Geology lab Flashcards

Terms Definitions
run north/south
muscovite schist
angular/poorly sorted grains
Second Fastest Shear
Fools gold, metallic luster,
mineral that is salty
Paint, rubber, plastic, cosmetics
Color: black; Streak: yellow-tan; "black mica"
sedimentary rock
Limestone. Accumulation, compaction, and cementation of sediment (solid particles)
texture: phaneritic, color index: felsic
Property: looks like fake pyrite
Rock strata that conduct water
the bottom of a wave
P waves
fast velocity, first , smallest
Quartz Sandstone
Detrital, rounded grains, moderately sorted; sand-szied grains; composed of quartz
angular unconformity
an unconformity between nonparallel strata
High velocity (P or S waves?)
Conoutr lines
Elevations of hills and valleys
hardness of 9, hexagonal shape. associated with rubies and saphires. colorless streak. uneven fracture.
Confining Beds
Impermeable bedrock materials that prevent flow of water
In the Savannah, Georgia area,declining water levels in the coastal ________________ are impacting the water supplies of that city and nearby communities including those in South Carolina.
Ogallala Auifier
most sedimentary rocks are layered with this texture. Meaning, they are made of grains called clasts which are fragments of rocks, mineral crystals, shells and plants that are usually rounded  into pebbles, gravel, sand and mud. 
a mineral will scratch less hard material and will be scratched by harder material
grains larger than 2 mm in diameter
air - the gaseous envelope that surrounds the earth; it consists of about 75% nitrogen, 20% oxygen, and small amounts of other gases like argon, carbon dioxide, water vapor, and methane.
Pegmatitic texture
very coarse grained textured igneous rocks
trace fossils
outlines of body or parts (footprints)
The compass direction along a line from one point to another
datum plane
the reference surface from which elevation is measured
Stress that squeezes rock until it folds or breaks.
Japanese Subduction
Oceanic crust is subducted beaneath oceanic crust. Continental crust isn't present
general is behind in water course stream or river
Impermeable rocks or structures that block the flow of oil and force it to accumulate into larger bodies.
oil trap
Body waves
Seismic waves that travel through the Earth's interior (P and S waves).
the color of a mineral in powdered form
Plate Boundaries
Zones between the plates where common earthquakes and volcanic activity occur. They slide past each other to form faults, collide with each other to form mountains, or separate apart from each other to form valleys and oceans.
Phyllite texture
a wavy and/or wrinkled foliation of fine grained platy minerals (mainly muscovite or chlorite crystals) that gives the rock a satiny or metallic luster
transform plate boundaries
side by side, shallow focus earthquakes
Barchan dunes
crescent shaped. They occur where sand supply is limited and wind direction is fairly constant. Usually form around shrubs or large rocks (horns point downwind)
stream that swings from side to side across the valley floor
Specific Gravity
ratio of a mineral's weight compared with the weight of an equal volume of water
Dip-Slip Fault
Rocks move vertically along the fault surface (plane)
- long walls extending from the shore at the mouths of harbors and used to protect the harbor entrance from filling with sand or being eroded by waves and currents. Jetties are usually constructed of boulders and in pairs( one on each side of the harbor or inlet)
the process by which rocks are decomposed by chemical processes
chemical weathering
contour line
connects all points on the map that have the same elevation above sea level
Well sorted
when a high percentage of the total sediment sieved consists of about the same size material.
ocean-continent convergent plate boundaries
linear mountain ranges, shallow to deep focus
Hot Spot
Volcanism has been active in this spot for a long time. Hot spots occur if small and long lasting regions (hot spots) exist below plates and provide high heat energy to create volcanoes.
Characteristics of Cercopithecoidea
Old World MonkeysFound in Africa and AsiaLack of prehensile tail
Igneous Rocks
form when magma or lava cool to a solid form, either glass or masses of tightly inter-grown mineral crystals. The crystals are large if they had a long time to grow in a slowly cooling magma, and they are small if they formed quickly in a rapidly cooling lava
Convergent Plate Boundary
1. Two plates compress
2. One of the plates slides down below and is incorporated into the earth's mantle along a subduction zone
3. Basically, when the plates push together, one subsides and one starts melting, the result is magma rising forming a chain of volcanoes
very fine grains
so small that they can't be seen even with a magnifying glass
what determines the height of a wave
the length of the wave
Give the rule in exploration.
Find a source, a reservoir, and a trap.
1/2 wavelength
arkose sandstone
well sorted/rounded grains
Sediment becomes rock
detrital, large angular fragments
upfolds or convex folds
mineral that is greasy
side of a fold
Tension Stress
pulls apart
ductile deformation: stretching and thinning
brittle deformation: normal fault
elements in atmosphere
Oxygen, Argon, CO2
Property: smells like rotten eggs
UTM System
Universal Transverse System. Navigation grid and coordinate system created in 1947
the horizontal distance separating successive crests or successive
bituminous coal(sedimentary)
sedimentary rock, altered plant remains
Oolitic Limestone
Chemical; rounded grains, moderately sorted; spherical grains-minature pearls (white circles); effervese; composed of limestone (calcite)
breaks along which movement has occured
bent down, center is new strata
Reverse Fault
Rock destroying caused by compression
Yellow/ Brown, yellowish streak, rough large crystals, no cleavage
Hydrocarbon traps that form in geologic structures such as folds and faults
A nasty liquid that contains components of the soluble materials in the landfill - from heavy metals to organics is called ____________.
The parent rock of Marble is
Fossiliferous Limestone
the manner in which a substance resists breakage
berm crest
the highest part of a beach
stress that acts horizontally, pulling apart rocks
normal fault
direction that the axis tilts, points to polaris currently, rotates through a circle, timing can affect season intensity, duration
Contour interval
The difference in elevation between each contour line
the ratio between the linear distance on the map and the actual distance on the ground.
Geothermal Gradient
The gradual increase in temperature with depth in the crust
A narrow pinacle of resistant rock with a flat top and very steep sides.
A network of channels at right-angle bends, that develops over rocks that are fractured or faulted in two main directions that are perpendicular.
permanent marker placed by the U.S. Geological Survey or Bureau of Land Management at the point indicated on the map (elevation)
The interior arc or part of a fold.
vesicular texture
gas bubbles get trapped in cooling lava
weak soft zone of the upper mantle where rocks flow very slowly due to intense heat and pressure.
Soft Minerals
will not scratch glass; can be scratched with a knife blade or masonry nail (or glass)
the amount of energy released from an earthquake, estimated by using a measurement of distance and the amplitude of the wave
The measure of the steepness of a slope
playa lakes
streams flow into basin and form, shallow, temporary lakes
Mt. St. Helens
Volcano in Washington State; erupted in May 18, 1980
Barrier Island
A long, narrow island that parallels the mainland coastline and is separated from the mainland by a lagoon, tidal flat, or salt marsh.
channel flow outward from a central area, like the spokes of a wheel
Expanding Earth hypothesis
earth was once much smaller and covered entirely by granitic crust
poorly sorted
when a wide range of sizes is presented.
perched water table
pocket of groundwater on top of impermeable material
Reservoir Rock
A porous and permeable body of rock that contain economical amounts of hydrocarbon
What scales measure earthquakes?
1. Richter Magnitude Scale (size)
2. Mercalli Intensity Scale (damage)
longshore current
a current within the surf sone that flows parallel to the coast
2 characteristics of Actinopterygians?
fins comprised of hard organic material (rays)dominant today
Reverse Fault (thrust fault)
dip slip. created by compression. The hanging wall moves up relative to the footwall
- the fault plane dips toward the structurally elevated side
- result of crustal compression, causing shortening.
- having low angles of dip (<45)
Overturned Fold
A fold in which the axial plane is tilted and beds may dip in the same direction on both sides of the axial planes.
Plankton Shell Thickness on Seafloor
farther away is thicker because it's older and has had more time to accumulate
Sediment Supply
- the importance of sediment supply-
- is a major factor in determining whether a coastline is progradational or retrogradational, regardless of vertical changes of land level or water level
What are the names of two rock units that Manhattan is built on?
Roca Shale and Crouse Limestone
means discourse
plagioclase feldspar
rhyolite porphyry
image 8
Limestone and coal
detriral, medium texture size
unconformity between younger sedimentary rocks and subjacent metamorphic or igneous rocks
Limestone, coral, & marine
rocks below the fault
Compression Stress
push together
ductile deformation: folding
brittle deformation: reverse fault or thrust fault
visible with the naked eye
texture: aphanitic, color index: mafic
M/NM, H:1-5.5, no cleavage (amorphous), color:dark brown, rust; streak: yellow-brown
A relatively impermeable rock, commonly shale that forms a barrier or cap above and around reservoir rock such that fluids cannot migrate beyond the reservoir
a distinctive topography that indicates dissolution of underlying soluble rock, generally limestone
medium to coarse, foliated, visible grains
hanging wall
top surface of the fault
bent up, center is old strata
Breaks along which movement has occurred. Form when rocks go through severe stress (compression, tension, shear)
Floods are ________ of rivers.
natural characteristics
Classification of humans
K. AnimaliaP. ChordataSP. VertebrataCL. MamaliaSC. EutheriaO. PrimatesF. HominidaeG. HomoS. sapien
The parent rock of Hornblende Schist is
the inside of the meandering stream that is deposited on
results from uplift; limbs dip away from the center in all directions (folded strata)
active or inactive, active will show volcanoes erupting, scarce craters, earthquakes
Processes that we see today were operating in the past.
"The Present is Key to the Past"
bench mark
a marked point of known elevation.
A depression in an otherwise level surface.
Channel flow outward from a central area, resembling the spokes of a wheel, that occurs on conical hills, such a as volcanoes/structural domes
breaks in rock units along which movement has occurred
intrusive igneous rock
form, course grain comprised of visible minerals
False Color
Objects that are invisible to the human eye and therefore must be colored for us to see them. - color infrared (cir, figure 1.9, page 12),
the tendency of some minerals to break (cleave) along flat, parallel surfaces (cleavage planes)
dynamics of stream flow
velocity, discharge, gradient, base level, sediment load
gradient of a stream
change in elevation
divided by
distance between points
Pyroclastic debris
gas, glassy volcanic ash, lava, and fragments from explosive volcanic eruptions
Active Fault
Can move/produce and earthquake at the present
resembles a rose trellis, where the main streams are long, parallel, and intersected at nearly right angles by their tributaries
the middle term in a series of items when these are arranged in order of magnitude.
time gap
s-p, used to determine how far the wave has traveled, greater distance means further travel time
Porphyritic Texture
An igneous rock texture in which large crystals are scattered on a background of much smaller crystals.
Transform Boundary
1. Two plates pass each other and oceanic crust is not created or destroyed.
Best Example: San Andreas Fault
pressure surface
created by the weigh of the water above well cause the water to rise
Characteristic of Subphylum Vertebrata
notochord is surrounded by or replaced by vertebrae.
Older Glacial Margin
most recent ice advance did not reach this area
rivers have shaped the land, cutting through older glacial sediment
How do plates deform?
By folding rocks and displacing rocks along faults.
uses for aphanitic rocks (primarily basalt)
ballast for railroad tracks, aggregate for roads, ancient sculptures and stone tools
Factors that Determine the characteristic landforms of Shorelines
1.  Shape of the shoreline
2.  The materials that comprise the shoreline (rock, plastic mud, loose sediment, concrete)
3.  The source and supply of sediments
4.  The direction that currents move along the shoreline
5.  The effects of major storms (a single storm can completely change the form of a coastline)
what caused the folding in the Ridge and Piedmont
folding when North America collided with Africa
magma-igneous rock
metallic look
Smashes rocks together
ripple marks
wave-like features
geometerical prisms that cross
grains,fragments, shards welded together
Phaneritic, intermediate (Biotite/ hornblende) very large crystals, slow, intrusive, convergent
caused by compression
Rocks formed below earth's surface
Volcanic Tuff
Pyroclastic, K-spar (present), intermediate: 15-45%, extrusive
Glassy, felsic (potassium feldpar/ biotite) weights very little, floats, rapid cooling, convergent, extrusive
amount of sediment transported. determined by stream size, gradient, discharge and area through which the stream drains
very soft, think pencil lead 
good abrasive
used for jewelry and glass
Stratocone Volcano
Explosive style of eruption.
Comprised of lava (viscous) and pyroclastic material.
Only on convergent boundaries.
straight hairline grooves on the cleavage surfaces of some minerals
ability to resolve and measure detail
layers of sediment that mostly accumulate in horizontal sheets
contour lines
represents size, shape, and relationship of valleys, hills, streams, slops, and lakes.
tidal range
difference in height between consecutive high and low tides
metamorphic rocks
form when preexisting rock are subjected to physical and chemical conditions within the earth that are significantly different from those under which they formed
a region that collects water that feeds into a given drainage network
Topographic maps
A graphical representation of the three dimensional shape of the earth's surface.
the process by which molten rock becomes an interlocking framework of silicate minerals
beach nourishment
truck in sand to maintain beach
graded bed
stratum that contains different sizes of sedimentary grains arranged from largest at the bottom of the bed to smallest at the top; form whenever a turbulent body of water full of sediment (flood, wave, river) suddenly loses energy and calms down. Large particles settle before small.
Sedimentary rocks
formed when sediments are compressed together or hardened
Very ______ scientists do not accept the evidence of [global] warming.
Icicles of limestone hanging from the ceiling of caves
rock texture
the dimensions and shape of grains, and the way in which grains are arranged, oriented, and held together
If a given layer of sedimentary rock contains inclusions or pieces of another kind of rock material within its matrix, these components or cinclusions are older than that rock layer.
Reverse faults
Hanging wall block moves up relative to the footwall block
Strong compressional forces, shortens the crust
structural geology
study of how geologic units are arranged when first formed and how they are deformed afterward
color? Era?
(gray) the group of vertebrate animals that are warm blooded, nurse their young, and have hair
mesozoic and cenozoic
Rule 2
Contour lines always point upstream in the form of the letter V as they cross the stream.
Shallow marine
sand, silt, and clay grains. round grains. Very well-sorted. Symmetrical ripples and animal burrows found here. Biochemical deposits. Micrite, coquina, mudstone, oolitic limestone, calcarenite found here.
Law of Superposition
The geologic principle that states that in horizontal layers of sedimentary rock, each layer is older than the layer above it and younger than the layer below it
section of the earth's surface that is bounded by lines of latitude(ew) and logitude(ns)
In some areas of the United States, pumping rates are such that water levels have ___________ hundreds of feet
Marine Terrace
An elevated platform that is bounded on its seaward side by a cliff or steep slope (and formed when a wave-cut platform is elevated by uplift or regression).
Divergent Plate Boundaries
forms a rift valley (area with continental crust). surface features: continental rift valley- with scattered lakes and volcanoes
or a spreading zone (area with oceanic crust). surface features: ocean ridge with small valley running down the midline and large fissure valleys running perpendicular to midline
mountains are volcanic in origin
earthquake distribution occurs in a narrow line and are very shallow
original lateral continuity
Sediments are deposited in layers that continue laterally in all direction until they thin out as a result of nondeposition, or until they reach the edge of the basin in which they are deposited. this means that if you find a layer that abruptly ends, something has cut this layer after it was deposited. Faults, dikes, and erosion can all truncate otherwise laterally continuous layers
includes grains from 1/16 mm to 2 mm in diameter (in decimal form, 0.0625mm to 2.000 mm). This is the size range of grains in a sandbox. The grains are visible and feel very gritty when rubbed between your fingers
vitreous- black to dark green- 5 to 6- two perfect 60 and 120- crystals are longer than wide.
Block Diagram
A combination of the geologic map and cross section
Frontal Boundary Zone
Important because it's where we get convergent cells, in central North America, tornadoes. Area of severe weather
Reasons humans build coastal structures
1.  Protect Harbors
2.  Build up sandy Beaches
3. Extend the shoreline
Reverse slip fault
Fault where the hanging wall goes up and foot wall goes down (compression).
moon phases rule
waxing = light on right side of moon
waning=light on left side of moon
__________ is a measure of the combined content of all inorganic and organic substances contained in a liquid in: molecular, ionized or micro-granular (colloidal sol) suspended form.
TDS (Total Dissolved Solids)
what are the 3 main types of plate boundaries?
Convergent, Divergent, Tranform
What types of evidence supports continental drift?
Similar bodies of rock and the patterns of the Earth's surface matched up with other bodies of land and sea
there are two types of body waves
p-waves pass through solid liquids and gases, s-waves can not be transmitted through liquids or gases
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