Animal Taxonomy & Phylogeny Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Define Classification?
Categories of organisms based on common features
Define Taxonomy?
Study of scientific classification
Define Phylogeny?
Study of evolutionary relation among groups of organisms
Define Systematics?
Study of diversification of living forms, past & present, and relationships
Contribution of Aristotle?
First to classify organisms based on structural similarities and habitats
Contribution of Artedi?
Father of Ichthyology; developed taxonomic system
Contribution of Linnaeus?
Father of modern taxonomy
In order list taxonomic categories?
Domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species
What is the binomial nomenclature system?
Two name naming system=Genus + species
What are the naming rules (8)?
Genus capitalized, species lower case, Latin, species name never used alone, no 2 species can have same name, can't name after self, first to discover/publish gets naming rights, ICZN approves name
What are the 4 species concepts?
Typological, Evolutionary, Phylogenetic, Biological
What is the typological concept?
Species has unchanging unique features, all new specimens compared to original "type specimen"
What is the Evolutionary concept?
Gaylord Simpson; single lineage of ancestor-descendant populations that maintain its identity from other such lineages
What is the Phylogenetic concept?
A species is a lineage with its own role and tendencies
What is the Biological species concept?
Dobzansky & Mayr; same species if capable of interbreeding & producing fertile offspring
Define speciation?
Process that produce new species; isolate species genes no longer mix mutations develop and species take on new characteristics
Allopatric speciation?
Formation of species in separate locations
Sympathetic speciation?
Formation of new species while in same location
Define characters?
Variations in features
Potential sources of phylogenetic information (6)?
Morphology, biochemistry, cytology, embryology, behavior, paleontology
Define ancestral
Old trait
Define derived trait?
New trait
Define outgroup?
Determines polarity of character; distant relative of in group
Define clade?
Group that share a common derived character trait
Define synaptomorphy?
Common character shared by a clade
Define mono phyletic taxon?
Include most recent ancestor and all descendants
Define para phyletic taxon?
Include most recent ancestor and some descendants
Define poly phyletic taxon?
Includes descendants of more than one ancestor
Describe Traditional Evolutionary Taxonomy?
Recognize and rank Taxons based on common descent & amt of evolutionary change; mono phyletic & para phyletic
Describe Cladistics?
Classification based on ancestry; only for mono phyletic groupings
List whittakers 5 kingdoms w/examples?
Monera, Protista, fungi, plants, animals
3 domains of life?
Bacteria, archaea, eucarya
Which domain of life does the animal kingdom fall into?
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