geology final exam Flashcards

Terms Definitions
lake systems
Willy Willys
in Australia
Product of Weathering
Well formed crystals
a coarse igneous rock
#1 Greenhouse Gas
Water vapor
__________mineral deposits form through the circulation of hot, chemically active waters.
Eras are subdivided into _________
Approximately __________ percent of the world's land area is characterized by dry climates.
a) 10
b) 20
c) 30
d) 40
orogeny responsible for the present-day Rocky Mountain
geosphere, atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere
earth system
solid particles of weathered rocks
most silica, viscosity, and explosively erupts. melts at a low temp.
Are radiolarians chalk or glass?
Impermeable structures parallel to and
offshore from the shoreline.
Purpose: to protect a beach or boat
anchorage from incoming waves
tidal range
affected by coast topographyand alignment of the moon and sun relative to earth and each other
Crustal Roots
Low-density crustal rock that protrudes downward beneath a mountain range
made of one or more elements
the eon represented by abundant deposits of strata with shelly fossils
partial melting parts of asthenosphere below oceanic ridge or hot spots 80% of all magma, also continental divergent boundary and hot spot
Vibrations caused by the sudden release of energy, usually as a result of displacement of rocks along faults.
The modern environment movement is born, with the publication of Rachel Carson's Silent Spring. Although the book dealt largely with the harmful effects of pesiticides (and led to a ban on some especially toxic chemicals), it made people aware of the notion that human activity can harm the environment
Alternating lava flows & pyroclasts, Mt. Rainer in Washington.
Dinosaurs really flourished on the earth during which time era?
318-299 Massive mountains on east coast. On lower slopes thick forest occur.
Medial moraine
-Transport of Sediment by Glaciers
Form where lateral moraines from adjacent glaciers join
heliocentric model
all planets circle the sun
Consider the Bowen's reaction series. Which mineral would you expect to see as a phenocryst in a porphyritic basalt?
remnants of a former floodplain
-river has adjusted to relative drop in base level by downcutting
Porphyritic texture
Macroscopic minerals are embedded in microscopic minerals. Slow then fast cooling
bedding sequence
A pattern of interbedded and vertically stacked layers of sandstone, shale, and other sedimentary rock types.
less than ten inches of percipitation, lacking in vegetation
True or False. Tornadoes are cyclonic; while hurricanes are anticyclonic
The shore
divided into foreshore and backshore. Seaward of the foreshore are the nearshore and offshore zones
what is turbulent
streamlines are complexly intertwined with mixing
-capable of erosion Grand Canyon
-capable of sediment transport Mississippi River
sedimentary clastic rocks
clay, shale, sand stone, conglomerate
author of Principles of Geology and the principle advocate and interpreter of uniformitarianism
alfred wegener
"origins of continents and oceans"- pangea
ground water
water stored underground in rocks (tiny pores)
Cinder Cones
Smallest and most numerous cones. Built from tephra. One time events.
a mixture of liquid rock, crystals, and gas. characterized by a wide range of chemical compositions, with high temperature and properties of a liquid.
Salt Crystal growth
crystals precipitating out of groundwater in cracks may increase the size of the crack
Dead plants and animals being put under pressure to produce fossil fuels.
Paleozoic Fauna
Includes the Ordovician, Silurian, and Devonian-Permian. Life expands from sediment-water boundary.
Oldest Stromatolite
"Laminated" Structures at 3.5 GA. Evidence for microbial mats at 2.9. Fossils of Cyanobacteria at 2 Ga. For the first 7/8 of earth history these are the only fossils.
the grinding away and removal of Earth's Surface materials by moving water air or ice
Q=WxDxV; the volume of water that flows past a given point in a unit of time
Definition of a Mineral
2)naturally occurring (vs synthetic minerals such as zirconia)
3)inorganic (does not contain organic chemicals)
4)solid (maintains shape)
5)Definite chemical composition (possible to write chemical formula)
6)ordered internal molecular structure (called crystal lattice)
inorganic minerals
secreted via organic processes are considered minerals (e.g., calcite in foram shells)
graded stream
correct slope & characteristics to maintain velocity to transport material supplied

[not eroding or depositing, just transporting]

->becomes a self regulating system -->EQUILIBRIUM
What is a Clast?
Piece of a rock
normal fault
hanging wall moves down; caused by extension
Cross cutting relationships
Younger rock structures cut across older rock structures.
Index Fossils
distinctive fossil used to compare the relative ages of fossils
liquid outer core
S waves extinguished earth's magnetic field generated by flow of the outer core, solid inner core
nonfoliated metamorphic rocks are
marble, quartzite, greenstone, and hornfels
limestone, rock salt and rock gypsum
chemical sedimentary rocks
random rock that was in the glacier but after glacier melts, the rock just gets deposited wherever it stopped
what is the least resistant rock in the desert
a division of time shorter than a period
the way a mineral breaks along a surface
Name one mineral to know:
Quartz, Biotite, Muscovite, Orthoclase, Plagioclase, Garnet Group, Amphibole Group, Proxene Group, Calcite, Olivine Group, Clay Group.
Most lie between Mars and Jupiter, irregular sizes
Asteroids-asteroid belt
Measure of how similar grain sizes are within a sediment or rock
ocean trenches
there are earthquake zones that begin at _________________ and slope landward and downward into earth at an angle of 30 to 60 degrees
___% of people in US depend on groundwater for drinking.
mineral group makes up most of the crust
Schist is derived from the regional metamorphism of ________ A. sandstone B. shale C. limestone
B.    shale
Contact Metamorphism
A localized area of metamorphism that occurs to rocks that are located in close preoximity (100s ft - a few meters) to a body of magma.
Heat is the dominant factor in this type of metamorphism.
sheet flow
broad thin sheets of h2o across ground*depends on infiltration capacity of soil*runoff begins as sheet flow
mass wasting
the transfer of rock and soil downslope under the influence of gravity
define aseismic ridge
submarine ridge with which no earthquakes are associated
Frost wedging
if water accumulates in a crack and then freezes, the ice expands
mobile belt located along the eastern margin of the North American craton
Appalachian mobile belt
Zone of saturation
water not held as soil moisture percolates downward. opens spaces in sediment and rocks are filled with water.
Ancient Stable Continental Lithosphere
Geologic setting where the coldest temperatures at 20 km are most likely found
Physical (or Mechanical) Weathering
the physical disintegration of rock, resulting in smaller fragments
Know what kind of air pollution source automobiles are
mobile sources
geologits estimate tha the oil age will las until approx
the yar 2050-2150
what is mosl likely cause of earth's magnetic field and the periodical reversal in the magnetic field direction?
volcano eruptions
a bend in rock that forms where part of Earth's crust is compressed
end moraine
a low, sinuous ridge of till that develops when the terminus (toe) of a glacier stalls in one postion for a while
What measures have largely eliminated waterborne diseases in the U.S.?
The Clean Water Act
2004 Tsunami
was a 9.3. killed over 200,000 people, displaced 1.69 million people.
Chemical Comp. of Core
-iron nickel alloy (mix)-minor amts of O2, silicon, & sulfur (form compounds easily w/ iron)
principle of original horizontality
sediments are deposited in nearly horizontal layers
Mafic or Ultramafic
Those with a high percentage of dark minerals
What is fracture strain
deformed rocks are brittle and break and do not return to original shape at shallower depths
if daughter atoms have leaked out of a mineral being analyzed, the calculated age will be
too young
The age of the Earth is closest to:
4.6 billion years
(volcano effect) by warming
(volc. effect in GC) in extensive flood basalts
sedimentation of calcium carbonate
The flux that removes excesses calcium from the ocean basins is...
heliocentric universe
the sun, not earth is the center of the universe
What is the most common element in the Earth's crust and how much is it?
Oxygen 47%
basaltic (mafic magma)
really hot and and runny (900 to 1200 degrees Celsius)
why glaciers are part of rock cycle
erosional agents that accumulate, transport, and deposit sediment
the principle of superposition states that
in an undisturbed sequence of sedimentary rocks, the oldest rocks are on the bottom
What is the lithosphere?
Consists of the entire crust and the upper-most mantle. forms the earth's cool rigid outer shell.
indirect effects of ice age glaciers
-Forces migration of animals and plants
-Changes in stream courses
-Rebounding upward of the crust in former centers of ice accumulation
-Worldwide change in sea level
-Climatic changes
What are Hydrothermal Ore Deposits
When fluids of country rock cool and deposit dissolved minerals
The oceanic ridge system is the major site of what?
underwater volcanoes in atlantic ocean
Evidence of thermal effects on yellowstone?
hot springs, hot geysers, and steam vents
What is a seismic sea wave (tsunami)?
water waves caused by distrubance of the sea floor
what the 2nd Law of Thermodynamics says
second law of Thermodynamics says heat travels from the hotter body to the colder one
What happens in a Tide ?
Surface of the sea moving upward down in a cyclical manner
List and describe two possible reasons for widespread black shale deposits during the Devonian.
High sea level drowns reefs and buries organic matter with little to no oxygen, and stratification of the ocean floor from high salinity.
Which are the parts of the climate system?
It includes all parts of the Earth system and all the interactions needed to explain how climate behaves in space and time. The main components of the climate system are the atmosphere, hyrdosphere, cryosphere, lithosphere, and biosphere.
Compressive stress
downward, troughlike folds
James Hutton
founded Geology
Classes of rocks
sea level
is rising worldwide
chemical weathering of rock
The characteristic atmospheric condition(weather) at a particular place or region over time periods of seasons, years, or decades.
an intermediate composition igneous rock that crystallizes on the earth's surface is called
Plate Boundary... Shallow seismicity involving only lateral (strike-slip) movement
during the cenozoic, southern continents were mostly
Slurry Flows
-Mud flow (fastest)
-Debris flow
light colored minerals (contain aluminum potssium calcium and sodium)
Prothero and Dott
"Evolution of Earth"
Carbonate sedimentation
shallow;clear water tropical marinephytoplankton-single cell organisms in topzooplankton-little shells known as tests-sink to bottom and use calcite
Volcanic activity is strongly associated with transform plate boundaries. (True or False?)
mid-ocean ridge
Example of a divergent boundary:
Wave Refraction
If composition (physical properties) change abruptly at some interface, then seismic waves will both reflect off of the interface, and refract as they pass through the interface
one way to measure groundwater velocity is with a ___________
which of the following reservoirs contains the largest amount of freshwater
Intermittent hot springs or fountains where columns of water are ejected with great force at various intervals
A major Paleozoic continent composed of South America, Africa, Australia, India, and parts of southern Europe, Arabia, and Florida.
Monoclinic. clear to white. One perfect cleavage. Occurrence: alteration of borax in lake beds
Plastic Deformation
Squeezing or stretching of grains.
a water table is associated with?
Burgess Shale fossil invertebrate with stiffened rod and a fin for swimming.
Sea-level cycles
Due to multiple glacial-interglacial cycles
(moutain types)
(mantle raises the land up)
Floodplain regulation
Compromise between indiscriminate use of floodplains
stream discharge
Width x Depth x Velocity
rocky coasts
shoreline is affected by wave erosion
evaporite rock
A sedimentary rock formed from evaporite sediments.
shape, size, and roughness - flat & narrow vs. deep & semicircular
Soil Horizon
layer of soil with identifiable characteristics produced by chemical weathering
Glaciers move by
basal sliding and internal flow
Confined Aquifer
Isolated completely from the surface. Layer of impermeable rock on top of acquifer. Ex: shale
Aa Lava
rough, jagged blocks; least common lava
marine transgression
superposition of offshore facies over nearshore can be accounted for by
3 Greatest Geasons We Depened on Water
(Running Water)
inner most layer
made of metal
avg. density 10-13 g/cm^3
group of organisms that can interbreed and produce fertile offspring
Granoblastic Rocks
Grains have grown, but no foliation.
What type of sediments are accumulations of solid fragments produced by weathering?
Clastic sediments.
a partly enclosed coastal body of water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea
to stop movement of sand; erosion occurs after last
lycopsid scale tree, bark looks like reptillian scales: in PENN
base level
lowest elevation a stream channels floor can reach at a given locality
Human uses of Streams
-fertile soil=when it floods
-Available water=freshwater
soft tissue fossilization
Soft-tissue rarely preserves, but occasionally rapid burial and low oxygen allow this to happen-Middle Cambrian Burgess Shale from Field, B.C. preserves soft tissue by carbonization; these fossils are very important in providing a picture of a community shortly after the explosion of life earlier in the Cambrian
-Soft tissue of insects is often preserved in amber
Soft tissue may be preserved as imprints-Ediacaran fossils from Newfoundland are preserved in such a way; these fossils are very important as they represent the earliest large multicellular organisms
• seds converted to solid rock through process of lithification
• lithification takes place after burial under other layers of sediment
• lithification by:– 1) compaction (grains squeezed together by
weight of overlying materials);
– 2) cementation (minerals precipitate around
deposited particles + bind them together)• sand particles -> sandstone; shells + other CaCO3 -> limestone
In Oceanic Crusts:
deep-sea sediments, basaltic pillow lavas, sheeted dikes, layered gabbro
What is a sandbar?
An offshore sandy area
the dry, gently sloping region on the backshore of a beach at the foot of the coastal cliffs or dunes
the raised block of a fault block mountain
the remains (or an impression) of a plant or animal that existed in a past geological age and that has been excavated from the soil
Rocks having other material put on top of them
in which type of bonding do adjacent atoms share electrons?
When water from the saturated zone flows into the stream
gaining streams
magnetic time scale
The detailed history of Earth's magnetic field reversals going back into geologic time, as determined by measuring the thermoremanent magnetization of rock samples.
the steeper slope of a sand dune generally faces __________
. A chemical _________ exists from the bonding of one or more atoms of one or more elements.
Bowens Reaction Series
noted that discinct mineral layers occurred from cooling a basaltic magma pluton
Blueschist is a metamorphic rock that forms at temp(c) between - and -.
180, 300.
Color, streak, hardness, magnetism, acid reaction, radio activity
Physical properties of minerals
Normal Faulting
The "headwall" moves down relative to the "footwall".
Igneous Rocks
Forms as molten rock cools and solidifies; magma
Is the obliquity or tilt of hte earth's axiz currently decreasing?
tectonic plates
•Tectonic plates are segments of the lithosphere that are in constant motion with respect to one another. Divergent Plate Boundaries, convergent plate margins, [ passive margins] & transform plate boundaries exist. A coherent unit of Earth's rigid outer layer that includes the crust and upper unit.
seismic waves
propagate away from the point of disturbance
Intermediate Focus
70-350 km deep; mostly occurs in subduction zones along converging plate boundaries
specific yield
the portion of groundwater that will drain under influence of gravity*indicates how much water is actually available for use[ex. clay's porosity = high; spaces small = h2o can't move thru it = LOW specific yield]
A vertical section through a soil showing its succession of horizons and the underlying parent material.
soil profile
An active continental margin
may be near an ocean trench
There are three types of plate margins, i.e., divergent, convergent, and neutral (transform fault) and two types of crust, i.e. oceanic and continental. Transform faults may cut
only oceanic crust
Lateral moranes
Glacier feature on the sides of the valley
10-13 feet
How many feet was Japan lifted up after the earthquake
Barrier island
a low, elongate ridge of sand that parallels the coast; found along the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plains; some originate as spits and are severed by wave erosion, some are created when turbulent waters in the line of breakers heap up sand scoured from the bottom, and some may be former sand dune ridges that originated along the shore during the last glacial period, when sea level was lower
Pyroclastic flow:
a turbulent avalanche of hot ash and lapilli that rushed down the flank of the volcano
"Ring of Fire"
created by most of the world's trenches and volcanic arcs rim the pacific ocean
Magmatic differentiation
the formation of one or more secondary magmas from a single parent magma
Transform margins
are sites where two plates are sliding past each other. Ideally, along such margins there is neither convergence nor divergence
What is geology?
scientific study of the earth, the rocks of which it is composed and the changes which it has undergone or is undergoing
Compaction (Subsidence) - Construction phrase & Abandonment phase

a) Constructional phase: rapid buildup on sediment
b) Abandonment phase: layers compact surface subsides. 
Extrusive igneous rock
cools above the earth's surface, cools quickly with fine grains.Ex: basalt (M), andesite (INT.), & rhyolite (F). Or lava, or pyroclastic debri.
Rock-Forming Minerals
common minerals that make up most of Earth's Crust-8 main elements making up 98% of Crust
Sediment Flows --> Slurry Flows
water saturated sediment flows

Debris Flows
Lateral Spreads
Submarine Mass Wasting
recessional moraines
forms in the middle of the valley from rapid recede and advance
What is thermal inversion?
Condition in which the temperature of the lower atmosphere increases rather than decreasing with increasing altitude. This traps air pollution.
time-transgressive rock unit
is not the same age throughout its extent
Definition of Valley Glaciers
Narrow tongues of ice in mountainous regions
At a bend in a meandering stream, erosion occurs mostyl:
On the outside
Bowen's Reaction Series
(higher temp. form first)
1. Olivine
2. pyroxene
3. amphibole
4. biotite
5. k-spar, muscavite and quartz
while PLagicelase forms during the entire time the temperature decreases)
What is a system
Any size group of interacting parts that form a complex whole.
How to classify Igneous Rocks
1. Texture: Aphanitic (crystals not visible and Phanitic (visible)
2. Composition: Felsic, Mafic, Ultramafic
uniform stress
push on a rock from all angles and it gets smaller through compression
What is a sheild volcano?
The theory that terranes are small pieces or edges of rock that you find that doesn't match each other (rocks near by)
Bands of normal and reversed polarity sea floor rocks that are symmetrical to the ridge crest prove:
that ridge crests are divergent
If you were on a ship in the middle of the ocean when a tsunami passed under you, which of the following statements would be true?
(a) your ship would move up and down rapidly and probably be overturned
(b) your ship would begin spinning in circles
(c) yo
How do diamond and graphite differ?
they were created under different types of pressure.
The classification of igneous rocks is dependent on texture and __________.
The relative proportion of silicate minerals.
Angle of Repose
Point at which the angle of a slope is too great for gravity to hold loose materials, materials begin to slide until the slope is less and gravity is reestablished on the material.
Rayleigh waves are ___ waves that travel....
surface waves; circular motion that produces waves like water; makes "hills"
What are the temperature estimates of the earth
-Base is hot
-Core to Mantle is hotter
-Center of core is hottest and closest to the temperature of the surface of the sun
What is humus, and how does it form?
Dark-colored organic matter, formed by decay of plants, animals, and animal wastes
What is Principle of faunal Succession ?
Fossils change through time as you move upward in the rocks record
The hypothesis of Hsu and Ryan about the origin of evaporate rocks in the sediments below the Mediterranean Sea A. has been elevated to theory status. B. has now been proven.
A.    has been elevated to theory status.
Which of these is not a reason why earth rocks are younger than meteorites and moon rocks?A. The Earth is geologically activeB. Older rocks may have been deeply buried under sedimentary rocks C. Older rocks may have been heated, metamorphosed, or meltedD.
D.    Older rocks are not always found on the earth surface.
massXacceleration (F=ma)
element or compound
definite composition
regular internal crystal structure
Igneous Rock, extrusive
fault scarps
long low cliffs
Silurian or ordivician? Centipedes
_________________ boundaries are characterized by broad zones of shallow earthquakes on a complex system of faults
basaltic magma is ?
depressions in the Earth's surface
Pennsylvanian Ancestral Rockies
Zuni-Defiance Uplift
Paradox Basin
Uncompahgre Up lift
Central Colorado Basin
Colorado Front Range
six sided with pyramidal termination
lochness monster-like, generally have short tails. paddle through water, extinct towards cretaceous, long skinny neck or short neck
balance is controlled by what
Homo sapiens evolved from
Homo erectus
Earth's features formed through sudden and violent changes
Agriculture, 2nd largest planet but with lowest density which is composed of hydrog. and helium-giant dense clouds and storm systems-1st visited by poineer II robot probe in sept. 1979 "lord of the rings.massive ring system-dust,rock and ice-30 moons
Barrier Islands
Which would characterize a depositional coast?
the scientific study of the earth
By excavating ancient faults and studying the evidence of past earthquakes, geologists attempt to predict the intensities, locations and perhaps the timing of future earthquakes
Basalt and __________ are the same
regulagr series of similar sized waves
glacial erosion
glaciers are extremely heavy--they scratch and polish the rocks as they flow across
Can glaciers continue to carve u-shaped vallyes below sea level
In what sedimentary environments would gravel most likely be deposited?
what phenomena are floods
natural and normal
14 billion
estimated age of the universe:
Land-Use Planning
Complex process involving development of a land-use plan to include a statement of land-use issues, goals, and objectives; summary of data collection and analysis; land-classification map; and report describing and indicating appropriate development in areas of special environment of concern. An extremely controversial issue.
Basaltic lava forming very rough jagged masses with a light frothy texture
Natural gas
Mostly methane or ethane, propaneOriginSimilar to oil, but requires higher temperatures in Conversion stageMay be associated with oil or coal deposits, or found aloneUses: electrical power, heating, cooking, and as a source for ammonia in fertilizer
fold that resembles shape of carpet draped over a doorstep
secondary porosity
when porosity increases by fracturing and dissolution
The water table marks the upper boundary of the saturated zone
mineral made of a silicon and oxygen
Suspended load
smaller than saltation, suspended in water
Thermal metamorphism
The local metamorphism caused by igneous intrusion.
Types of Amoeba (2)
Forminifera, Radiolarians (contribute to the formation of sedimentary rocks)
The common oxidation state of sodium is _____.
What is the primary basis for distinguishing between detrital rocks?
(p) oil
from tanker spills, pipeline rupture, offshore drilling disasters
Most widely and commonly used stone. Utilization based on either physical properties or chemical properties. Widely distributed and abundant. "easy" to work with
What are inclusions
One rock contained within another
general name for lakes associated with valley glacierx
As population grows, environment changes
Why study it?
earth's surface is a product of processes still happening today. processes in the past were the same as today, observed rates of change are slow so earth must be very old
current geologic epoch… The end of the last iceage marks the beginning
Volcanian activity occurs on subduction zones
just know it
an elongate depression in the seafloor produced y bending of oeanic crust during subduction
Intrusive Igneous Rocks
Formed from magma: slow cooling
Chunks of bedrock are picked up and removed from the bedrock by a glacier.
A large upfold or arch of layered rocks.
Convergent boundary
boundary between two plates that are moving toward each other.
Dark Color
Hawaiian rocks would be expected to have _______.
Narrow Valley
v-shaped valley, down cutting + mass wasting, has rapids and waterfalls.
same as rockslides but with soil and rock
a portion of rock unit that possesses a distinctive set of characteristics that distinguishes it from other parts of the same unit
They were used by the First Nations and later by the explorers and fur traders for travelling throughout Canada
making a forecast of what will happen in the future based on past experience or evidence
the temperature to which air must be cooled, at a given pressure and water-vapor content, for it to reach saturation; the temperature at which dew begins to form
noun - solid rock lying beneath the soil and other loose material on the surface of the earth
hydrothermal fluids
hot water with dissolved ions and volatiles
Most of the carbonate sediments of the ocean are derived from _________.
Longshore Drift
the transport of sediments along a coast at an angle to the shoreline
Describe conservative plate margins.
-Plates slide past each other.
-Several fault lines.
-No volcanoes.
-Only earthquakes.
-Friction on fault lines.
kaolinite clay
When K-Feldspar weathers, what does it hydrolyze to?
seismic rays
the changing position of an imaginary point on a wave front as the front moves through rock
aka accretionary wedge; a body of rock made from blocks of all sizes embedded in a generally sheared matrix
the past 500,000 years have shown major _______ in glaciation
major pulses
In an ionic bond, atoms:
Lose or gain electrons
body wave
a seismic wave that travels through Earth's interior
Matter can be converted to enormous amount of energy by process of nuclear fusion, e.g., several H atoms combine (fuse) to create He in a star. Temperature expressed by atomic motion; hot temperature = rapid motion, cold = slow.
Cosmological Model
2 major groups of sedimentary rocks
detrital rocks, chemical rocks
clean up of polluted water is
slow, expensive, and limited
The person who developed the principle of faunal succession?
William "Strata" Smith
the break up of rocks such as frost wedging or wave action
Karst Topography
a type of landscape in rainy regions where there is limestone near the surface, characterized by caverns, sinkholes, and valleys
debris avalanche
the fastest variety of debris flow is a ___________________
chemical sediment
formed at or near its place of deposition from dissolved materials that precipitate form water
ionic bond
electrons are given or take to get into "stable" state
a layer of hotter, softer rock in the upper mantle
9 is the atomic number 19 is the atomic mass
Mercalli Intensity Scale
scale that measured earthquakes on the amount of damage
Red color in sedimentary rocks generally indicates a A. high oxygen environment. B. low oxygen environment.
A.    high oxygen environment.
Lag time
The time between when most of the rainfall occurs and a flood is produced
zone of fracture
uppermost zone
-top 50 M (can't move by plastic flow)
-carried along "piggyback" style by ice below
-when glacier goes over irregular terrain the zone is subjected to tension, creating fractures
-->cracks/ crevasses
What landforms are associated with wave refraction?
Sea arches and sea stacks
beaches, wind-blown dunes, and marshy sea
how are barrier islands formed?
what is the general composition of the outer and inner cores
iron and nickle
What did carnivorous dinosaur eat?
␣ Mammals ␣ Dinosaurs ␣Other reptiles ␣Dead animals
mountain (alpine) glacier
a glacier that exists in or adjacent to a mountainous region
What do hot spots tell us?
where to expect active volcanoes
What does the atmosphere consist of? What are it's most abundant components?
78% Nitrogen
21% Oxygen
1% Argon
Carbon Dioxide
Water Vapor
Two general uses of limestone based on its physical properties?
Aggregate and shaped rock
What is albedo?
It is the reflection of light back to the source.
What is the nebular hypothesis?
it explains the theory of the formation of the solar system. That the sun and planets formed form a rotating cloud of interstellar gases.
The lithosphere is easily deformed, like a tube of toothpaste
Which of the following statements about the lithosphere is FALSE?
Explain how radiometric dating works, using the terms "parent", "daughter", and "half-life".
parent = an unstable (radioactive) isotope of an elementdaughter = the isotopes resulting from the decay of the parenthalf-life =
Rocks can be subjected to
Rocks can be subjected to two kinds
of pressure. Only one type actually
causes metamorphism
What did submarines discover about the Arctic ice cap?
the ice caps were getting thinner.
The core is made of?
Lots of iron and lil bit of nickel
How do we assess an area's potential for slope failure?
Evidence of past slope-failure activity, Situated in area with known problems, steepness of slopes, recent changes in slope, conditions of material, potential triggers
How are the elements on the periodic table arranged?
they are arranged by atomic number
How does El Niño differ from La Niña?
Pacific equatorial waters are warmer during El Niño and cooler during La Niña
What is the goal of science and scientific studies?
to discover the underlying patterns in nature and then to use this knowledge to make predications about what should or should not be expected, given certain facts or circumstances
What is the meaning of "water is the universal solvent"?
-water dissolves 57 of 92 elements found in nature.
Calculate the age of a rock or mineral if given the D/P ratio and half-life of the system and vice versa
Time = 1/k ln (D/P + 1). K = .693/half-life
Date given = ln (D/P + 1). E^both sides, gets rid of ln. End with d/p ratio
phreatic explosion
pushes rock together
What's a horst/graben?
Second most used metal
Magma's temperature increases with...
Secondary waves
change in shape
Erosional surface between parallel beeded layers.
parallel layers of sedimentary rock
Deep Focus Earthquake
Involves mineral transformations
____electrons are the outermost, reactive electrons which determine bonding in compounds.
Giant associated with cooling joints?
6,370 km
the radius of earth
what are calderas
circular, steep-walled basins
Atoms with varying #s of neutrons
Fractures that have no offset
-Result from tensional tectonic stresses
-Systematic joints occur in parallel sets
-Con control weathering of rock
consequences of glaciation
-erosional and depositional work
-migration of organisms
-changes in stream courses
-adjustment of the crust
-climate changes
-change in sea level
dynamic system
Earth's perpetually ongoing process, extending from conception to death, that is molded by a complex network of biological, psychological, and social influences (
The phenomenon where certain items such as pottery that have been heated in the past will give off a light when exposed to ultraviolet light.
Howard Hughes Sr. invented what?
Rotarty bit
The formation, movement, and recession of glaciers or ice sheets.
the outer layer of the Earth
Basaltic Lava
Low viscosityMafic1000 to 1200 degreesQuick, large flowRarely explosiveHawaii
deep areas occur in enlongated troughs
one way that mineralogical composition actually changes during metamorphism
Rocks that are softer, thinner, and have mud-rich layers.
Which of the following structural layers of Earth is liquid?
outer core
only form in earthquakes greater than 8.0, cause the most loss of a life and property due to flooding
deposits of minerals found within a rock fracture that are foreign to the host rock.
calite has 3 directions of cleavage directions- its cleavage is known as _____________
In what direction do tornadoes usually spin in the Northern Hemisphere?
breaks in rocks when the rocks move
The precise point within the Earth's crust or mantle where rocks begin to rupture or move in an earthquake
fine spray of lava that instantly freezes to form fine particles of glass called ash
Georges Cuvier
father of comparative anatomy → proof of extinction, seeing that a mastodon vs. elephant aren't the same actual animal, they have diff characteristics even though they seem the same
300 degrees celsius
for mudstone protolith, transformation into a slate occurs at...
wind energy
The energy captured by transforming the motion of air into electrical energy using a turbine
size of an unmodified stream channel is _____ related to the quantity of water that it usually carries
The lowering of the Earth's surface, caused by such factors as compaction, large scale faulting, a decrease in groundwater, mining or the pumping of oil.
desert pavement
a mosaic-like stone surgace forming the ground in a desert
lithosphere, atmosphere
Volcanic processes transport gases and aerosols from the _______ to the ________.
(continental shield)
-assemblage of cratons & ancient oregens that has reached isostatic equilbrium
-thin layer of little-deformed sediments
the rate of proportional decay for isotopes
in an undisturbed sequence of strata, younger strata overlie older strata
Playa lake
a temporary lake in a playa
what is the end product of weathering?
Definition of metamorphic rocks
Metamorphic rocks form from pre-existing rocks that are subjected to high temperatures, pressures, and/or chemically active fluids.
Rock Slide
The rapid slide of rock downslope along planes of weakness
Geologic time scale
A "calendar" of Earth history
- Defined by intervals and events
grinding away of stream channel by the friction and impact of the sediment load
carbon cycle
the organic circulation of carbon from the atmosphere into organisms and back again
From the following list what item represents the size class composed of the largest
pyroclastic material?
(A) Bombs/Blocks
(B) Ash
(C) Lapilli
(A) bombs/blocks
fissure eruption
a volcanic eruption emanating from an elongate fissure rather than a central vent.
Design vs. construction
Poor construction and poor materials have led to building codes
Middle Tn
What area is dominated by surface water?
3 Major Rock Groups.
-Igneous: formed from cooled crystallized magma.
-Sedimentary: Formed from particles compacted and cemented together (Lithification)
-Metamorphic: Existing rock that is transformed by heat and or pressure.
A spreading center, or mid-ocean ridge, is where:
lithospheric plates diverge
a thick shell of rock that separates earth's crust above from the core below
A type of igneous rock that contains air bubbles
Cross-cutting Relations
If one geologic feature cuts across another, the feature that has been cut is older.
Carbonate Rocks
Made of materials i.e. calcite and dolomite. Usually form in warm (tropical to subtropical), shallow (continental shelf) ocean environments. Common types (limestone and dolostone).
What major taxonomic group dominated the sea floor during the Mississippian?
crinoids and blastoids
Rectangular drainage pattern
tributaries have frequent 90 degree bends, develops on regularly fracutred rock.
The greatest volume of lava is extruded by:
Velocity of seismic waves in ________ are faster than waves in _________.
mantle; crust
What is a wave base?
1/2 of wave length
in which one of the folowing areas woukld radial drainage likely develop
composite volcano
rayleigh waves
waves where P waves intersect at the surface-move like a ripple on a pond-slowest an most destructive
By a volcano
A very fine-grained igneous rock with few or no large sparse crystals was probably formed:
helps protect onshore structures behind the seawall, costs a lot of money for maintenance over the long term, and accelerates coastal erosion.
Construction of seawalls often:
Due to construction of seawalls
a feast at which the host gave away many gifts
Describe Ripple Marks.
Wave like bumps made by moving currents.
most of the coral beds in the world were produced in this period
Water table varies
seasonably and from year to year, depth is highly variable
Tar Sand
Similar to oil shale but in sand deposits. The sand can be artificially cooked to turn bitumen into oil
What are the components of mechanical weathering
-frost action
-pressure release
-organic activity
-thermal expansion or contraction
-salt crystal growth
back-arc spreading, a rising mantle plume, and overriding the East Pacific Rise are explanations for the structure of the
Basin and Range Province
Deformation (Fault) Metamorphism
Rocks along fault planes are crushed, stressed and pulverized. occurs at low temperature and relatively low temperature and high pressure.
Valley Glaciers
alpine glaciers; mass of ice in the mountains
Valley (alpine) glaciers
Exist in mountainous areas
Flow down a valley from an accumulation center at its head
what kind of fault rock moves parallel to the strike direction and displacement is horizontal
strike slip fault
Strike Slip Fault
When the hanging wall slides past the footwall in the horizontal plane
How does a stream not at its base level erode it's channel?
by downcutting
What are two types of Arcs?
Island Arcs and Andean arcs
To be good as a source for groundwater, a rock must possess both ___ and ___
Permeability and porosity
outer core
a layer of molten iron and nickel that surrounds the inner core of Earth
Silicate Minerals vs. Other Minerals
Silicates more resistant, have more covalent bonds

Others less resistant, have more ionic bonds
theory of sea floor spreading
states that the seafloor was spreading from the mid ocean ridge and being recycles in the trenches
investigators think RNA molecules may have heen
the first molecules capable of self-replication
What is meant by unconventional hydrocarbon resources?
With an unconventional resource, the "target rock" is the source, reservoir, and trap
What indirect hazards are associated with different types of volcanoes and eruptions?
-lahars: volcanic debris flows (same hazards as other mass movements)-tsunamis: caused by raise in sea level-fine ash/aerosols caused by pyroclastic flows & expecially falls block sunlight and cool surface temp of earch
Measuring a stream's transport power by capacity means looking at the total amount of materials it moves.
Measuring a stream's transport power by competency means looking at one particle, the largest partical a stream can move at any given time.
three factors that effect texture
1.) the rate at which magma cools
2.) the amount of silica
3.) the amount of dissolved gases in the magma
What is a light year?
A light year is the distance that light travels in one year. Light travels 10 billion km per year.
What are two ways a rock can weather chemically?
By solution and oxidation 
How chert forms as a chemical sedimentary rock
Composed largely of silica. Most are inorganic. Can occur as nodules, when cavities in limestone or dolomite fill with silica.
The most abundant minerals that make up the earth's mantle are?
silicate minerals that are enriched in iron and magnesium
Which of the following features have been found on Venus?
lava flows, dunes, folds and thrust sheets
an increase of one magnitude results in how much of an increase in ground shaking and energy released?
1 magnitude = 10x increase in ground shaking and 30x increase in energy released
Importance of index fossils- What are they, how use them?
Tell if you have the same fossil in Europe and us it occurs in the same time period. Geographically widespread fossils, limited to a short span of geologic time.
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