AP Chp 3 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Active (transport) processes
Membrane transport processes for which ATP is required. Active transport also refers specifically to solute pumping.
Amoeboid motion
The flowing movement of the cytoplasm of a phagocyte
The 3base sequence complementary to the messenger RNA (mRNA) codon
A process of controlled cellular suicide; eliminates cells that are unneeded, stressed, or aged
Transmembrane proteins that form water channels
Reduction in size or wasting away of an organ or cell resulting from disease or lack of use
Cell Differention
The development of specific and distinctive features in cells, from a single cell (fertilized egg) to all the specialized cells of adulthood
Minute body found near the nucleus of the cell; active in cell division
Centrosome (cell center)
A region near the nucleus which contains paired organelles called centrioles
Tiny hairlike projections on cell surfaces that move in wavelike manner
Structures in the nucleus that carry the hereditary factors(genes)
Bar like bodies tightly coiled chromatin; visible during cell division
An early embryonic phase consisting of rapid mitotic cell divisions w/o intervening growth periods; product is a blastocyst
Concentration gradient
The difference in the concentration of a particular substance between two different areas
The cellular material surrounding the nucleus and enclosed by the plasma membrane
Literally cell skeleton. An elaborate series of rods running through the cystol supporting cellular structures and providing the machinery to generate various cell movement
Viscous semitransparent fluid substance of cytoplasm in which other elements are suspended
Cell junction composed of thickened plasma membranes joined by filaments
The spreading of particles in a gas or solution with a movement toward uniform distribution of particles driven by kinetic energy
Electrochemical gradient
The combined difference in concentration and charge; influences the distribution and direction of diffusion ions
Endoplasmic Reticulum
Membranous network of tubular or saclike channels in the cytoplasm of a cell
Mechanism by which substances are moved from the cell interior to the extra cellular space as a secretory vesicle fuses with the plasma membrane
Amino acid - specifying informational sequences in the genes of higher organisms
Facilitated Diffusion
Passive transport process used by certain large or charged molecules that are unstable to pass through the plasma membrane unaided. involves movement through channels or movement facilitated by a membrane carrier
G protien
Protein that relays signals between extra cellular first messengers (hormones or neurotransmitters) and intracellular second messengers (such as cyclic amp) via an effector enzyme.
Gap Junction
A passageway between two adjacent cells; formed by transmembrane proteins called connexons
One biological unit of hereditary located in chromatin; transmits hereditary information
Genetic code
Refers to the rules by which the base sequence of DNA gene is translated into protein structures (amino acid sequences)
Glycocalyx (cell coat)
A layer of externally facing glycoproteins on a cell's plasma membrane; it's components determine blood type and are involved in the cellular interactions of fertilization, embryonic development, and immunity, and act as an adhesive between cells
A lipid with one or more covalently attached sugars
Golgi Apparatus
Membranous system close to the cell nucleus that packages protein secretions for export, packages enzymes into lysosomes for cellular use, and modifies proteins destined to become part of cellular membranes
Refers to molecules, or portions of molecules that interact with water and charged particles
Refers to molecules or portions of molecules that interact only with nonpolar molecules
Hydrostatic pressure
Pressure of fluid in a system
Accelerated growth the bone marrow produces red blood cells at a faster rate
Hypertonic solutions
A solution that has a higher concentration of nonpenetrating solutes than the reference cell; having greater osmotic pressure than the reference solution
One of two major periods in the cell life cycle; includes the period from cell formation to cell division
Interstitial fluid
Fluid between the cells
Noncoding segment or portion of DNA that ranges from 60 to 100,000 nucleotides long
Isotonic solution
A solution with a concentration of nonpenetrating solutes equal to that found in the reference cell
Signaling chemicals that bind specifically to membrane receptors
Organelles that originate from the Golgi apparatus and contain strong digestive enzymes
Membrane potential
Voltage across the plasma membrane
Membrane receptors
A large diverse group of integral proteins and glycoproteins that serve as binding sites for signaling molecules
Messenger RNA
Long nucleotide strands that reflect the exact nucleotide sequences of the genetically active DNA and carry the DNA's message
Thin strands of the contractile protein actin
One of three types of rods in the cytoskeleton of a cell; hollow tubes made of spherical protein that determine the cell shape as well as the distribution of cellular organelles
Tiny projections on the free surfaces of some epithelial cells; increase surface area for absorption
Cytoplasmic organelles responsible for ATP generation for cellular activities
Process during which the chromosomes are redistributed to two daughter nuclei; nuclear division; consists of prophase metaphase anaphase and telophase
Mitotic Phase
One of two major periods in the cell life cycle involves the division of the nucleus (mitosis) and the division of the cytoplasm (cytokinesis)
Multinucleate cell
Cell with more than one nucleus e.g skeletal muscle cells
Dense spherical bodies in the cell nucleus involved with ribosomal RNA synthesis and ribosomal subunit assembly
Fundamental unit of chromatin; consists of a strand of DNA wound around a cluster of eight Histone proteins
Nuclear Envelope
The double membrane barrier of a cells nucleus
Small cellular structures (ribosomes mitochondria and others) that perform specific metabolic functions for the cell as a whole
The number of solute particles present in 1 liter of a solution
Diffusion of a solvent through a membrane from a dilute solution into a more concentrated one
Passive (transport) process
Membrane transport processes that do not require cellular energy (ATP) e.g diffusion, which is driven by kinetic energy
Membranous sacs in cytoplasm containing powerful oxidase enzymes that use molecular oxygen to detoxify harmful or toxic substances such as free radicals
Engulfing of foreign solids by (phagocytic) cells
Vesicle formed as a result of phagocytosis
Engulfing of extracellular fluid by cells
Plasma membrane
Composed of phospholipids cholesterol and proteins that encloses cell contents; outer limiting cell membrane
Receptor meditated endocytosis
The type of endocytosis in which engulfed particles attach to receptors before endocytosis occurs
Resting membrane potential
The voltage that exists across the plasma membrane during the resting state of an excitable cell; ranges from 90-20 millivolts depending on cell type
Ribosomal RNA
a constituent of ribosome; exists within the ribosomes of cytoplasm and assists in protein synthesis
Secretory vesicles
Vesicles that migrate to the plasma membrane of a cell and discharge their contents from the cell by endocytosis
Sodium potassium pump
A primary active transport system that simultaneously drives Na out of the cell against a steep gradient and pumps K back in
Solute pump
Enzyme like protein carrier that mediates active transport of solutes such as amino acids and ions uphill against their concentration gradients
Tight junction
Area where plasma membranes of adjacent cells are tightly bound together forming an impermeable barrier
A measure of the ability of a solution to cause a change in cell shape or tone by promoting osmotic flows of water
One of two major steps in the transfer of genetic code information from a DNA base sequence to the complementary base sequence of an mRNA molecule
One of two major steps in transfer of genetic code information in which the information carried by mRNA is decoded and used to assemble polypeptides
Transfer RNA
short chain RNA molecules that transfer amino acids to the ribosome
Vesicular transport
Transportation of large particles and macromolecules into or out of a cell or between its compartments in membrane bound sacs
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