Geology Final 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Precipitation
oceans
compression
squeezing
cementation
quartz
iron oxide
calcite
kansan stage
700,000-500,000 ya
till
unsorted glacial debris
Nonferromagnesian silicates
light silicates
biomineralization
Creating minerals (invertebrate producing bone)
EF
ice cap- perennial ice
Quartzite-carbonate-shale assemblages became common in
Proterozoic rocks
Moho
boundary: Named for Andrija Mohrovicvic, scientist to first notice a boundary between the crust and mantle
Maria
dark-colored, relatively flat regions of the Moon formed when ancient lava reached the surface and filled craters on the moon's surface
trilobite
group of benthonic, detritus-feeding, extinct marine invertebrate animals having skeletons of an organic compound called chitin
Describe bedding
The layering of sediments
Schist
Visibly crystalline, layers typically uneven, uneven rock cleavage, mostly play minerals, such as mica.
Limestone
calcite/calcium carbonate, made from skeletons of small sea creatures, reacts with acids
Strata
A succession of sedimentary beds
Finding hydrocarbon reservoirs
• Petroleum Geoscience
o A subdiscipline of geology
• How would you decide where to look?
o Consider paleoenvironments
o Consider geologic formations (porosity, permeability, and geometry)
• Petroleum Geology today:
o Most of the easily accessible reserves have been exhausted
o New technologies used for finding and extracting
o Increasingly turning to the ocean (deep ocean drilling)
Fjords
Flooded U-shaped valleys carved by glaciers
P wave
"push-pull" waves-they quickly push (squeeze) and pull (stretch) rocks in the direction the wave is traveling.
Magma
molten rock in the earth's crust
Shear
Involves a shear strike-slip faulting or shearing. San Andreas Fault.
divide
imaginary line separating one basin from another
Driest Desert in the World
(Desert)
-Atacama Desert
crust
the outer layer of the Earth
Gneiss
high grade change from shale/sandstone or granite/rhyolite
immature
A sedimentary rock that contains grains that are very angular and of very variable composition is ____.
erosion
moving material from its original location
Karst Topography
Varieties include: (I)sinkhole karst*, (2) cone karst*, (3) tower karst*, and
(4) pavement karst*
Orientation 
-gives the idea of stress direction
Oldest rock in syncline?
not in middle.
Parallel layers of sedimentary rock.
strata (beds)
Faults
Breaks in the Earth along which movement has occured.
regional metamorphism
Metamorphism caused by high pressures and temperatures that extend over large regions, as happens where plates collide.
Transform plate boundary
plates slide past eachother. lithosphere is neither created nor destroyed. earthquakes occur. fracture zones
T/F Seismic Hazards are only important at plate tectonics
False
The coarser the material
The steeper it stacks
parts of a barrier island
-beach
-back barrier
-marshy area
-lagoon
-mainland
________ rock means rock that cools slowly
intrusive
asthenosphere
The goowy plactic part below the lithosphere that the plates float on.
Xenolith
An inclusion of unmelted country rock in an igneous pluton.
Bioclasts
are skeletal fragments of marine or land organisms that are found in sedimentary rocks laid down in a marine environment—especially limestone varieties
Biochemical sedimentary rocks
formed by growth of organisms
The slowest traveling earthquake shock waves are called?
surface waves
Supersaturated
solution has more solute than it normally can hold at that temperature
The composition of Earth's mantle if mainly mafic and ultramafic silicate (SIMA) rock
true
pluton
magma intrusion of irregular or blob shaped intrusions that range in size
Nebulae
(Latin for Mists) Within all galaxies. A could of gas and dust. Gas is mostly hydrogen, dust is debris from exploded stars.
contaminant plume
a cloud of contaminated groundwater that moves away from the source of the contamination
Alfred Wegener became famous
for his theory called?
Continental Drift
Fracture
appearance of a mineral surface where it breaks along other than cleavage planes.
Parabolic dunes
Form when vegetation partially covers the sandResemble barchans except that their tips point into the wind rather than downwind
dip
angle of inclination of the rock compared to horizontal plane

includes angle of inclination and direction rock is inclined toward
When was the Cenozoic Era?
65MYA to present
evolution
the change in the physical and genetic characterisitics of a species over time
Elevation
a measure of how high something is above a reference point, such as a sea level
easter edge of North America was a stable carbonate platform during what time
Sauk
stratigraphy
is the stidy of the earths history through measured sections of stratified sedimentary rock,strata=layered beds of rocks
Coastal Deserts
Type of desert where cold, upwelling seawater cools the air and decreases its ability to hold moisture
turbulent flow
water moving in an erratic fashion that can be characterized as a swirling motion
kettle
most of the lakes in minnesota are __________ lakes
slot
what type of canyons are formed by downcutting
metallic bonds
the force of attraction that holds metals together; it consists of the attraction of free-floating valence electrons for positively charged metal ions
absolute dating
A technique used to determine the actual age of a fossil
chemically active fluids
hot fluids lead to recrystallization of mineral grains by dissolving materials in high stress
The vertical drop (slope) of a stream channel over a distance is called?
Gradient
Discharge
The volume of water a river transports over a given amount of time.
SPIT
ridge of sand extending from a beach accross a bay
Laterite
A red, highly leached soil type found in the tropics that is rich in oxides of iron and aluminum.
Big Bang theory
•Explains the formation of the universe using natural observations
•Occurred~ 13.7 billion years ago
•Massive explosion that created matter
•Single, cataclysmic explosion created matter and time
•Immediately following the explosion helium (25%) and hydrogen (75%)
recurrance interval
the average time between past flood events of a similar size.Average length of time (T) between flood events.T = (N+1) / Mwhere N = number of years of recordM = the rank of the flood magnitude in comparison to other floods in the record.
Economic Geology
The branch of geology related to commercial and industrial uses
Deformation processes at Continental Collision zones
-Crustal shortening and thickening-Underthrusting-Continental Escape (or Lateral Extrusion)
What element(s) are predominant in felsic minerals?
silicon, aluminum, potassium
What is a Cut off meander called?
Oxbow Lake
geological time units
correspond to the time that a specified time-stratigraphic unit was deposited.
Limits of Crystal Growth
Define formulas: SiO2 (not necessarily a pure substance)
What is polluted water?
Water rendered unusable for its intended purpose.
heat conduction
transfer of heat from one area to another due to temperature gradient
Earth had differentiated into its present-day structure by
3.8 billion years ago
Rocky Coasts
Occur when wave action has not allowed enough time to lower coastline to sea level
-Usually forms wave cut bench
radiometric dating
finding the age of an object by measuring the amount of radioactive elements
Mines in NE oklahoma
water being contaminated by mine drainage (sulfate, iron, zinc, lead)
Dip-Slip Fault
A fault on which there has been relative movement of the blocks up or down the dip of the fault plane
two attributes of life
capacity for self replication and capacity of self regulation
Stratovolcanoes (or Composite volcanoes)
with large, nearly symmetrical cones consisting of layers of pyroclastic (explosively erupted cinders & ash material & lava flows) They are mainly found along convergent margins with subductions, especially the Ring of Fire. Their magma is composed mainly of andesite & are silica rich eruptions are mostly violent explosions.
oMost are located in a relatively narrow zone that rims the Pacific coast, appropriately called the ring of fire, this active zone consists of a chain of continental volcanoes that are distributed along the west coast of the Americas, common along convergent boundaries
oEruptions are mostly violent
Continental Glacier
Slow moving, thick sheet of ice that cover large parts of a continent.  Modern example are Greenland and Antarctica ice sheets.
Landslides
have been far more costly in the U.S., in terms of both lives and dollars, than all other geologic hazards combined
abyssal plain
Extremely flat areas that are part of the deep-ocean basin.
Alpha Particle Emission
type of radioactive decay when you ADD a proton and neutron
What is the Epicenter
the point on Earth's surface directly above the focus
Oil and Natural Gas
Derived from the breakdown of organic remains of marine organisms, Sediments in which oil and gas form is called source rock and units that contain it is a reservoir that's held in an oil trap- structures that hold it include aniclinal traps, fault traps, and stratigraphic traps
Glaciers and Lithosphere
The wight of glacial ice causes the lithosphere to sink into the underlying asthenosphere. The lithosphere responds by rebounding.
Pizza Hut
In the lecture, a view of the Pyramids of Giza, Egypt, was seen through the window of
What factors play a role in determining shear strength?
1.) Friction between the
particle
2,) Anchoring effect of plant roots.
Elastic rebound model
Rocks are being stress and as more stress cause the rocks to deform. Then at too much stress the rocks break at a rapid release of energy. (Like a bow breaking)
Examples of Foliated Rocks
Gneiss, schist, slate - direction of pressure is perpendicular.
what is cone of depression
cone shaped surface caused by pumping the water too fast and the water table sinks
What is a passive continental margin? How/why do they form? (p 372-373)
Passive Continental Margins consists of a rifted continental crust that has been covered by a thick wedge of relatively undisturbed sediment and sedimentary rocks. They result from Continental margins that are below sea level and the materials erode from the adjacent highlands.
Abundant fossil evidence starts to appear in the rock record about?
more than 635 million years ago
how are stars classified
by elements that they absorb and their temperature
What are 3 ways volcanoes can be defined?
1. Active
2. Dormant
3. Extinct
Zone of wastage
area where there is a net loss to the glacier due to melting and calving.
what is artesian well
a well in which the water rises above the level where it was initally encountered
For a weak acid, the chemical equilibrium constant (K) for the breakdown of theacid to its aqueous species is
a very small number like 0.00001
Why does sea level change during intervals of rapid seafloor spreading?
The increased volume of oceanic crust occupies a higher topographic position relative to stable continents, reducing the volume of space available to hold water in ocean basins. This can cause the oceans to spill over onto the continents, increasing sea waters.
Why are weathering products important?
They are part of the creation of new rocks and build up our Earth.
What are the two kinds of feslic and intermediate magma flows?
Block lavas, and pyroclastic flow
What causes a wave to break?
When the depth of the bottom of the ocean is half the wave length.
Are the pores in the zone of aeration free of water
Pores are partially filled with water and partially filled with air.
amplitude
displacement
Co2+H2O=H2CO3?
carbonic acid
Wavelength
distance between crests
core
solid inner layer
Explosive
Ex. Mt. St. helens
gymnosperm
flowerless, seedbearing land plants
Non-point sources
more diffuse source
jawless fish
ordovician
 
 
bony external armor - grovel through mud for food
 
sucking parasites lampreys and hagfish
Minerals
naturally occurring, solid, inorganic compounds whose composition can be written as a chemical formula and whose atoms are arranged in an orderly geometric pattern called crystallinity.
P-waves
transmitted through solids and liquids
meandering, braided
2 types of streams
suface current
caused by prevailing winds
B-horizon
zone of accumulation, red color
jetties
maintain inlets-Walls perpendicular to beach trap sand on one side.–Current picks up new sand on the other
What influences drainage basin?
Slope, Shape
Seamounts, guyots and aseismic ridges orginate from:
volcanism
Organic
Coal, buried, heated, compressed, dead organic material
Orogenesis
processes that produce a mountain system
seismogram
the paper printout of a seismograph
theory
an explanation for observed phenomena that has a high possiblity of being true
Respiration
oxidation of organic compounds to obtain energy. (opposite of photosynthesis)
diagenesis
the physical and chemical changes, caused by pressure, heat, and chemical reactions, by which buried sediments are lithified to form sedimentary rocks
Oxidation
when oxygen combines with chemicals within the rock
example: rusting
Diagenesis would be most associated with what rock group?
Sedimentary
tectonic activity
earthquakes, volcanoes, and other processes that deform the crust and mantle are called tectonic activity or simply tectonics
sarcopterygian fish
lobe-finned bony fishes, including air-breathing crossopterygian fishes

Inner planets



Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars—are relatively small, dense bodies with small

quantities of


 
volatile substances
orogenic belts
mountains with folded sedimentary rocks
Earth Minerals
important to landscape development because

--material being sculpted. has varying strengths/weakness

--composition, texture, structure control weathering and erosion rate
Plates move away from ridges—in other words, _________________ occurs—in response to the ridge-push force, and as this happens, new asthenosphere rises to fill the space that opens between the plates.
sea-floor spreading
disintegration
the precise general name for the physical weathering of existing rocks is:
Surface Waves
Seismic waves that travel along Earth's surface
intrusive(plutonic)
magma that loses its mobility before reaching the surface eventually crystallizes at depth
Coal
black to brown sedimentary rock formed by burial and compaction of vegetation that accumulated in swamps
denser
as compared to continental crust, the rocks that make up oceanic crust are
shear waves
waves waves that involve side-to-side motion.
Hypothesis
a tentative explanation that is then tested to determine if its valid
the tallest volcano in the solar system is found on
mars
who first formulated the concept of Uniformitarianism?
Hutton
Composition of Limestone
Calcium Carbonite makes it up
elements are the building blocks of what
minerals
Tsunamis
What results fromt he displacement of a large volume of sea water?
The highest form of hardened coal is
Anthracite
Aquifer
sedimentary deposit or rock that is sufficiently permeable to transmit economically significant quantities of water
Epicenter
Location above the focus on the surface of the Earth
besided photosynthesizing cyanobacteria, this also contributed some oxygen
photochemical dissociation of water vapor
backwash
gravity drawing water back down the beach.The backwash can also carry beach sand within it.
Rayleigh Waves(earthquakes)
liek rolling ocean waves, very destructive to buildings, produce a lot of ground movement, take awhile to pass.
geology
the scientific study of the processes events, and conesquence of the earth's past,present, and future
the decomposition or dissolution of earth materials
chemical weathering
rings of ice accumulate _______
at the outskirts
partial melting
occurs because minerals that compose a rock melt at different temps
-magmas at different compositions are produced
mountain
a ___________ is defined as having a local relief of 1,000ft or 300m.
hydraulic gradient
the main driving force in controlling the speed of GW containment movement
What type of mineral is pyrite, also known as "fool's gold"?
Sulfide.
Chemical Weathering
Decomposition of rock from exposure to atmospheric gases (oxygen, water vapor and carbon dioxide). CO2 combines with water vapor to form acid. New chemical compounds (minerals) form. Rate increased by increased rock surface area.
How long ago was earth created?
13.7 bil years
Dendritic Pattern
a stream system that resembles the pattern of a branching tree
what is the Great Dark Spot of Neptune?
...
True or False: Stress is the force that causes rocks to deform or undergo strain.
True.
phenocryst
large or conspicous crystal in a rock matrix
permeability
the ability to transmit water in an aquifer is called what
Which is the most likely origin for coal?
swamps
Silurian land was like
a. Low islands- shallow seas
Sedimentation (disposition)
is the tendency for particles in suspension to settle out of the fluid in which they are entrained, and come to rest against a barrier. This is due to their motion through the fluid in response to the forces acting on them: these forces can be due to gravity, centrifugal acceleration or electromagnetism. In geology sedimentation is often used as the polar opposite of erosion, i.e., the terminal end of sediment transport.
James Hutton
Father of modern geology, principle of uniformitarianism, "the present is the key to the past"
Correlation
The extent to which two or more variables are associated with one another (co-occur).
The Proterozoic Eon began about how many billion years ago?a. 3.5 c. 2.5b. 3.0 d. 2.0
c.    2.5
mechanisms that enhance or drive change
positive feedback system
One day you put some radioactive isotopes of element X in a box and seal it up. When you come back two years later, the box contains 25% of element X and 75% of daughter isotope Y. What is the half-life of X?
1 year
slump
Movement of a mass of rock or unconsolidated material as a unit along a curved surface
Occurs along oversteepened slopes
WATER POLLUTANTS: SEDIMENT
o Greatest water pollutant by volume
o Depletes soil as a resource
o Reduces water quality
o May deposit undesirable materials on productive croplands
what are the disadvantages of determining earthquake size using intensity?
personal opinions, population, building codes, bedrock vs. loose soil
false
t or f: pedocals are most common east of the 30" annual rainfall line in the U.S.
Characteristic crystal form
preferred geometric shape formed by a mineral when it grows under ideal circumstance
among the marine invertebrate, survivors of the Permian extinction event diversified and gave rise to
increasingly complex Mesozoic marine invertebrate communities
hydrosphere
All the water at and near the surface of the earth, 71% of earth
metamorphic rocks
form when rocks are subjected to heat and pressure
HMS Beagle
set sail for south america in 1831, was to map the southern coast of south america, explore the interior, visit tropical islands and native tribes, reached galapagos 1835,
What are the 5 processes of the water cycle
Precipitation
Evaporation
Transpiration
Infiltration
Runoff
continental volcanic arc
Mountains formed in part by igneous activity associated with the subduction of oceanic lithosphere beneath a continent
Montana & Wyoming in Miss
Madison Limestone--NW Montana to Wyoming, major oil & gas reservoir--limestone along madison river
.  lava
Molten material at the center of the earth
slumps
form of rock slide where rocks slip in coherent units with a backwards rotation-water usually involved
windspeed,wind duration, fetch
length, speed, & height of waves controlled by different aspects of wind such as
Which of the following parts of the U.S. do NOT have abundant oil fields?
Pacific Northwest
what causes liquefaction?
water in the soil is squeezed upwards, causes soil to liquefy
What is country rock
In later stages on cystallization, the fluids may escape from cooling chamber by seeping through cracks and pores
Pelean Eruption
VEI of 3-4. HAVE A NUEE ARDENTE. and form lava domes.
theory of continental drift
an idea that believes that the continents were once connected together because the shapes of the continents appear to fit together,same fossils are found on all continents, same rock structures exist where continents would be joined
Root pry
Roots that are on top of the granite that couldn't penetrate the granite
"Ring of Fire"
It is the chain of volcanoes around the pacific ocean within the Circum-pacific belt or ocean basins where many active volcanoes are located
•most active volcanoes are on ocean floor
•the majority of volcanoes on land are in the ring of fire
Alluvial Rivers
flow in a channel made out of sediment (they are TRANSPORT LIMITED bc there is s much sediment and not enough water)
Name some of the tectonic plates.
North american, eurasian, arabian, philippine, pacific, australian-indian, african, south american, scotia, nazca, cocos, caribbean, jaun de fuca, antarctic
Which one of the following is NOT a subdivision of the zone of aeration?
a) Zone of soil moisture
b) Capillary fringe
c) Zone of ablation
d) Intermediate belt
zone of ablation
Iron oxids and aluminum hydroxides
are insoluble - not easily dissolved so they are extremely stable.
to prevent coastal erosion you would use
groin fields and sea walls
Who deals with water purity?
Water purity is established by the U.S. Public Health Service. It is controlled and monitored by the EPA and FDA.
what are fracture zones
-def
-bands of vertical cracks that dice up the ocean floor
marine organismsa are classified as benthos if
they live on or in teh seafloor
The eruption of __ has been called the greatest eruption in historic times, killing about 10,000 people outright by pyroclastic flows and another 117,000 indirectly through famine and disease.
Tambora in 1815 CE
How do Dissolved Gasses affect an eruption
-volatiles (dissolved gas in magma) increase the fluidity of magmaIN addition-more gas= more force to propel lava...-before an eruption volatiles (gaseous component of magma) migrate up and accumulate near top of magma chamber=upper portion of magma is enriched in gases=gas-charged magma moves from chambe and risses through vent=as nears surface pressure is reduced=gases expand=dissolved gasses release suddenly (like pop can)*fluid basaltic magmas allow gasses to rise with ease. produce lava fountains. *calm eruptions**more viscous magmas = much more explosive.prior to eruption magmatic differentiation leaves iron-rich minerals behind & upper portion of magma is enriched in silica & dissolved gasses.when magma in upper portion is released, pressure drops on magma below and explosion is followed by emission of degassed lavas.*ryolite or andesite**yellowstone & mt st helens go BOOM*------dissolved gasses=1-6% of magma----mostly H20 & Carbon Dioxide
The most damaging earthquake vibrations occur
when the P and S waves reach the surface where they convert to horizontal S waves and Rayleigh Waves
Explanation for oldest ocean floor being 180 million years old
• All ocean crust older than that has gone down into mantle at convergent plate boundaries
to be mined, coal must be
within reach, and thick enough (1 to 3 m)
Which of the following best describes Shiprock, a famous volcanic feature in New Mexico
the eroded remains of a volcanic pipe and radiating dikes
How does a transgression or a regression form.?
1. Absolute rises or falls in the sea level. 2. Rising or falling of land surface3. Changes in sediment buildup.4. Glaciation 5. Seafloor spreading. (during cretaceous there was a lot of this.)
Conglomerate
Megaconglomerate
Downcutting
Downward erosion
Precambrian
Snowball earth
carbonates
limestone and dolostone
process of construction
45
Active volcano
Currently erupting
Little erosion
composite cone volcano
typical volcano
Andesite
Fine Grained, Intermediate Rock
TRUE-FALSE. The southeastern states in the United States experience the fewst number of days with thunderstorms.
(a) True
(b) False
B
Terraces
Exposed former floodplain deposits that result when the stream begins downcutting into its flood plain
volcanic behavior is dependent on...
composition
moraine
pile of glacial debris
unsorted sediment, a ridge or hill of rock carried and finally deposited by a glacier
Marble
Limestone protolith (calcite). Low, medium, or high grade usually w/ large crystals. White or w/ colored swirls if impure. Used in sculptures, gravestones, building stone, & tiles.
Sedimentary features
-Graded bedding
-Cross beds
-Ripple marks
-Mud cracks
continents
-most prominent topographic features are linear mountain belts
-two prominent belts: 1)the curum-Pacific belt (region surounding pacific ocean) and 2)the Alps through tot he Himalayas
 
-older mountain ranges are also found on the continents (ie. appalachian and the urals)
shields- stable continental interiors, which are extensive and relatively flat expanses composed largely of crystalline material
place are dstroyed in
subductions zone (DST)
elongate area of mountain-building activity
mobile belts
Oceanic crust rocks
younger and more dense
Nonconformity
an unconformity in which an erosional
surface on plutonic or metamorphic rock has been covered by younger sedimentary or volcanic rock
equilibrium
the new materials stable under contitions at the earths surface
bottom layer, weathered rock, no leaching
c-horizon
geological record
information about geological events that divides Earth's history into intervals, many of which are marked by distinctive sets of fossils and bounded by times when those sets of fossils changed abruptly
composition
determined by chemical composition of magma when formed
Iceball or snowball earth occured during which geologic time period
Pleistosene
source area
the place where melting occurs
Of Earth's water, approximately what percent is not ocean or glacial?
0.8
natural levees
along banks
 

when the river overflows its banks the great reduction in velocity causes the suspended load to be quickly dropped
orogeny - CALEDONIA
Baltica (hits Laurentia)410 Maformation of Euroamerica
What does the word METAMORPHIC mean?
change
seasons
is caused from the Earth being tilted
ductilely
when rocks stretch permanently but do not break
subtropical deserts
due to patterns of atmospheric convection-earth's largest deserts-located on the equator-20-30 degrees N and S (desert)
faulting
movement along a crack (fault) or cracks in the earth's crust
frost heaving
water underground freezes & expands, pushing up surface;ground thaws, all particles pulled down by gravity-->SLOW DOWNSLOPE/CREEP
sea level fall
describe the depositional environment preserved in these rocks in athens county
silciclastic sedimentary environment
those environments dominated by silciclastic sediments. they include the continental alluvial (stream), desert, lake, and glacial environments, as well as the shoreline environments transitional between continental and marine: deltas, beaches, and tidal flats. they also include oceanic environments of the continental shelf, continental margin, and deep-ocean floor where silciclastic sands and muds are deposited.
Renewable resource
a resource that is virtually inexhaustible or that can be replenished over relatively short time spans; examples: plants and animals for food, natural fibers for clothing, trees for lumber and paper, and energy from flowing water, wind, and sun
beta emission
a radioactive change which involves the release of an electron from the nucleus (ex. Th (234)to Pa(234))
Ornithischian
hip structure similar to that of birds, herbivores
U-shaped Valley
A steep-walled valley shaped by glacial erosion into the form of a U.
Point Sources
Pollutants are released at one identifiable spot
deposition
The process by which sediment settles out of the water or wind that is carrying it.
The moon's interior is solid or liquid
Solid
Dolostone
Made of dolomite. Same textures and grain sizes as limestone.
Forms when brine moves through calcite sediment and turns it into dolomite.
Footwall
the lower wall of an inclined fault
within the North American Cordillera and was little deformed during the Laramide orogeny
Colorado Plateau
tributaries
The smaller branches that feed the main branch
Water Table
-Depth of water table is variable
-Changes with precip; the more rain, the higher the water table, the less rain, the lower the water table
Linear Dunes
Limited sand supply, form parallel to the convergence of wind
Plutonist Theory
School of thought which believes you need fire and water to form rocks
aquitard
earth materials which do not allow the free movement of groundwater through it
True or False: Grabbro has a higher melting temperature than granite.
True.
Abyssal Hills
-linear ridges of basaltic bedrock on the deep seafloor
Where is the energy in an earthquake?
The waves
Lithosphere
the solid, outer layer of the earth that consists of the crust and the rigid upper part of the mantle
isotopes
Atoms with the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons are called "blanks" of that element. Their atomic number is the same, but they differ in their atomic mass number.
The climate classification of desert is based on what extreme?
average annual rainfall
mineral
an ingredient of rocks that cannot be broken down any further
granite
the light colored rock that makes up most of the continental crust
all silicate minerals contain which elements?
silicone and oxygen
vesicular
an igneous rock with voids caused by gas bubbles that is traped as lava solidifies
alpha decay
when radioactive isotopes give off 2 protons and 2 neutrons-decrease in atomic mass
Intensity
A measure of the degree of earthquake shaking at a given locale based on the amount of damage
Subsidence
Motion of the earth’s surface as it shifts downward as water table levels decrease.
Evidence for Continental Drift
Alfred Wegner-Matching of Continental Outlines, Paleontological evidence, common rock layers, glacial evidence
alteration of generations
mode of reproduction in land plants-alternating sexual and asexual generations in life cycle of plantsex gen: germ cells are fertilizationAsex: growth from spore
where are the oldest rocks on a syncline
outside
Where is most volcanic activity
at divergent plate boundries
BASE LEVEL
o lowest level that a stream erodes (generally sea level)
o The ability of a stream to erode is based on velocity of water
o Velocity is proportional to slope
what is the most significant force in shaping the desert landscape?
running water
Rock Cycle
sequence of events in which rocks are formed, destroyed, altered, and reformed by geological processes
Meteorite, gravitational energy, radioactive decay, fusion
Potential energy sources for natural disasters
What parts of the Earth's atmosphere becomes colder with more altitude?
Troposphere and mesosphere.
Double Chains
Tetrahedra link to for a double chain by sharing two or three oxygen atoms-- amphiboles
During the last ice age,
continental glaciers covered large parts of continents
What are strike-slip faults?
Faults in which the dominant displacement is horizontal and parallel to the strike of the fault zone
meteor
a lump of rock from outer space that burns up as it enters the earth's atmosphere
what is hydroseeding?
a mixture of seeds and liquid fertilizer is sprayed where trees have been clear cut. fair says that in one day and old growth forest has been turned into a parking lot with a turquoise paint job
Zone of aeration
Area above watertaber and zone of saturation where open spaces are not completely saturated
Solar Cell (photovoltaic)
The electrical current created when a dislodged electron moves in a circular path between the surface and different layers within the semiconductor.
Relative age
the order of events or objects, from first (oldest) to last (youngest)
What is Geology?
The science that examines Earth, its form and composition and the changes it has undergone and is undergoing.
Unconformity
An unconformity is a break in the rock record produced by erosion and/or nondeposition of rock units
deep water waves
waves in which the water depth is greater than the wave base. include all wind generated waves.
Turbulent or laminar flow
"Laminar - movement of water particles in straight-line paths that are parallel to the channel. Move downstream without mixing. Turbulent - moves in an erratic fashion often characterized by swirling, whirlpool-like eddies. Most streamflow is turbulent."
parabolic
this type of sand dune is similar to a barchan -except it is convex in the downwind direction- this type of dune require abundant sand
classes of igneous silicate rocks
felsic (most silicon) -> intermediate -> mafic -> ultramafic (most iron and magnesium); the more silicon, the less dense
what runs along a definite path and is CONFINED
stream flow
Most water pollution associated with mining operations has to do with ____________.
Water passing through mine wastes
What are the two ways humans drive dertification.
Grazing flocks, logging
What is a reverse fault?
Fault with hanging wall above footwall
Occluded Front is Formed
When an active cold front overtakes a warm front_________.
2 types of Igneous rocks
1. Plutonic- cool below surface = granite (intrusive)
2. Volcanic- cool on the surface (extrusive)
Richter scale
A logarithmic scale of 1 to 10 used to express the energy released by an earthquake
 
What is the mantle?
 
The gases trapped in upper part of the earth
grain size – largest particles settle firstORcomposition – high specific gravity minerals settle first
The chief constituents of detrital rocks include:
except for incursions along the continental margin and two major transgressions (the Sundance Sea and the Cretaceous Interior Seaway), the North American craton was
above sea level during the Mesozoic Era
What are the types of continental margins?
Passive - no plate boundaries nearby
Active- plate boundaries are nearby that are usually subduction
Plunging of folds(and how anticline & sincline plunge)
folds plunge when their axis penetrates the groundanticlines point IN the direction they're plungingsinclines point the OPPOSITE direction they're plunging*plunging = from hitting surface down*
link between the crossopterygians and the earliest amphibians includes
a close similarity of bone and tooth structures
that the principle of supersposition does not hold in this case
in a horizontal sequence of rocks seen in a road cut, you notice that the older fossils are at the top and the younger at the bottom.
indicates that they can be used to calculate the likelihood of an earthquake
explain how earthquakes can or cannot be predicted
is there a long time between yellostone effects?
YES. there is a long time between events
The main channel during a flood is the area of maximum speed (velocity).
If sea levels rise, streams deposit more. If sea level falls, streams begin a new cycle of erosion.
Pangaea
...
Source Rocks
Igneous
Metamorphic
Sedimentary
Continental Shelf
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Sill
tabular, concordant pluton
condensation
gas to liquid
Lahars
Particularly wet debris flows
recharge
water added to phreatic
Quartzite's parent rock
Quartz sandstone
Plateau
intermediate, not usually isolated
Uplift
Compression squeezes deep rocks upward
internal
Earth's ___________heat engine is driven from within the earth
kame kettle
___________ and __________topography is irregular, bumpy landscape of hills and depressions associated with many morraines
Silicates
Most common(90%of crust), isolated chained sheets...3 dimension...tetrahedra.
Convergent
"at ___ boundaries, metamorphic reactions in subducting crust release water into the overlying asthenospherel the water decrease the mantel- rock melting temperature and triggers magma generation."
Pore space
voids between soil particles
Granite is Usually Found in
Continents
Roche Moutonee
"Rock Sheep" glacially polished bedrock mill!
3 Series of Grade
Contact, Regional, Subduction
Isotope
Element with varying number of neutrons
Deduction
Prediction of results from known causes. (looking ahead)
what geological process produces lava
plate tectonics
foliation
preferred orientation of platy and elongated minerals in a metamorphic rock; oriented perpendicular to applied stress. Three factors affect this. Rotation of platy and/or elongate mineral grains into a new orientation. Recrystallization of minerals to form new grains growing in direction of preferred orientation. Changing the shape of equidimensional grains into elongate shapes aligned in the preferred orientation.
Silicate minerals:
mineral composed of silicon-oxygen tetrahedral linked in various arrangements; most contain other elements too.
ET
tundra- polar tundra, no true summer
heat
used to measure effectiveness of energy; quality of being hot; high temperature
Oxbow Lake
a crescent-shaped lake (often temporary) that is formed when a meander of a river is cut off from the main channel
Pedalfers
-Soil rich in aluminum and iron
-generally east of Mississippi
lithification
the process by which unconsolidated sediments are transformed into solid sedimentary rocks. \ process, generally cementation and/or compaction, of converting sediments to solid rock.
•Physical processes converting sediment to rock
•Occurs in the upper few (< 10 miles) miles of the crust.
•2 main processes
•Compaction & cementation
Coal seams
-alternantly fluctuating sea levels produce layers of coal deposits
Correlation
establishing the equialence of rocks of similar age in different areas
TIDES
o Caused by gravitational force acting on the oceans
o Magnitude & timing of ___ depends on: axial tilt, geometry of basins, air pressure
Back arc Basin
Basaltic Plateau - columbia plateau
true
t or f: exfoliation in geology describes the erosion of granite due to "pressure release"
S Waves
shear (secondary) wave; travel through solid; not as fast
Contintental Drift
The lateral seperation of continents across the earth
quartz
hardness of 7, clear, glassy, prism structured mineral
Current extinction rates
100-10,000 extinctions per million species per year
- 10,000 species/year
- 27 species/day
- 1 species/hour
plutonic rocks
igneous rocks that formed at considerable depth usually more than several kilometers.
groundwater
water that resides under the surface of the Earth, mostly in pores or cracks of rock or sediment
Earth's mantle is made of what?
stony silicate
silicate materials
common minerals containing silicon and oxygen mixed in varying proportions with other elements
Rockfall
when a block of bedrock breaks free
and falls or bounces down a cliff
oceans
Most of the earth's hydrospheric water resides in the ___.
Unclean environments
Limited ability to wash spreads bacterial infection
tsunami
seismic sea waves. very large waves caused by sudden upward or downward movement of the sea floor
Wind Energy
The energy captured by transforming the motion of air into electrical energy using a turbine
chemical sedimentary rocks

:   Rock resulting from precipitation of chemical compounds from a water  solution.  See evaporate.
stages of development
infant compared to other infants
Ground Moraine
debris accumulated under the glacier (unsorted)
________ moraines are found along the sides of alpine glaciers
lateral
Mass Wasting
Downslope movement of material under the influence of gravity.
How much has the ocean temperature risen since 1985?
2 degrees
Landslide
general term for mass wasting and for the landforms created by mass wasting.
metamorphism
no melting takes place, occurs in a solid state
concordant intrusions
their boundaries lie parallel to these layers, whether or not the layers are horizontal.
potassium-argon dating
use in sedimentary rocks, potassium 40 to argon 40, argon is a gas, useful for very old and very new rocks
Triassic Period
Pangea breaks up and first dinosaurs appear
In a series of elevated terraces, the oldest terrace is the _______ one
Lowest
Tectonic Forces create many faults to:
Accomodate plate movements
2 Types of Glaciers
(Glaciers)
-Alpine: (Valley/ Mountain Glaciers) highland areas, flow down slope; U-shaped
-Continental: (Ice Sheets) occur in high latitudes and during ice ages at lower latitudes.
period
a basic unit of the geologic time scale that is a subdivision of era
What is a Felsic rock?
greater than 65% Silica?
rock flour
rock ground to dust by glacial ice
examines the orgin and evolution of the earth
historical geology
hydrosphere includes water that is:
outgassed from earth's interior
Rock
a lump or mass of hard consolidated mineral matter
what happens to temperature with increasing depth in the mantle?
it increase gradually
Iron
What element makes up most of Earth's core?
Wave Refraction
Waves bend as they approach the shore.
FIRST in Bowne's reaction series
olivine & Calcium Pagioclasts
Crystal-line Structure
Kinds of crystals they form; crystal classes inside
Barchanoid dunes
dunes forming scalloped rows of sand oriented at right angles to the wind. This form is intermediate between isolated barchans and extensive waves of transverse dunes
Normal fault
Hanging wall block moves down relative to the footwall blockAccommodate lengthening or extension of the crustMost are small with displacements of a meter or soLarger scale normal faults are associated with structures called fault-block mountains
January through May
When would you expect cyclones and typhoons to be active in the southern hemisphere?
cast fossil
model in shape of living things or remains, forms when minerals or rock particles fill space
hydraulic action
ability of flowing water to pick up and move rock and sediment
What is normal stress?
force applied perpendicular to a surface
mantle plume
A buoyant mass of hot rock rising through Earth's mantle. As it nears the surface of Earth, some of the plume melts and erupts at the surface forming a "hot spot."
Passive Continental Margin
A continental margin within a tectonic plate as in the East Coast of North America where little seismic activity and no volcanism occur; characterized by a broad continental shelf and a continental slope and rise.
Industrial Revolution
was a great leap forward for mankind, as we began to harness the energy in fossil fuels to power a ost of new machines and generate electricity. But the waste matter created in the process helps trap heat in the planet's atmosphere.
Ion Migration
Atoms moving from one mineral grain to another.
Abundant fossil evidence began to appear about how long ago?
570 million years ago
Terminus
when ice melts faster away than it can be replenished
After a molten rock melts it must cool to form this kind of rock
igneous
Pyroclastic Debris
Forms from lava that flies into the air and freezes. Also includes the debris formed when an eruption blasts apart preexisting volcanic rock
Beack drift
the transport of sediment in a zigzag pattern along a becak. It is caused by the uprush of water form obliquely breaking waves
Name the Identification tests for minerals
Hardness, Streak, Effervescence, Magnetism, Density
Convection Current
Circular motion of a gas or liquid as it heats
type of invertebrates that dominated the Ordovician invertebrate community
epifaunal benthonic sessile suspension feeders
Wells:
a hole in the ground dug or drilled in order to obtain water.
US Locations of Risk of Earthquakes
Southeast/ South, North/ North Central: ~ none. Most of rest: minor (CO). Parts of Rockies: risky for 7.0 - 6.0 excluding CO frontrange. West coast is risky to very risky. Hot Spots: Southeast Missouri, South Carolina, & Boston
index fossil
a fossil found in a narrow time range but widely distributed around the earth; used to date rock layers
time - distance graph

which time is the interval between an earthquake and arrival of a seismic wave at a seismometer station at a given distance. At greater distances, arrivals are later and later, and from the slope of the line thus generated, we may calculate the seismic wave spee
Upstream- short, intense rainfall, flash flooding, high # of deaths but small amount of damage, upper part of stream channelDownstream- lower part of a stream channel, discharge (amount of water) increases downstream, low # of deaths but great amount of p
Contrast primary and secondary flood damage?&#10;&#10;&#10;&#10;
What defines a desert?
Less than 250 mm (10 inches) of precipitation, generally lacking in vegetation, cannot support a large population
Exfoliation is a natural process which results from:
unloading of deeply buried rocks
What is the Moment Magnitude Scale?
Calculated using the displacement of the fault, area of the rupture surface, and shear strength of the faulted rock.
Which of the following best describes gabbro
a coarse-grained, mafic igneous rock
Slope of stream notes
all slopes down have a negative sign and up have a positive sign... miles = horizontal... feet = vertical axis
Goal of Science and Scientific Studies
to discover the underlying patterns in nature and then use this knowledge to make predictions about what should or should not be expected, given certain facts or circumstances
3 reasons a fossil might not be discovered...
Decomposed, destroyed, Stays buried, never found.
Methane hydrates may be a viable future energy source because ___________________.
they are abundant and clean burning
What clues does the appearnance of a mineral provide?
Crystal form, Cleavage, color, luster
Erosion - Transport - Deposition
helps us see at what speed the water needed to be moving to actually transport rock, and how slow it needed to be to stop the transportation
According to the movie "mystery of the Megavolcano" what was the first piece of evidence discovered for something very unusual happening about 75,000 years ago
ice cores from Greenland indicated that a very large amount of H2SO4 was in the atmoshpere at that time
in terms of its shape earth is
flattened at the poles and bulging at the equator
Coquina is a rare type of limestone formed
when bits of shells smash into one another breaking both shells into tiny fragments that accumulate on the seafloor
Where would you find a soil with no O horizon and a very small A horizon?
in an area with little rainfall and cool temperatures because soil requires lots of rainfall and warm temperatures to form
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