Astronomy 2 (Chapters 16, 17, 6) Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Age of the Solar System
5 billion years
Solar nebula or circumstellar disk
Where Sun and planets were made
Formation of a planet
Dust and heavy atoms (before gases)
Solar wind
Streams of charged particles ejected from the Sun. causes inner planets
Inner planets
Rocky surface, thin atmosphere (Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars)
Outer planets
Gases, water, and liquid hydrogen (Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune)
Things collecting into larger objects
Things falling apart or smashing
Jupiter's gravity
Sorts asteroids into belts
Comets and kuiper objects
Ice composition
Asteroids and meteoroids
Rock composition
Comet's tail
Points away from sun, because of solar wind
Comets' orbits
very stretched out or very elliptical
Kuiper belt
extends outward from near Neptune's orbit
Oort Cloud
Where comets originate
Comets change orbits
By gravity or tides of a passing star
Gravity of a large planet
Causes comets to go from longer to smaller orbits
Earth's Outer core
Liquid and molten rock
Earth's Inner core
Earth's crust
Tectonics plates, (when slide cause earthquakes)
Earth's surface climates
Continental drift, placement of land masses, greenhouse effect
Moon and Mercury
No atmosphere, little gravity
Created craters on the Moon
About same size as Earth, heavy and hot atmosphere, surface turns to lava every 300 to 400 million years
Smaller than the moons of some planets. Fastest orbit
Mars and Europa
Might harbor life today
Desert, warm and thick atmosphere, has large dust storms
Largest planet, red spot. its gravity causes gaps in asteroid belt
Great Red Spot
Hurricane (two Earths wide, at least 400 years old)
Jupiter's tides
Cause volcanoes on the moon Io, melt water under Europa's icy crust
Undersea volcanic gas vents
May fuel life in the oceans (believed to exist) on Europa
Has the largest and brightest rings
Moon Titan
Thick orange atmosphere, lakes and rivers filled with other stuff (not water)
Tides of moons
Cause gaps between rings
More the one moon
Can occupy the same orbit
Moons with nearly the same orbit
Can switch orbits
Planets with rings
All outer planets, except for Pluto
Saturn's moon that has its own ring
Lumpy moon that rotates chaotically
Hyperion (moon of Saturn)
Enceladus moon
Sprays geysers into space, creates and replenishes one of the rings of Saturn
Blue-green planets
Uranus and Neptune
Planet tilted all the way down
Orbiting the wrong way (retrograde motion)
Captured objects
Pluto and Eris
Dwarf planets, made of a lot of ice
Pluto and its Moon Charo
Go around an empty spot, always show same face to each other
Too small to be a planet, 10,500 years orbit
Rogue planets
Used to orbit a star, unstable orbits, and then escaped
Orbit other stars
Methods used to find planets orbiting stars
Wobble of the star. Planet eclipsing the star
Parallel light rays
Meet at extreme distances (infinity)
Each star or point in the sky
Is focused to a different spot
Primary mirror
Focuses and collects light
Secondary mirror
Redirects light to the eyepiece
Unimportant and cheap
Light gathering power and resolution
Important and expensive
Records brightness
Spreads light into spectrum
CCD detector
Photons stimulate electricity
Photographic plates
Sheets of glass, receive image
Active optics
Tweak mirror and adjust weight
Adaptive optics
Lasering an artificial star, adjust the mirror.
Hexagonal mirrors
Chromatic aberration
Light focuses at different spots
Random variation in an image
Which factors do or do not affect a telescope's resolution
Ability to see details
Good seeing
Good detail of sky, air pockets are small
Reason to put an observatory at top
Less atmosphere
Reason for using infrared, x-ray, and other types of telescopes
temperature of the object
Multiple smaller telescopes
/ 69

Leave a Comment ({[ getComments().length ]})

Comments ({[ getComments().length ]})


{[ comment.comment ]}

View All {[ getComments().length ]} Comments
Ask a homework question - tutors are online