Geology Exam 4 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
banding
foliated
cation
positive
bituminous coal
sedimentary
high
felsic gas content
Shield
Ancient metamorphic rocks
moho ___km
35 km
unstable slope
undercutting
previous mass wasting
steep slope
too much or too little rain
meanders, which system?
bends, fluvialtile.
mineral

Naturally occurring crystalline substance with well-defined physical properties and a definite range of chemical composition.
core
the center of the earth
Pedalfers
Aluminum and iron rich soils
pillow lava
lava extruded under water
Archean
Hadean, Archean, Proterozoic or Phanerozoic?: possible first lifeforms
How many minerals on earth
4,000
crystal
a single, continuous (uninterrupted) piece of crystalline solid bounded by flat surfaces
Limestone are identified by their?
Mineralogy
process by which unconsolidated sediments are transformed into solid rock
Crystallization
Superposition
The youngest bed is on top
unconformity
missing piece in stratigraphic section (missing time)
Temperature
HIGH T= Faster average of speed
Cuestas
An asymmetrical ridge formed when bedding planes dip on a clip. Steep cliff on one side, gentle slope on the other
Albedo
The proportion of incident radiation reflected by an object
evaporate
Type of chemical sedimentary rock; evaporation triggers deposition of chemical precipitates. Ex. halite and gypsum.
fracture that have NO movement are
joints
Aquifer
Earth material capable of supplying groundwater at a useful rate from a well is called a(n)
inclination
this of the paleomagnetic dipole defines the paleolatitude with respect to the paleopole
Artesian spring
-Aquifer
Spring supplied by artesian aquifer
weathering
occurs where the stream physically erodes and disintegrates earth materials and where it chemically decomposes or dissolves earth materials to form sediment and aqueous chemical solutions
Tectonic settings of magmatism
spreading centerssubduction zonesintraplate volcanism
Three types of rocks
Igneous, Sedimetary, Metamorphic
Subduction
Descent of one plate under another into the matle where it is recuded.
folding
The processes by which crustal forces deform an area of crust so that layers of rock are pushed into folds.
limonite
The soil of color yellow means __________
Planet origin
Planets condensed from a gaseous nebula
baja california
Peninsula on pacific plate which separated from North American Plate (approx 5 Ma)
Nebulae
They are heated inside, cool outside, light is exerting pressure, strong solar, large clouds of gas and dust floating in space
Benioff Zone
Planer surface along which earthquakes occur - generally contact zone between two plates
generally do not leave any characteristic or diagnostic features in the rock record
transform faults
magma chamber
The underground zone where magma accumulates.
black-white feldspar
calcium(hot, dark) to sodium (cooler, light)
what is a teardrop shaped Pyroclast?
a Bomb
Mass Wasting
Any significant vibration can cause loose materials to slip.
Analyses of the oldest terrestrial material found in Western Australia suggest that the Earth had cooled enough to form a crust approximately _______ years after the planet was hit by a Mars-sized body.
100 million.
Matthews Vice, Morley
Found abnormalities in magnetics across the sea floor. theorized that magma cooling takes upon the magnetic direction of a particular time. Proves that the sea floor is spreading
protolith
type of metamorphic rock that forms depends on temperature, pressure, and the
Plesiosaurs
marine reptile of JURASSIC, long and short neck, 4-6m long, have paddles, sharp teeth (active predator), largest = 15m found in Antarctica
Ore factor 6
byproducts such as toxic waste
3.36 gm/cc
the avg density of moon is
columnar joints
long parallel columns formed by shrinking or contraction of cooling lava
Epicenter
plotting distances from 3 stations on a map as circles with radii equaling the distance from the quake
thermohaline circulation
ocean circulation driven by density differences
-driven by upwelling and downwelling of warm surface waters and deep ocean currents.
-causes global redistribution of heat because water cools as it moves north. Colder water = higher density = higher salinity = latent heat relased = downwelling, leaving void space to be filled with upwelling warm water in north.
What is a sandbar?
An offshore sandy area
What major thing happened during the Cenozoic-Pleistocene Epoch?
Ice Age
Alluvial Fan
A gently sloping, fan-shaped mass of alluvium deposited in arid or semi-arid regions where a stream flows from a narrow canyon and a plain or valley floor
pyroclast
rocks that form when broken pieces of lava are thrown high into the air
River channels on a delta are known as?
Distributaries
Which area is the greatest users of irrigation
western
submarine canyon
deep steep sided valleys carved by turbidity currents
oceanic ridge
a continuous elevated zone on the floor of all the major ocean basins and varying in width from 1000-4000km; the rifts at the crests represent divergent plate boundaries
beach
a strip of sediment (usually sand and gravel) that extends from the low-water line inland to a cliff or a zone of permenant vegetation
reflectance curve
Graphs that show wavelengths that an object reflects most in the electromagnetic spectrum
Stars moving TOWARDS the earth are what color?
blue (compressed)
Triple Junction
A point where three lithosphere plate boundaries intersect
Who founded Standard Oil in 1870?
John D. Rockefeller
Divide
a ridge of land that separates two adjacent river drainage systems
breccia
If the gravel is angular rather than rounded, then the same rock would be called a
oil window
A limited range of pressures and temperatures, usually located at depths between about 2 and 5 km, at which crude oil forms.
Inner Planets
Small, rocky and metal. Solar wind blew gasses away from inner planets.
what ocean did the 2004 tsunami happen in initially
Indian
dip- fed

one in which gravity is the principal influence in transporting sediments to lower elevationsrivers
Terminal Morraine
An end morraine marking the farthest advance of a glacier [only one per glacier]
glacial striations
scratches & grooves gouged into the bedrock-gives clues to direction of ice flow-caused by large rocks in ice @ bottom of glacier{PRODUCED BY GLACIAL ABRASION - friction}*doesn't always do this however.... can also polish the rock beneath
The mechanical breakup of rock caused by the expansion of freezing water in cracks and crevices.
frost wedging
glacial
of or pertaining to glaciers or ice sheets.
principle of superposition
The principle that each layer of sedimentary rock in a tectonically undisturbed sequence is younger than the one beneath it and older than the one above it.
intrusive igneous rock
forms when magma cools in earth's surface. (large crystals)
Barrier islands
low ridges of sand that parallel the coast
Regional Metamorphism
a change in the texture, structure, or chemical composition of a rock due to changes in temperature and pressure over a large area, generally as a result of tectonic forces.
Zone of Aeration
This zone (unsaturated zone) is the area above the water table where openings in soil, sediment, and rock are not saturated but mainly filled with air. The pores are partially filled with water, and partially filled with air.
Trap:
something that is used to trap oil and gas underground in the reservoir rock
the Milankovitch cycles are dependent on the Earth's
all of the above
What kinds of rocks are found in the lunar maria?
Basalt.
what is plastic behavior
strain not recovered when stress removed
Quartz and feldspar
Granite will yield soil rich in what?
During the cenozoic era what plant dominated the world?
Angiosperms (flowering plants)
there will never be a ________ in atmospheric water
net increase
Seismic Refraction
the bending of waves as their velocity changes
Which igneous minerals are most susceptible to oxidation?
augite, olivine, biotite, hornblende
Radiometric Age dating
The name of the process used by geologist to determine absolute time?
Major groups of minerals
silicates are more common and have negatively charged silcon-oxygen tetrahedron, nonsilicates
the Big Bang was approximately
13 to 20 billion years ago
foot wall
the lower wall of an inclined fault in relation to dip-slip faults
In __, masses move down and out bys liding on planes of weakness, such as faults, bedding, or clay rich layers.
translational slides
fault plane
a fracture on which one body of rock slides past another
Describe the green house effect.
incoming solar radiation consists of short, high energy waves. These waves pass thought the atmosphere and are absorbed by the Earth. Some of this absorbed energy is then released back into the atmosphere as long, low energy waves which are absorbed by the particles in the atmosphere and raise the temperature.
Examples of dissolution
NaCl (halite) + H2O (water) => free and active ions of Na+ and Cl-CO2 (carbon dioxide) + H2O = H2CO3 (carbonic acid)FeS2 (pyrite) + H2O = H2SO4 (sulfuric acid) + [FeO(OH)] (iron hydroxide)
Average mass of earth
knowing the mass and vomumet of earth, obtained, a value of 5.5 g/cm3 for earth's average planetary but this did not jive with density measurements of common surface rocks
Need long-term records for accurate frequency.
Need the annual peak discharge(maximum discharge)
Useful in designing dams, bridges, storm drains,etc
Not exact timetables; indicate a statistical probability of a given size flood.
What is known about flood frequency?
The strongest winds of a hurricane are __.
in the eye wall
How are mountains of the ocean different from mountains on land?
Mid-ocean ridges (mountains of ocean)never reach the surface. There are no convection cells under the land.
Recognition of Valleys and Ridges
Look @ Elevation

ridges – V’s of contour lines point downhill

valleys – v’s of contour lines point uphill
The most significant barrier for both plants and animals in making the transition form sea t lands was the development of.
method of reproduction conducive to the new habitat.
What is a stratographic trap?
Sloping bed of sandstone rhins to the point of dissappearance and the lid created created by the cap rock is punctured by drilling, the oil and the natural gas which are under pressure migrate from the pore space of the reservoir rock to the drill hole.
Describe a subtropical desert.
Sun heats air on the equator. it rises falls is cooled and dumps its rain. The area where the dry air lands is subtropical 15-30 degreeex-Austalian Outback
What is the purpose of ozone layer?
Blocks out UV-B and UV-C radiation from Earth's surface and creates O2 and O while giving off heat.
What is the agent for dynamic metamorphism
Pressure, occurs along a fault zone. Least common type
What is a neap tide?
Every 7 days = lower tides, when the moon and sun is perpendicular
why is pluto not considered to be one of the originally formed planets?
its highly eliptical orbit, its orbital path outside the eliptical and its small sized compared to the jovian panets.
How does burning the rain forest affect the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere?
B/c trees absorb much of the CO2 in the atmosphere and w/o trees, there is an excess of CO2 in the atmosphere. 
tuff
...
plutons
tubular/sheetlike
discordant=cut across
concordant-parallel
fossil magnetism
...
rhyolite
Extrusive, felsic rock.
prokaryotic cells
single-celled organisms
Seismology
Study of EQ waves.
Why earthquakes occur
Plate Motion
Shoreline environments include
alluvial environments
humus
The amorphous, ordinarily dark-colored, colloidal matter in soil; a complex of the fractions of organic matter of plant, animal, and microbial origin that are most resistant to decomposition.Organic matter that has been converted, not decayed.
Predictions
educated guesses about upcoming actions, but not every hypothesis can be tested like this.
drawdown
aquifer cannot recharge fast enough
Unconformities
An ancient erosional surface.
No deposition of sediment, a break in the rock record.
Many Types:
Angular unconformity
Disconformity
Nonconformity (cross cutting relationship)
P wave
Pressure wave (left, right)
grus
disintegrated parts of igneous rocks
cirque
circular valleys formed after glaciation
Name two magnetic Minerals
 Hematite, Magnetite
In graded beds
coarser material settles first.
Troposphere
bottom layer, temp decreases with altitude, thickness varies, outer boundary named the tropopause
Wave height
distance between crest and trough.
agricultural products, solar energy and water resources
renewable resources
burial metamorphism
sediments buried into sedimentary basin in this type of metamorphism
jobs of running water
erodes, transports, deposits
metamorphic
produced from pre existing igneous, sedimentary, or even other metamorphic rocks.
What can sludge be transformed into
Biosolids
wave period
time interval between two crests
Recurrence Interval
Time cycle for natural disasters
pressure surface
the elevation that confined groundwater would rise, due to pressure, but it is not allowed because of aquicludes.
Divergent Boundaries
TENSION from rifting
sea floor spreading (new molten material fills gap in rift)
rift- a crack like valley which allows molten rock to erupt from below
(mid atlantic ridge)
stress
-force acting upon the rock
-what causes the rock to deform
-includes things such as burial, if you bury a rock 10-30km deep
-you can have direct stress: in places you see faults (a plate tectonic boundary causes direct stress)
Continental Drift:
Wegner's description of the relative motion of the continents across the surface of the Earth
eye wall
wall of intense convective activity surrounding the center of the storm
Nonplunging Fold
Fold wherein the hinge is horizontal
plate techtonics
theory that proposes earth's outer shell consists of individual plates, which interact in various way and thereby produce earthquakes, volcanoes, mountains and the crust itself
Igneous Rocks
formed by =the crystallization of molten rock, these are weathered and eventually turn to sediment which turns into sedimentary rock
oxygen
the silica tetrahedron that forms the backbone of all silicate minerals is composed of silicon and what other element?
Salt-Dome Trap
Oils trapped against an impermeable mass of salt
Anticline
a fold in sedimentary strata that resembles an arc; looks like a frown
Sedimentary Rock
Comes from compressed sea, shells, sand
Frost Wedging
freezing and thawing
> water seeps into cracks , freezes and expands pushing rock apart
porosity
% of open space (variations- well sorted sand, poorly sorted sand, fractured granite, limestone caverns)
when talking about igneous rocks the plutonic rocks are
intrusive
Tsunamis
Result from the displacement of a large volume of (sea) water due to explosive vulcanism or volcano collapse into the ocean.
Changes due to temp, pressure and fluids are associated with which rock group
Metamorphic
Siliceous Lava Flows
-High viscosity andesitic and rhyolitic lavas form thick stubby flows close to vent
deposition
the process where sediment is laid down after it has been transported
crystal settling
as magma crystallizes the minerals that formed earlier are denser than the liquid and settle out
divides
are a highland or ridge that separates one drainage basin from another.
alpine/continental glaciation
apline= found in mountainous regions, continental= exists where large parts of continent is covered by glacial ice.
the process where chemicals are added or lost; most significant mineralogical changes occur here
metasomatism
stratovolcanoes -
alternating layers of lava and tephra
Scientific method
Like all of science, geology operates using the constraints of the scientific method. The scientific method is a process that provides us with an orderly, logical approach to answering questions by gathering and analyzing facts or data.
What Controls Metamorphism
Temp. Pressure and fluids (hot water)
...
how do streams act as agents of deposition?
cliff retreat
episodic breakdown of the cliff face along vertical joints (buttes, cuestas, and mesas)
meanders
wide and deep, loop-like bend in the course of a river
rock hardening and subduction
how does new magma form
drainage basin
land area that contributes water to the stream
how does increasing rank relate to how clean and hot the coal burns?
...
After the melting of a continental ice cap, the surface of the continent will tend to___________.
Rise.
bedrock
rocks that are still attached to ther Earth's crust
A mature soil
Requires centuries of mechanical and chemical
weathering, Addition and decay of plant and other organic
material
wave base
The depth below which no orbital motion of water occurs due to waves is called the ____.
what are rip currents
narrow lanes with high velocity
geology
a science that deals with the history of the earth as recorded in rocks
silicate
a salt or ester derived from silicic acid
Dynamic Equilibrium
A reversible chemical reaction will be at dynamic equilibrium when the rate of forward reaction is equal to the rate of the reverse reaction.
Mid-Oceanic Ridge
A giant undersea mountain range that extends around the world.
Chondrites generally give radiometric ages of ______?
~4.5 Ga (billion years)
What is mineral assemblage
varietites and abundance ofminerals present
Molds and Casts
The preservation or indention of a animal is a mold or cast. There are molds on marks footprints, and eggs in a nest. It can be imprints.
oxbow lake
a curved lake produced when a stream cuts off a meander
flood stage
a water height that is reached when the discharge of a stream exceeds the capacity of the channel
Plunging Breakers
Tend to be highly erosive at the shoreline
jawless and jawed armored fish are called
ostracoderms and placoderms
discharge
the quantity of water in a stream that passes a given point in a given period of time
Strike Slip fault
a fault in which the dominant displacement is horizontal and parallel to the trend or strike of the fault
catchments, which system?
area where water is collected by natural landscape, eventually goes to a groundwater system, river, ocean, etc. fluvialtile.
Ordivician where is Pure beach sand found?
- (st. peter)
Reptiles (amniotic egg)
PENN keeps moisture in egg, amniotic membrane allows gas to transfer in & out, yolk & waste sac, protective shell
average crustal abundance
The percentage of a particular element in the composition of the earth’s crust.
the four grades of coal
1). peat2). lignite3). Bituminous coal4). Anthracite coal
zone of wastage
beyond the snowline--where there is a net loss to the glacier(snow from previous winter melts, as does some of glacial ice)wastage due to 1)MELTING2)CALVING
Much carbon dioxide was removed from Earth's original atmosphere by
forming calcite (CaCO3).
magnitude scale
A scale for estimating the size of an earthquake using the logarithm of the largest ground registered by a seismograph (Richter magnitude) or the logarithm of the area of the fault rupture (moment magnitude).
all matter is composed of
chemical elements, each of which consists of atoms
figure 1.6 terms right to left
shield, stable platform, folded mountain belt, trench, ridge
the rectangular area indicated in the drawing below includes
crust, mantle, outer core
Heat and Types of it
most important agent of metamorphism, contact metamorphism- heat from magma, geothermal gradient- an increase of tempt w/ depth
Why do we continually occupy locations where natural disasters are likely to occur?
aesthetics, fertile soils, topographically, expedient, water resources
Hawaiian volcanism vs. cascade volcanism
Intraplate. Within the plate. Hotspot (Hawaii)Magma comes from the geography of the sub-ducting plate (cascade)
what is Suspension?
Fine particles, such as silt and clay can be carried suspended in the moving water.
Killer Events and Processes:
Tsunami 2
Mount Unzen, Japan, 1792
On May 21st, and earthquake triggered a collapse from the lava dome in Mount Unzen. The avalanche was not very large, however, after it flowed the 4 miles to the sea, the impact was large enough to create a tsunami that killed 15000 people in the surrounding region.
Surface mining control and reclamation act (1977)
Approximate original contours (AOC) - the contours of land must be returned
Principle of cross-cutting relationships
Principle that a fault or intrusion is younger than the rock layers affected by it
Explain the "elastic rebound" theory of earthquakes?
As an earthquake occurs, the elastically deformed rocks along the fault gently glide back to their original shape as much as possible
Strike-slip faults are the most important type of fault found at transform plate boundaries.
True. A transform boundary essentially is a large strike-slip fault.
If rock A cross-cuts rock B, then rock A is:
younger than rock B.
May species died at the end of the Paleozoic Era due to?
meteorites or Ice Age
Transportation of sediment by wind differs from that of running water in two significant ways
The winds lower density compared to water and renders it less capable of picking up and transporting coarse materialsBecause wind is not confined to channels, it can spread sediment over large areas as well as high into the atmosphere
what are the human impact on groundwater
-over use by lowering the water table
-saltwater incursion
-subsidence
-contamination
Name the two major types of weathering and provide an example of each.
mechanical; Human/ animal activity or mass wasting.
chemical; oxidation.
Main fresh water source for humans and animals • Soils around rivers are rich and fertile • Civilizations grew around rivers and became dependant on them • This puts people directly into the path of floods
· What is the connection with rivers/streams and human civilization?
The type of dune that develops is dependent on what two things?
1) Sand Supply2) Wind velocity and directional variability
Which of the following is the most appropriate statement regarding the naming of minerals?
The names of minerals are based on geographic locations, distinctive physical characteristics, and so on, rather than on a conventional system.
Highlands
...
Lower mantle
660km-core:2900km
pyroclastic
gassy magmas
Divergent
Plates pull apart
oreogenesis
geological mountain building
suture
boundary between 2 continents
limestone
seabed sediments from coral/shells
Pterosaur
-flying reptiles-warm blooded carnivores-died out at the same time as the dinosaurs-quetzalcoatius: 3 m tall, 220 lbs, 10 m wing span
gravel
The coarsest clastic sediment, consisting of particles larger than 2mm in diamter and including pebbles, cobbles, and boulders.
seismologist
a scientist who studies earthquakes
Lithosphere lies above what?
The asthenosphere
folds
layers following the same curves
most powerful agent of erosion
rivers
Basalt?
OLIVINE? dark brown to black.
Most abundant mineral in the crust
feldspar
lithification
turning a sediment into a stone
Varieties
sub-groups, which are consistent in some property(often color)
Paleozoic Era time boundaries
545- 250 mya
hiatus
interval of geologic time not represented by strata
A(n) _______________ forms when sediment is eroded from steep mountains and deposited onto a flat plain between mountain fronts.
alluvial fan
horn
four sides pressed in by glacier
meandering
sediment load decreases or discharge increase, a stream eventually decreases its slope.
Bowen's reaction series suggests that quartz and gold will be among the first minerals to melt during partial melting
true
Historical Geology
seeks an understanding of origin/development of the earth
liquefaction
the transformation of seemingly solid sediment into a liquid like slurry in response to ground shaking
Lahar
*mudflows of volcanic ash*water from glacier melts in the extreme heat and mixes with the volcanic ash
HARDNESSphysical property
resistence of mineral to scratching-determined by rubbing mineral with unknown hardness against one of known hardness-compared on a standard scale:MOHS SCALE OF HARDNESS[10 minerals arranged in relative ranking from 1(softest-talc) to 10(hardest-diamond)]
Uniformitarianism
states that the physical, chemical, and biological laws that operate today have also operated in the geologic past
chemical weathering
• Chemical reactions alter or destroy minerals;
contact with water and air
oceanic trenches
occur at convergent boundaries where oceanic crust sinks into the mantle
renewable
products that replenish on a time scale short enough to be usable again. ex: trees, wind power, hydroelectric power, fish, fertile soil
Braided streams
-multiple channels that divide and rejoin
-predominantly sand and gravel
Tsunami
Giant wave caused by an earthquake somewhere in the ocean
Eras of the Standard Geologic Time Scale are subdivided into:
Periods
tectonic cycle
the cyclic production and destruction of lithosphere through slow movement of tectonic plates
Crystal Form
External expression of the orderly internal arrangement of atoms.
Ocean Dumping
Disposal Method for low-level nuclear waste 1946-1970.
Sediment
Small, solid pieces of material that come from rocks.
A coarse grained igneous rock of basaltic composition is called:
gabbro
second melt
make more distinct fractions; produce several chemical diverse magmas and variety of igneous rocks
mineralization
the process in which organic material is changed into inorganic material such as a fossil
Competence
a measure that describes the maximum size of the particles a stream can carry
Age of the ocean floor
180 million years
Flow
A type of movement common to mass-wasting processes in which water-saturated material moves downslope as a viscous fluid.
Hydrothermal mineral deposits would be least expected to form in what type of plate tectonic setting?
Transform Boundary
Flash floods are much more dangerous than heat waves.
T OR F
FALSE
5. Exfoliation
Outer surface is under less pressure than the interior, outer layer will spall off from the interior. Sheets will fall off.
What kind of igneous activity occurs in the vicinity of a convergent plate boundary? (Be specific.)
---?
stratified drift
sediments laid down by glacial meltwater
Mass of Sun compared to entire solar system is more than
99%
Ice Sheets
very large, thick mass of glaciated ice flowing outward in all directions from one or more accumulation points
Ahinge
a line drawn down the points of maximum curvations of each layer
Point bars
sediment deposited on the insides of meanders (lower flow rates)
Comets
large clumps of ice, dust and frozen gases that travel around the Sun in long elliptical orbits
Confining Pressure
Forces are applied equally to all directions
type of crust needed t produce secondary felsic meltsc
continental crust
Why does melting occur in the asthenosphere during subduction? (p. 57-58)
not answered
Glacial Polish
When rocks are rubbed flat from glacial abrasion
cleavage
the tendency of a crystal to break along planar surfaces
continental drift
a scientific theory stating that the continents are always moving, the hypothesis that the continents slowly move across Earth's surface
earthquake
The violent motion of the ground that occurs when brittle rock under stress suddenly breaks along a fault
Texaco and Gulf oil companies formed from wells drilled near what city in Texas?
Beaumont, TX
The largest time unit on the geologic time scale
Eon
longitudinal profile
cross-sectional view of a stream from its source area to its mouth
Igneous
Made from molten rock after it cools down and solidifies
expansive soils
Clayey soils that expand when they absorb water and shrink when they dry out.
Provinces were assembled by about --- b.y. ago.A. 1.7B. 2.7C. 3.7
A. 1.7
Physical Geology
Materials composing Earth and seeks to understand the many processes that operate beneath and upon it's surface
10 %
ice has a density that is approximately how many times that of liquid water
normal fault
are faults that result from horizontal tensional stress in brittle rocks and where the hanging wall has moved down relative to the footwall
Brittle Failure
the loss of strength by a material usually in the form of sudden fracturing
halite vs calcite
halite is salty and perfect cubic, calcite is rhombohedral, and gives you double vision
principle of original horizontality
sediments are deposited under the influence of gravity as nearly horizontal beds.
True or False: The eruption of the May 18, 1980, a climatic eruption of Mt. St. Helens was immediately preceded by a large earthquake and landslide.
False.
# of Mineral species
4200. Approximately 12 new minerals found each year. 20 minerals make up 95% of all minerals in crust by volume
scientific methods
a series of steps followed to solve problems.
What is diagenesis?
a.Any change ( physical or chemical) after deposition of sediment
b.It is a collective term for all of the chemical, physical, and biological changes that take place in texture, composition & other physical properties after sediments are deposited (and during &and after lithification).
In a temperate climate pyroclastic texture:
weathers and erodes easily
Karst Topography
a type of landscape in rainy regions where there is limestone near the surface, characterized by caverns, sinkholes, and valleys
cut bank
the area of active erosion on the outside of a meander; most erosion occurs here
Cutoff Meander
A short channel segment created when a river erodes through the narrow neck of land between meanders.
magma
a body of molten rock found at depth, including any dissolved gases and crystals
sand dune
mounds of loose sand grains heaped up by the wind
List and discuss the 4 physicasl factors that are used to help predict volcanic eruptions?
Seismic Activity-increase-magma fractures rock producing shallow focus earthquakes-continuous vibrationsSwelling and Tilting-bulging of landsurface as magma rise-deflation occurs in area where magma has been withdrawnMonitoring of Volcanic Gases-increase in sulfur emissionsChanges in Thermal, Electricla and Gravitatational..properties-Temp increase-Mand E change-heat affects viscosity affects density affects gravity
what is Drainage Network?
Combination of main channel and tributaries
flood frequency: recurrence interval
how often of a certain flood occurs
angle of repose
maximum angle at which a slope of loose material will lie without cascading down. differs whether wet or dry or whether sand or clay.
Formation of the Moon
early earth + mars sized rogue plane-->material from both planets orbit earth-->gravitational clumping-->MOON
Shearing tectonic are a result of
shearing to compression or tension
Large scale flooding in the Channel Scablands of eastern WA
Caused by glaciers melting
Formation of Surf
When the depth is ½ the wavelength, surf forms. The bottom of the surf has friction, which slows the bottom of the wave. The top of the wave however keeps moving fast creating surf.
Precipitation in US
10" snow = 1" rain US average=30 in./year
What is a Sand bar?
 Off shore sandy area  Short life span
Vines, Matthews and Morely
Hypothesis: 1963; all 3 of their own experiments got the same results concerning seafloor spreading.
What is the most Abundant element on the crust? the 2nd most abundant?
Oxygen. 2nd is Silicon
What are the different types of fronts?
Cold front & warm front
What do pumice and obsidian have in common
composed mostly of glass
What is a theory?
A well tested and widely accepted view that best explains certain observable facts
A well sorted sediment:
has grains that are all about the same size
Sediments of western edge of craton in Permian
Phosphoria formation- black shales, rich in chert, and calcium phosphate
What is the composition of the last 3 minerals to crystallize from magma?
Felsic!
7. Potassium feldspar
8. Muscovite
9. Smoky Quartz
Coltan mineral is used in electronic and found in the Congo, mined by rebel groups and financed civil war
mining in war-torn areas - Coltan example
body fossil / "hard parts"
A fossil of an entire body of an organism
Describe surface winds in a northern hemisphere cyclone.
clockwise outward from a high & inward counterclockwise in low pressure
Earth's major oil and gas fields are found on the continental shields where organic materials in these ancient rocks has had enough time to change to petroleum & natural gas.
False. Oil and gas are typically formed from organic material trapped in much younger sedimentary rocks.
they adapt well to ocean pollution and acidifcation
reefs are important. 3 of th 4 below are correct. which one is not?
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