dark green, h=5, vitreious to dull luster, two imperfect cleavages meet at nearly 90, looks blocky but not splintery,
Subduction zone
the region or boundary where a lithospheric plate descends into the asthenosphere
How to rock responds to the force applied
composed of caco2 and the remains of shells, limestone, dolostone, chalk, coquina. formed from the mineral calcite bonded w/ CO2-
Roche Mountomees
Elongated hills carved into bedrock by plucking and abrasion
long-shore current
the process of particle movement up shore. waves break on the beach at an upward angle and return to the water in a straight line, creating a pattern of the particles moving up the shore in a straight line
a ____________ is a coastal inlet that is a drawned glacially carved valley
this marks the surface of most deltas, - small shifting channels that carry water away from the main river channel and distribute it over the surface of the delta
native elements
elements in pure form: gold, silver, diamond, copper
natural selection
the process by which individuals that are better adapted to their environment are more likely to survive and reproduce than other members of the same species
properties of minerals
luster, color, streak, crystal shape, tenacity, hardness, cleavage, fracture, and density, ability to transmit light
The person who first understood that unconformities meant large time gaps is?
James Hutton
The compass direction of a rock layer fault or other planar structure where it intersects with a horizontal surface
The sub systems of Earth
Atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere, mantle, and core.
Benioff Zone
The narrow zone of inclined seismic activity that extends from a trench downward into the asthenosphere.
Physical Weathering
Is the physical breaking apart of rocks that are exposed to the environment
can develop by beach drift out into open water as well as wave refraction around the end of the spit. (long skinny island curved at the end)
Structural Geography
The study of the structural features of rocks
what are some geological hazards?
volcanoes, flooding, earthquakes, tsunamis, hurricanes, landslides.
Use a labeled sketch to explain the role of gravity and pressure in controlling groundwater flow.
The different Erosional Surfaces?
1) Angular unconformity, 2) Disconformity , 3)Non Conformity
what are meteors called if they are on Earth?
water vapor in the air changes to a liquid and forms dew, fog, or clouds
How many children die each year from polluted water?
1.8 million
What is science?
A way of asking and answering questions about the physical universe
oldest oceanic crust is
less than 180 million years old
10 Year Flood
Floods with 10% chance of happening every year
Definition of a Horn
Peak carved by glaciers (ex. Matterhorn, Italy)
weathering affecting ores
Many other metallic ores and minerals oxidize and hydrate to produce colored deposits, such as chalcopyrites or CuFeS2 oxidizing to copper hydroxide and iron oxides.. they can also rust
Sedimentary rock cycle
Weathering and Erosion - Deposition - Compaction and Sedimentation
Igneous rock
rock formed by molten magma or lava that has hardened
divergent plate boundaries
located along the crusts of oceanic ridges and can be thought of as constructive plate margins since this is where new ocean floor is generated. Plates move away from each other.
Where two plates move apart, resulting in upwelling of hot material from the mantle to create new seafloor
Possible Causes of Ice Ages
Plate Tectonics, Eccentricity, Tilt, Precession, Deep Ocean (Thermohaline) Circulation
Isolated Tetrahedra (Nesosilicates)
• Isolated tetrahedra; each O of tetrahedron
bonded to a cation; cations in turn bonded to O of other tetrahedra
A large mass of igneous rock that is formed when magma is emplaced at depth, crystallized, and exposed to erosion.
elastic rebound theory
rocks bend until they slip to release the bending strain during an earthquake
theory of plate tectonics
The theory that pieces of Earth's outer layer are in constant motion
Curie Point
When a rock is heated above a certain temperature, called the ______ it loses its magnetism.
Two Types of Strike Slip Faults
Right Lateral and Left Lateral.
hydrosphere includes
all the water at and near the earth's surface
What segment of the San Andreas has a recurrence interval of 22 years?
park field
Geosphere or Solid Earth system
rock and other inorganic Earth material that make up the bulk of the planet.
What iare some accurate statements about how Paleozoic glacial evidence from the southern continents and India supports continental drift?
Without continental drift, the Paleozoic glacial deposits would indicate glaciers existed throughout the southern hemisphere, up to the equator, and in India.
During the same part of the Paleozoic, sedimentary deposits would indicate that most of the northern hemisphere was unglaciated, assuming the continents were where they are today.
Glacial striations indicate that, if the continents were not together, the glaciers would have had to move from the oceans and onto the continents.
How evaporites form as chemical sedimentary rocks
precipitate from sea water, include gypsum, halite, sylvite, limestone. Typically only found in arid climates.
principle of uniformitarianism
the present is the key to the past because processes that are happening now probably happened then
Which feature is associated with physical weathering of rocks?
abrasion (particles reduced in size). by water, wind, freeze-thaw
Which of the following statements regarding effluent streams is true?
effluent streams are fed by groundwater and are characteristic of humid regions
Why are andesitic rocks usually porphyritic
two staged cooling history for andesitic magmas
What are some of the problems with pesticides?
Nontarget toxicity, secondary pest outbreaks, and increasing immunity
The Geologic Work of Groundwater - Caves and Karst Topography (3)
1. Groundwater is often slightly acidic and will dissolve calcite in limestone
2. Cave Formation
3. Karst Topography
Which one of the following statements is false?
basaltic magmas are generally more viscous than rhyolitic magmas
What is the nebular theory?
4.7 billion years ago Nebula of H, He, and stardust was pulled down by gravity and formed into a rotating disc
it formed a protosun; heavier material stays closer to it and lighter material is flung farther away
planetesimals form during collision of other materials
hot, magma rich planets chemically differentiate and produce the earth's layer structure
the balance between melting of ice and resupply by snowfall determines what
amount of ice in the glacier
What happens in a Tide ?
Surface of the sea moving upward and downward in a cyclical manner
what is a human modified ecosystem
it is an ecosystem that is modified by human use and interest, almost all the major ecosystems
why is having a bend in strike slips faults important when considering Los Angeles
because there are many active blind strike slip faults in the LA basin
Cleavage- 3
through molecular activity
Specular Hematite
reddish-brown streak
sides of fold
Four Parts of Earth
Trellis Drainage Pattern
Resistant Ridges
Walter and Luis Alvares
Layers according to physical properties
specialized subsystems that describe specific types of terrestrial behavior.
dinosaurs appeared during the
Late Triassic
_________produced layering of the earth's interior
minerals joined together but properties remain (granite)
subduction angle is probably controlled by plate ___________
Zones of concentrated earthquake activity:
(a) are randomly distributed around Earth
(b) are only associated with faults on land
(c) mark plate boundaries
(d) are found away from plate boundaries
Red River
Board is always changing
does suspended load grain size increase with velocity
The principle whereby thicker, more buoyant crust stands topographically higher than crust that is thinner and denser
mass number
number of protons and neutrons
explosive or voluminous eruptions may cause the volcano to collaspe on the floor of the magma chamber, producing a broad depression termed a
mudflows formed when volcanic debris mixes with streams or melting ice. Often confined to stream channels
The phenomenon of changing rocks subjected to heat, pressure, and fluids so that they are in equilibrium with a new set of environmental conditions.
Approximately how deep (below sea level) are the deepest deep-sea trenches?
Swelling, earthquakes, heat flow, gas flow.
according to plate tectonics the pacific ocean is getting larger or smaller?
Mollusk look like snails and slugs.
Water Table
Upper surface of saturated zone
distance between the sampling location and paleopole
What is a lateral blast
Sideways eruption
Soil layer O
zone dominated by organic material
concordant intrusion
An intrusive igneous rock whose boundaries lie parallel to layers of preexisting bedded rock.
lies above te troposphere; colder and drier than air in the troposphere; contains the ozone layer
Only Wind Direction
The Coriolis effect influences __________.
Abyssal plains
thick accumulations of sediments on ocean floor
created by wind blowing over water from storms
non foliated (metamorphic)
pressure comes from all sides
events placed in sequential order as determined from their position in the rock record
pacific ring of fire
strato or composite volcanoes
long, thin, curving hills of glacial debris that formed in ice caves beneath a melting glacier
Measure of impact on humans and surface features (this can not necessarily be measured)
depression melting
if the raised geothermal gradient becomes higher than the initial melting temperature at any pressure, than a partial melt will form. liquid from this partial melt can be separated fro the remaining crystals because liquids generally have a lower density than solids. basaltic magmas appear to originate this way.
elements in some minerals combine with oxygen in the atmosphere, most common example is iron
End product of weathering; rocky layer that overlies and protects unaltered bedrock
After the rodinia breaks apart in 700MA the continents begin to come back together about 430 MA because of the Wilson cycle to form.
Walther's Law
Sedimentary rocks we see stacked vertically in a section most often represent deposition from closely related adjacent environments.
a manmade wall that protects the entrance to a harbor
Unconfined Aquifer
-not overlain and confined by aquiclue
(aquifer that has the water table as its upper boundary)
 -High Plains aquifer, which lies at shallow depths beneath the High Plains of the U.S
-30% of groundwater used for irrigation in U.S is obtained from High Plains aquifer
-Kansas,Mexico,& Texas, water table has dropped so much over half century that the thickness of the saturated zone has declined by than 50% 
Crosscutting Relationships
Law of Crosscutting Relationships : rock that has forced its way up (intruded) into existing rock) is younger than the existing rock (really just a corollary of superposition).
Sedimentary Rocks
• sedimentary rocks: formed as burial products of layers of seds (land or sea) • Sediments = precursors of sed rx; formed
at surface by weathering, then moved by erosion• A) Siliciclastic sediments (Greek: klastos = “broken”); physically deposited
particles; deposited by running water,
wind, + ice; form layers of sand, silt, +
• B) Chemical + biochemical sediments; new
substances formed by precipitation from
dissolved materials (e.g., halite, calcium carbonate)
differential stress
stress applied unequally in different directions

1)compressional stress
2)tensional stress
3)shear stress
Characteristic of SHALE
• Made by plankton and clay
The hydrologic cycle
the circulation and conservation of Earth's water
Atlantic Ocean
Ocean that began forming during late Triassic
Most rocks are ramrod rigid until subjected to high pressure, including quartz-rich rocks like continental crust. Quartz becomes even stronger as pressure increases downward to a certain depth but then quartz begins to suffer a "breakdown" and it starts t
15 km
earths mantle is a layer of hot ________.
what type of metamorphism occurs over a large area and is usually the result of tremendous temperatures, pressures, and deformation within the deeper portions of the crust
regional metamorphism
Ore bodies at divergent plate margins are commonly formed by this
hydrothermal processes
submarine canyons
deep, steep-sided valleys cut into the continental slope
which is a broad flat topped hill bounded by cliffs abd capped with resistant rock layer
a crack in the earth's crust resulting from the displacement of one side with respect to the other
chemical weathering
breaking down of rocks that changes its' composition
Metamorphism of rocks at the margins of an igneous intrusion is called?
Contact metamorphism.
three Types of meteorites
Irons, Stony Meteorites, Stony Irons
Felsic Rocks
light-colored rocks that are rich in elements such as aluminum, potassium, silicon, and sodium
landmass called pangea
According to Wegener's hypothesis of continental drift, the continents were once joined together in a single....
base level
theoretical lowest level to which a river may erode.
cut banks
Steep bank formed along the outer portion of a meandering stream.
Glacial sediment deposits (till) are generally A. well sorted. B. poorly sorted.
B.    poorly sorted.
Foliated Rocks
the alignment of minerals grains that gives some metamorphic rocks the appearance of being layered
ice covered ~30% of earth's land area-had 20 glacial/interglacial cycles (occuring every 100,000 yrs)-most major glacial stages occured duringPLEISTOCENE EPOCH-began 2-3 ma ago
types of sedimentary structures
-strata, beds (most)
-bedding planes that separate strata
-graded beds
-ripple marks
-mud cracks
define orogeny
an episode of intense deformation of the rocks in a region, generally accompanied by metamorphism and plutonic activity
the floor of the channel is called the bed
Tippecanoe sequence began with
deposition of an extensive sandstone over the exposed and eroded Sauk landscape
Heat, Pressure, Fluids
Factors that control the type and degree of metamorphism
Cut bank
the area of active erosion on the outside of a meander
Mouth of a stream
The ending point of a stream
Movement that occurs on a fault w/o generating an earthquake is called
Fault creep
formed by the bonding of 2 or more atoms
Pyroclastic rocks
Any rock make up to material ejected explosively from a volcanic vent
lateral moraine
a strip of debris along the side margins of a glacier
Urbanization influences soil erosion processes primarily because of _____________________.
Vegetation removal and soil disturbance at construction sites
Plinian eruption
name for pliny the younger, conists of hot ash, rock fragments and gases being erupted from an explosive vent in a plum up to 100,000 ft or 5 miles high. The fragments can call at up to 100mph after the column collapses.
Physical Prop. of Core
1)outer core - liquid layer- convective flow of metallic iron =generates magnetic field2)inner core-high temps but stronger than outer core due to immense pressure-behaves like a solid
Erosion by Wind:
• Wind picks up soil and transports it down-wind
• Fine-grained soils more susceptible
• Ex. Dust storm in the Dust Bowl of 1930s
Bowen's Reaction Series
Mineral grains are large enough to be seen with the naked eye.
What are faster seismic waves
-cold rocks
-beneath the older and interior parts of the continent
-no tectonic activity
Geologic time scale
a time scale that covers the Earth's history from its origin to the present
metals & ores
ore = a mineral or aggregate of minerals which can be mined at a profit
What do you end up with if you heat and press limestone for a long time?
Decompression-melting creates the magma that eventually feeds the volcanoes at divergent plate margins
What of the following statements about volcanoes is true?
1.) Controlling Factors of Metamorphism
1.) Temperature, pressure (stress) and chemically active fluids.
Earthquakes along divergent plate boundaries are almost always less than about 10 km deep.
True. The lithosphere is relatively thin and is not thrust to great depths as it is at convergent boundaries.
what are the constituents of the ancient atmosphere
Methane, Ammonia, Water Vapor, Hydrogen
oversteepened slopes, water, amount of vegetation, earthquakes
4 major triggers of mass wasting
what is a good example of mechanical deformation during metamorphism?
alignment of mineral grains
What are the stable continental platforms consist?
Thick sequences of sedimentary strata that overlay thick sections of stable contiental crust
What is a Lava fountain
Forms when baslatic magma rises so rapidly that gas bubbles from solution(non explosive)
What is strip mining
strip off soil and rock, then coal is removed.
Which rocks indicate high grade(temp) or low grade (temp) metamorphism?
index minerals. Slate to Schist to Gneiss
for a 35 km thick crust, what is the temperature of the base of the crust
700-1500 degrees C
What is the mantle convection model?
Plates are moved by heat escaping from the Earth's interior, most due to radioactivity in the mantle. Hot rock rises and a divergent boundary forms, the hot rock spreads in both directions. Eventually it cools & sinks into a convergent boundary
Where in the U.S. most tornadoes occur;
Most occur in the Plain States, between the Rocky Mountains and Appalachians.
What is a neap tide?
Every 7 days = lower tides, when the moon and sun is perpendicular
What is the importance of the Ediacaran fauna?
It is the latest Precambrian – soft body group of sea floor organisms, no predators around to eat them, first large fossils.
What is the difference between a joint and a fault?
joint- there is little to no lateral movement across joints. fault - a fracture in rock in which one side slides laterally past the other with a displacement that is greater than the separation between the blocks on either side of the fracture.
earthquake activity
lose electrons
become positive
Effective porosity types
an electrically charged atom
an exposure of bedrock
clasticclay sizedquartz with clay
Gneiss, Slate, Phyllite, Schist
What is the parent rock of the metamorphic rocks listed above?
Plate Boundary... Very shallow seismicity, most of which is located along the mid-oceanic ridges
pollen analysis
identification and statistical analysis of pollen from sedimentary rocks; such analyses provide information about ancient floras and climates
Granular Flows
-Debris avalanche (fastest)
-Grain flow
-Earth flow
formation of earth
4.5 Billion years
Shield Volcano
Basaltic Composition
shallow magma chambers
flank erruption with stray volcano cracks
ex: Hawaii
2 surface textures= a'a' and pahoehoe
Bedding Planes
Between layers of rocks
how does groundwater move
gravity moves it
Deformation wherein the strain is irreversible and the material breaks
plant roots generally optain their water from the belt of soil moisture near the top of the _______ zone
based on current plate tectonic setting, location X is moving toward
Distance between 7&5 earhquakes
Composed of wedge-shaped slices of highly folded and faulted marine sediments. Oceanic plate sinks. Subducted materials sink to be melted by friction and depth.
(p) nutrients
fertilizers, detergents, by products from sewage treatment plants will cause eutrification - eutrification is when a water boy becomes choked by plant life
Ground movement can put microorganisms into the air.
rock layer continuity, similar lithologies, cross cutting and fossils are used for?
ageing rocks
Arthropods that are huge sea scorpions. Top preditor. Evolve in ordivician and extinct permian.
Current systems
-Surface Ocean Currents
Five major ocean gyres* (large, sub-circular current system)
Ash Flow
A pyroclastic flow consisting predominantly of ash-sized particles.
A natural outlet from which groundwater flows up onto the ground surface
porphyrytic texture
Large grains, called porphyroblasts, surrounded by a fine-grained matrix of other minerals
clastic sediment
An accumulation of clastic particles laid down by running water, wind, or ice and forming layers of sand, silt, or gravel.
isolated boulders left behind by a glacier
True or False. Flood basalts are usually intrusive features.
70% of earth's surface is covered by
Streamflow Gauges
Primary means of reducing flood hazard.
What percent of Felsic magma is silica?
several specific depositional environments
each depositional setting includes
Examples of Groundwater Contamination
Industrial & Salt Water
atomic subsitution
some variability in the chemical formulas for many minerals because atoms have approximately the same size and charge and can often substitute for each other in minerals
Surface waves
Rayleigh and Love waves, larger amplitude. Creates most of shaking and most of the damage.
what is a thrust?
low angle reverse fault
What type of sandstone contains abundant rock fragments?
Lithic sandstone.
Arranged in thin layers. Pertaining to viscous streamline flow without turbulence.
Earliest fish that are jawless. They would have been filter feeders. Some armored with hard plates around their heads.
Index fossils of Miss
Blastoids & fenestrate bryozoans
graph that plots stream discharge with time
Law of Superposition
-younger rock layers are deposited on top of older rock layers. Used to derive the relative ages of rocks
graded bedding- decreasing grain size upward through the bed indicating deposition from a waning current
-Using relative dating principles and the position of layers within rock, it is possible to reconstruct the sequence of geologic events that have occurred at a site.  
• colors depend on presence of certain ions
(e.g., Fe or Cr)
• colors can be distinctive, but color not most reliable clue to a mineral’s identity
the comparitively thin outer skin that ranges from 2mi to 40mi
the buoyancy of a lighter material floating in a heavier material
compressional waves (Primary)
(body wave) fastest seismic wave; alternately compress and dilates rock; back and forth motion; comes as a sudden jolt
travel time curve
plots the linear relationship between the distance of an earthquake and the delay in seconds between P and S waves
seismic wave
A vibration that travels through Eath carrying the energy released during an earthquake
rock cycle
any rock can becomes any other rock.
which of the following is detrital sediment?
quartz sand
a body of saturated rock or sediment through which water can move easily
Mt. St. Helens is what type of volcano?
dry wash - rapid down cutting by sediment laden flashwater tend to produce narrow channels called __________
the solid part of the earth consisting of the crust and outer mantle
seafloor spreading
proposed by harry hess in 1960s. suggested that new oceanic crust is produced at the crests of mid-ocean ridges, which are the sites of divergence
Complete the sentence pertaining to blind faults. The - is located in the subsurface, yet slip on the fault produces buckling or--- of the surface"
Fault tip, folding
3 intrusive textures and chemistrys
Granite, Diorite, Gabbro (GDG)
A well tested and widely accepted view that best explains certain scientific observations
big bang theory
(cosmology) the theory that the universe originated 20 billion years ago from the cataclysmic explosion of a small mass of matter at extremely high density and temperature
these are seismic waves that travel on earth's surface away from the epicenter - like water waves spreading out from a pebble being thrown in a pond
What is the tilt like in the winter?
transform plate boundaries
Plates slide horizontally past one another without the production or destruction of lithosphere
•The majority are located on the ocean floor and connect mid-ocean ridge segments. Also called transform fault boundaries.
The landward movement of the ocean defines a A. regression B. transgression C. facies change
B.    transgression
Portion of a continent that has been structurally stable for a prolonged period of time
landforms created by glacial erosionLIST
glacial troughtruncated spurshanging valleyspater noster lakescirquestarnsfiordsareteshorns
conglomerate and breccia
-both are composed of particles greater than 2mm in diameter
-large round gravels for conglomerate
-breccia is mainly large angular parts
What features affect Shorelines?
Waves, rivers, wind and tectonics
Most of the carbon which has been fixed by plants does not remain that way for very long, or else the forest would soon be so deep in leaves and branches as to be impenetrable. Carbon also does not spend much time in Earth's atmosphere, given that the ave
photosynthetic uptake
Mass wasting Classification
what moved (debris, mud, earth, or rock), how moved (fall, slide, flow), how fast (rapid or slow)
CO2 levels
The Hockey stick graph is used to describe what?
What are current observations regarding temperature changes on the planet?
1) rising average temperature
2) rising seal levels as glaciers are melting
3) more hot days and higher maximum temperatures
4) prolonged series of droughts
5) increased heavy precipitation events
Sea-floor spreading:
The gradual widening of an ocean basin as new oceanic crust forms at a mid-ocean ridge axis and then moves away from the axis.
When a load is applied to the lithosphere it--, whereas the asthenosphere--.
Bends, flows.
Bergeron Processs
Ice crystals grow at the expense of water droplets
Contact metamorphism
driven by a rise in temperature within the host rock
dry-bottom glacier
a glacier so cold that its base remains frozen to the substrate
The maximum number of people Earth can hold without causing severe environmental degradation is called _________________.
Carrying Capacity
Define: Focus
Also called the hypocenter this is the point of origin of an earthquake. aka where the rock actually begins to rupture or move.
Geologic time scale made by:
first fossilsthen given actual numbers using radioactive dating
Gentle vs. Steep Slopes
Steep slopes – closely spaced contour lines

Gentle slopes – wide spread contour lines
Angle of Repose
Angle that forms a stable slope for unconsolidated material
relative dating by weathering
over time rocks develop a weathering rind caused by water infiltration and makes it possible to determine if a seiries of rocks is new or old
marine embayments, lagoons, and sabkhas
areas in which many present-day evaporties are deposited
Definition of Flood Plain
Flat valley bottom, normally capped by alluvium, and prone to flooding
Bowen contributed greatly to understanding of what:
sequence of which minerals crystallize from a magma
undisturbed sedimentary layers get progressively younger from bottom to top
The principle of superposition states that...
5 Types of Sedimentary Rocks
Weathering - Generation of Detritus via rock disintegration
Erosion - Removal of sediment grains from rock
Transportation - Dispersal by wind, water, and ice
Deposition - Settling out of transporting fluids
Lithification - Transformation into solid rock
Wave action domination is characterized by what?
Lagoons, few marshes, and multiple rivers
P-Wave Shadow Zone
At the boundary of the mantle and the crust, the p-wave velocity suddenly decreases
mined in Florida and North Carolina
In the US, most phosphate is
How can you go from sediment to sedimentary rocks?
Lithification (cementation and compaction)
Plutons are defined by?
Size only, less than a 100 sq mi.
How fast do magmas rise through the crust?
A few meters per year.
Igneous rocks are classified (named) primarily on the basis of?
the size of cystals, extrusive and intrusive
Slab Pull (and subduction) (2)
-the motion of a plate, where the athenosphere is conducting, the hot magma wants to rise towards the cooler top. -subduction describes how the cooler, upper plates get pulled down towards the mantle, and this constant "recycling" causes bumping between plates
What are the parts of a fold
-axis or center of the fold
-axial plane or divides the fold into halves
-limb or half of a fold
emperor seamount chain is the hawaiian volcano chain. formed from hot spots burning though the lithosphere as the pacific plate moves/ plate is moving in a west northwest direction
explain the formation of the emperor seamount chain. what direction is the pacific plate moving?
What is an Erratic?
A rock that is not part of the local geology
What is the importance of the recently discovered fossil Tiktallik?
It is a transitionary organism from lobe finned fish to amphibians.
What is a sedimentary facies, and what clues can be used to determine the environment in which it was originally deposited?
a sedimentary facies is a group of rocks and primary structures indicative of a given depositional environment
First Reptiles
named supercontinents
well sorted sand
Transfers between reservoirs.
sediment/rocks that possess distinctive sets of characteristics that reflect conditions in particular enviroments
A metamorphosed, high-grade coal
Environmental _____________ is something i don't have the definition of. help?
Small pieces of rock
EX: sand
1 billion years, supercontinent, included all continents and was near equator. tropical weather absorbed a lot CO2 removing greenhouse gasses, started to breakup 750 million years ago
-No atmosphere
-surface littered with craters
-large crater on the moon floor is called the central uplift which is a rebound of compressed rocks
magma that reaches the surface
Continental Environments
Rivers and streams- Lakes-Deltas-
granular snow formed from melting, re-freezing and compaction of snow
Rocks are ...
aggregates of minerals
a coarse-grained igneous rock composed chiefly of orthoclase and albite feldspars and of quartz, usually with lesser amounts of one or more other minerals, as mica, hornblende, or augite.
most important agent in metamorphism, energy for recrystallization and forming new, stable minerals. Fine particles join to form large grains of some mineral
separates parallel beds when older rocks below conformity were removed by erosion
Volcanic breccia
Pyroclastic, Intermediae color, large rock fragments, composed of other rocks
When groundwater is removeed faster that n recharged, land may subside.
Lithosphere is destroyed at _____________________ _________.
convergent margins
Clastic sedimentary rocks
Shale, Sandstone, Conglomerate, Breccia (finest grains to grains)
Name a fine grain gritty rock
rate of flow through a material
any permeable, saturated layer that can transport water
Seismic tomography shows that the continents are underlain by thick cool roots as compared to the ocean basins.
Central mass about 7000 km in diameter
16% by volume, 32% of mass
Indirect evidence of composition
Metallic iron (Iron-Nickel)
Given the principle of isostacy, the taller the mountain, the thicker the crust beneath it. (T/F?)
ridges of sediment deposited in the middle or along the sides of a stream
Angular Unconformity
vertical beds meet horizontal beds, gap in rock record the underlying beds are older than the overlying and are at a vertical angle to the younger, horizantal beds.
low-grade (burial) metamorphism
metamorphism in which buried sedimentary rocka are altered by the progressive increase in pressure exerted by overlying sediments and sedimentary rocks and by the increase in heat associated with increaed depth of burial in the earth.
The movement of surface water into rock or soil through cracks and pore spaces.
the large portions of continents that have not undergone substantial tectonic deformation since early Paleozoic time. "Stable continental interior."
describes magma or igneous rock that is rich in magnesium and iron and that is generally dark in color
The rifting of East Africa is associated with a
A) divergent boundary.
B) convergent boundary.
C) transform boundary.
D) plate collision.
mid-ocean ridges
divergent plate boundaries where new oceanic lithosphere forms as two oceanic plates move apart. Also called spreading centers.
Mechanical Weathering
The physical disintergration of rock, resulting in smaller fragments.
Extrusive Rock
Formed on the surface by lava.Extrusive rocks cool quickly forming smaller crystals.An example is Obsidien.


fracture along which there has been significant movement between rock masses on the opposite sides
The Study of the origin and development of landforms
the shape of earth's orbit around sun
continental environment
-dominated by stream erosion and deposition
o acidic water w/ elevated concentrations of dissolved metals that drains from coal or metal mines
o Water w/ a high concentration of sulfuric acid that drains from some mining areas to pollute surface-water resources
o Produced by complex geochemical & microbial reactions when sulfide minerals associated w/ coal or metal (zinc, lead, or copper) come into contact w/ oxygen-rich water near the surface
Emergent Coasts
Coasts that result from local tectonic or isostatic uplift, or from a drop in global sea level. Rocky coasts with sea cliffs and marine terraces
Instrusive Rock
Igneous rock that forms when magma hardens beneath Earths surface
Gaining stream
Streams that gain water from the inflow of groundwater through the stream bed.
Two aspects of Geology
Physical geology: materials and processes. Historical geology: physical and biological
Shaanxi Earthquake
Central China, 1556; deadliest EQ on record; 830,000 fatalities
How much of the earth's freshwater do all rivers and lakes account for?
The boundary between the crust and the mantle.
Dug canals
Will Smith did what for a living?
What percentage of the total water in the hydrosphere is groundwater?
a change directly from the solid to the gaseous state without becoming liquid
Spring Tides
Are larger than average tides; occur monthly as Moon revolves around Earth
Hanging Valleys
shallow glacial valleys that met up with deep valleys
Marine Deltas
Size depends on rates of river deposition and wave erosion
manganese nodule
A small irregular black to brown, laminated concretionary mass consisting primarily of manganese minerals with some iron oxides and traces of other metallic minerals, abundant on the floors of the world’s oceans.
What are detrital rocks
transported sediment as solid particles
Sand Dunes
Wind blown piles of well sorted sand
Move according to prevailing winds
Result in uniform sandstones with gigantic cross beds
the depression at the summit of a volcano or that which is produced by a meterorite impcat
Large sea wave caused by an earthquake or volcano
o 1 type of channel pattern
o Low sediment load, Low velocity
State the Earth's compositional layers. What are they?
The Crust
• oceanic and continental
The Mantle
• below crust, surrounds core
• plastic (not molten) consistency
The Core
• solid inner core
• liquid outer core
• both composed mostly of iron and nickel
Detrital Sedimentary rocks
rocks that form from the accumulation of materials that originate and are transported as solid particles derived from both mechanical and chemical weathering
the two major types of metamorphism are
contact and regional
The first seismic wave to arrive at a seismograph station is the _ wave
plastic flow
most of the movement in the east antartic ice sheet is by ______________
Physical weathering increases
the surface that is exposed to chemical and physical weathering increasing the rate of weathering
rift valley
a deep valley that forms where two plates move apart
is a general term that refers to all changes in the original form and/or size of a rock body
Prinicple of original horizontality
Layers of sediment are generally deposited in a horizontal position. Rock layers that are flat have not been disturbed.
Reverse Fault
A steeply dipping fault on which the hanging-wall block slides up. The hanging-wall block moves up the slope of the fault.
specific yield
The ratio of the volume of water drained from an aquifer by gravity to the total volume considered.
Factors that influence nature of volcanic eruption
1)composition of magma
2)temperature of magma
3)dissolved gases in magma
-these 3 factors control viscosity, which in turn controls nature of eruption
Viscosity is a measure of a material’s resistance to flow (e.g., Higher viscosity materials flow with great difficulty)Factors affecting viscosityTemperature  -  Hotter magmas are less viscous (just as hot maple syrup is more fluid)
Composition  -  Silica (SiO2) content        Higher silica content = higher viscosity         (e.g., felsic lava such as rhyolite)Lower silica content  = lower viscosity or more fluid-like behaviour (e.g., mafic lava such as basalt)
Dissolved GasesGas content affects magma mobilityGases expand within a magma as it nears the Earth’s surface due to decreasing pressureThe violence of an eruption is related to how easily gases escape from magma 
    In SummaryFluid basaltic lavas generally produce quiet eruptions, allowing the gases to migrate upward and escape with easeHighly viscous lavas (rhyolite or andesite) produce more explosive eruptions 
diagenesis (p. 139)
a collective term for all the chemical, physical, and biological changes that take place after sediments are deposited and during and after lithification
to lower the amount of, to make less in intensity
half life
the amount of time it takes for half of the parent product to turn into the daughter product
artesian well
a well in which water from a confined aquifer rises to the surface through natural pressure.
Pea Plants and Flower Color experiment
Demonstrated that variation was determined by genes in the pollen and eggs that were recombined in each new plant during fertilization.
Fecal Coliform Bacteria
A type of bacteria commonly found in the gut of humans and other animals; usually harmless, but can cause diseases; commonly used as a measure of biological pollution.
Sandstones are classified on the basis of:
mineralogy of sand grains
How does a Mid-ocean Ridge form?
 Divergent – Moving Apart  Crust heats up, thins  Faults – Normal fault  Black Smokers – Hydro thermal vent  Fast Spreading
The geometry of the minerals reflects what?
The internal relation of atoms
problems with removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere
all have significant costs, inject carbon dioxide into flood basalts, inject carbon dioxide into the deep ocean
lithosphere & intro to plate tectonics
lithosphere- earth's rigid outer shell (sphere of rock)
-according to geologists, this lithosphere is broken into numerous slabs called plates, which are in motion and continually changing shape and size
-seven major ones are recognized
-North American
-South American
-many intermediate and small sized plates exist
 -lithospheric plates move at a rate of approx 5cm per year
-this movement is ultimately driven by the unequal distribution of heat within Earth, reulting in mantle convection
What is the Rock Cycle?
1.Weathering - 2.Erosion & Transport - 3.Deposition - 4.Burial and Lithification - 5.Deformation and Metamorphism - 6.Melting - 7.Solidification - 8.Uplift
What is precipitation rate?
It is the speed in which rain is delivered to land.
What are biochemical and chemical weathering?
The chemical alteration of a rock resulting in a new substance?
Along the rim of the Pacific ocean in relationship with subduction

and describe the three types of convergent plate boundaries and indicate the
type of mountains
formed by each of them.

What makes the top of the thundercloud more positively charged than the bottom?
The separation of charged particles within the thundercloud and the rising air.
How do stream valleys change from upstream to downstream?
Stream valley consists of a channel and the surrounding terrain that directs water to the stream
•They are highest near the headwaters and decrease toward the mouth
How much water is used by americans a day
400 billion gallons
1800 gallons per person
What were the larger planets formed from?
fragments of ices - h2o co2 and others
. Which of the following is NOT an environmental consequence of using coal
burning coal removes carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas from the atmosphere
fine powder
buried erosional surfaces
olivine, pyroxene, amphibole
cracks in rocks
Upper mantle
100km - 660km
the age of mammals
capacity for self replication
define hypothesis
a tentative theory
shield volcanoes
in ocean because mafic
wind erosion
-ventifacts or polished stones
-yardangs or elongate ridges
-deflation or circular hollow
Alpine glacier
-flow like a stream
granoblastic rocks
non-foliated metamorphic rocks composed mainly of crystals that grow in equant shape
potable water
Drinkable without ill effects
slow, downslope flow of water-saturated materials common to permafrost areas
Medium silica content, low density, high viscosity.
Telephone poles that lean slightly downhill are a likely result of which of the following processes?
Extrusive Rocks
Formed from cooling Lava.
Small "non-visible" crystal texture:
Aphanitic "fine-grained"
Cooled quickly
Basalt (Mafic)
Andesite (Intermediate)
Rhyolite (Felsic)
believed that Earth's landscapes had been shaped primarily by great catastrophes
Ocean Sediment and crust
drilling a dredging
chemical and physical alteration of rock material at the surface
All living and dead organic components.
A phenomenon, sometime associated with earthquakes, in which soils and other unconsolidated materials saturated with water are turned into a liqued that is not able to support a building
any of various mostly cold-blooded aquatic vertebrates usually having scales and breathing through gills
super continent that existed from about 300-200 Ma, which included all the continents we know today.
Geothermal Energy
Energy produced by harnessing naturally occuring steam and water
an instrument that records earthquake waves
glassy mafic volcanic rock that has abundant vesicals
the size, shape, and distribution of the particles that collectively constitute the rock
condition in which the earth's surface is worn away by the action of water and wind
greenhouse effect
CO2 and moisture, radiation is absorbed in atmosphere
quartz, calcite, hematite
minerals in cementation of sediment
regional metamorphism
Metamorphism that takes place at considerable depth underground.
organisms living on or in the seafloor
The scientific study of the origin, history, and structure of the earth.
What model of the earth has distortion?
Hydraulic Gradient
Hydraulic head/ distance between two points
van der Waals bonds
Weak attractive force between
electrically neutral atoms: stacking
Los Angeles is moving in what direction
What are the 3 major soil types
compound minerals made up of oxygen and silicon
what is a characteristic of fast deformations?
disgnostic tools between minerals
fracture/cleavage plains, hardness (Moh's hardness scale), texture/habit, and luster
When the grains of sediment eventually are compacted and cemented together. (forms Sedimentary rock)
a hard layer, rich in calcium carbonate, that forms beneath the B horizon in soils of arid regions
involves the loss of water from sediment pore space, result of compaction and evaporation.
Plinian Column
Hot ash, rock fragments, pumice, and gases explosively vent upward in a ploom
atmospheric waves
along an air-air interface. created by the movement of different air masses. often represented by ripplelike clouds in the sky. especially common when cold front invade an area.
Travel with a velocity that depends on the elastic properties of the rock they travel through; they are compressional body waves. Travel the fastest
plate tectonics
the branch of geology studying the folding and faulting of the earth's crust
Precipitation of chemical sediments
inorganic processes like evaporation and chemical activity and organic processes of water-dwelling organisms
The Great Swamp
What National wildlife refuge contains seven thousand five hundred (7500) acres of land?
We all contain radioactive carbon, 14C, that is decaying to 14N. As it decays, our 14C
emits beta particles
Plate Motions
driven by convection and forces called slab pull and ridge push
rock avalanche
a very rapidly moving, turbulant mass of broken up bedrock
solar flares
eruptions of gas from the sun's surface that occurs when the loops in sunspot regions suddenly connects
which of the following is not an integral part of the scientific method
which of the volcanoes is a gradual sloped mountain looking
Lateral Eruption
The 1980 erruption of Mt. St. Helens
Very explosive and rapid projection of material.
volcanic arc
represented by the volcanoes of the andes mountains; associated with the south american-nazca plate subduction
Part 4
The remaining 10% starts to form clumps within the disk.
the point on the earths surface above the focus point of the quake
mountain peak surrounded by at least 3 cirques
the record of seismic waves that is produced by a seismograph
3 types of atomic bonds
1. Covalent
2. Ionic
3. Metallic
Mafic. Coarsely and Finely crystalline
1. Gabbro 2. Basalt
fault zone
region of crushed rock adjacent to the fault surface
Minerals crystallize from:
water (salt crystals), molten magma or lava
(sulfer), gas (basalt)
Spring tide
Highest tidal range that occurs to the alignment of Earth, the moon, and the sun.
Relative Time
It is comparative. Which of the two things is older?
What is erosion?
The physical removal of material by mobile agents such as water, wind or ice
Exponential growth means that...
population increases at a faster rate
What is Perlite?
grennish and has water in the molecules
sheet erosion
accomplished by a thin layer of water moving over the land surface, as opposed to a concentrated stream of water
THe Rift Valley in Somalia, Ethiopia, and Kenya (Africa) are an example of:
divergent plate boundary
What causes coriolis effect?
The earth roates on its axis
a line on a map making the first appearance of a metamorphic index mineral
magnetic inclination
the angle between the direction of the magnetic fields and thr horizontal
Rifting of Rhodinia
-after 300 myears of staying together, at 700 mya Rodinia begins to rift and seperates Laurentia from the other continents; opens Iapetus Ocean
The level below which a stream cannot erode.
Base level
specific gravity definition
is a number representing the ration of the weight of a mineral to the weight of an equal volume of water
chemical and biochemical sediments
new chemical substances that form by precipitation when some of a rock's components dissolve during weathering and are carried in river water to the sea.
sand spit
as sand is pushed down the shore by the waves, it can create a build up of sand where the coast has a dip, looks like a bar. if it is not dredged out, it can close off the dip and then becomes a Baymouth bar
an acid that can be used to test for calcite
What are the characteristics or properties of a mineral?
Naturally occuring, non organtic, definate chemical composition, solid crystalline structure
Young River vs old river
straight,steep and fast. usually in the highlands. vs winding, flat and slow and usually in the lowlands.
Tensional Forces
Stretch a body and tend to pull it apart; causes a stretching strain
Luster -
A: metallic -
B: nonmetallic -
Luster- essentially the way light reflects of a mineral
Metallic -Looks like metallic
Nonmetallic -Does not look metallic
A continental-sized glacier may be a few kilometers thick and exert tremendous pressure as it moves over underlying rock. A thick glacier like this may produce grooves and striations on the surface of the underlying rock, as illustrated in Fig. 16. These
scratching the rock with pebbles
Half Life Definition
Time needed for 1/2 of a population of P's to decay to D's.
Coal type is based upon ____________________.
the carbon percentage and heat value




Which of the following sequences of metamorphic
rocks is correctly listed from lowest grade
to highest grade?




- phylite - schist - gneiss
Presence of diverse habitats Moderate amounts of disturbances Constant environmental factors (precip, temp) Evolution (generation of biodiversity) Sometimes slow, changes with geologic conditions Sometimes fast (adaptive radiation, for example) Environmen
· What are factors that increase biodiversity?
Describe how the vibration direction varies between P and S waves
The P is faster, they are perpendicular to one another
with no external processes(keep sun but no rain)
dry no rainfall, no distribution of water, lots of mountains because nothing will wear them down, no wind (no air circulation), no waves (no water circulation), higher elevation means less warm climate areas
o Need to successfully integrate all the info
o Delay in recognizing issues
o Difficulties in solving probs.:
o Politics
o financial motivation
o limited financial resources
o disinterest
o skepticism of data interpretation
o inability to conceive finite resources
Earthquake Safety Under Debris
1. Do not move. 2. Cover mouth and do not try to shout (don't breath in dust). 3. Tap on pipe
What are the four layers of the earth?
crust, mantle, inner core, outer core.
solid, solid, liquid, solid
How large was the January 26, 1700 earthquake that occurred in the Cascadian subduction
a. 8.3 - 9.5
b. 7 - 8
c. 8.5 - 9.3
d. 8.7 - 9.2
e. None of the above
The 1700 earthquake had a magnitude somewhere between 8.7 and 9.2.
Why does the thicknes of the oceanic plate increase away from the mid-ocean ridge?
Because the plate has more time to cool as it grows older.
/ 514

Leave a Comment ({[ getComments().length ]})

Comments ({[ getComments().length ]})


{[ comment.comment ]}

View All {[ getComments().length ]} Comments
Ask a homework question - tutors are online