Embryology & Animal Architecture Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Theory of Pre-Formation
Organisms develop from miniature versions of themselves.
Theory of Epigenesis?
Fertilized egg contains building materials that develop an organism over time.
What is Fertilization?
Union of sperm and egg to form zygote
Fertilization accomplishes two things?
Activates development and restores diploid number
What is embryogenesis?
Beginning of embryo
Define Gastrulation?
Single layered blastula is reorganized into 3-layer Gastrula
Define differentiation?
Less specialized cells become more specialized cells
Define Polyspermy?
Fertilization of egg by many sperm
What prevents Polyspermy?
Fast block and formation of a fertilization membrane
What is a fast block?
Electrical change in membrane "electric fence"
What is a zygote?
Fertilized egg
Growth of embryo proceeds by?
What is a blastomere?
Cell produced by cleavage of zygote
8 early embryo stages?
Zygote, 2-cell, 4-cell, 8-cell, Morula (16-cell), early Blastula (32-cell), late Blastula (64-cell), Gastrula (64-cell)
Define Morula stage?
Embryo at early stage of development consisting of blastomeres (solid ball)
Early Blastula stage?
Hallow sphere of cells (doughnut)
Gastrula stage?
Cells form 3 layers and archenteron cavity forms (resembles a pie shell)
All animal cells look similar until this stage?
In Gastrula stage cells migrate to interior via?
The blastocoele opening (pseudopodia)
3 layers of the Gastrula?
Ectoderm (outer), Mesoderm (middle), endoderm (inner)
What is the gut tube and when is it formed?
Digestive system, early Gastrula stage
Define Protostomes?
Early mouth
Define deuterostomes?
Second mouth
Protostomes have what kind of embryo?
Mosaic; every cell has a purpose
Deuterostomes have what kind of embryos?
Regulative; 4 cell stage not determined what cell will be
When does differentiation begin in Protostomes?
Zygote prior to cleavage
Where does differentiation occur in deuterostomes?
Gastrula; blastomeres not differentiated yet
Differentiation for ectoderm (6)?
Skin, brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, eye, lining of mouth and anus
Differentiation of mesoderm (7)?
Muscles, bones, connective tissue, circulatory system, blood, kidneys, reproductive system
Differentiation for endoderm (4)?
Digestive system, respiratory system, thyroid, bladder
What happens to genes during differentiation?
Piano illustration; involves turning on some genes and turning off of others in order to get specific proteins
Morphogenetic of embryo proceeds through 3 processes?
Pattern formation, homeobox, limb and organ formation
Pattern formation?
Determination of body regions
Master control genes "hox" determine position of structures in the body
Limb/organ formation?
Hox genes and proteins stimulate development of limbs and organs
DNA methylation?
Cover up genes
Histone modification?
Block accessibility
What is induction?
Capacity of some cells to invoke specific developmental response in other cells
5 levels of organization in animals w/examples?
Protoplasmic, cellular (volvox), cell-tissue (jelly fish), tissue-organ (worm), organ-system (humans)
4 major advances in animal body plans w/example?
Multicellularity (sea anemone), bilateral symmetry w/cephalization (lady bug), tube w/in a tube body plan (worm), ecoelem (dog)
4 regions of bilaterally symmetrical animal?
Anterior (head), Posterior (tail-end), Dorsal (back), Ventral (belly)
3 planes of bilaterally symmetrical animal?
Sagittal (L/R), Frontal (front/back), transverse (top/bottom)
Bilateral vs radial symmetry?
Bilateral (split down; equal on both sides), Radial (no equality; aboral & oral only)
Define cephalization?
Development of head end at anterior end of body
Compare the 2 gut plans?
Blind sac (mouth, no anus), tube in a tube (mouth & anus)
3 types of coeloms?
Acoelome (no cavity), pseudocoelome (false cavity), eucoelome (cavity completely lined with mesoderm "carpet")
Define metamerism?
Segmentation; serial repetition of similar body segments along longitudinal axis (Annelida, arthropod, Chordata)
3 body plans?
Metazoan, deuterostome, protostome
Metazoan body plan?
Majority of animals have this plan; bilaterally symmetrical w/ 3 germ layers
Deuterostome body plan?
Form anus from blastopore & coelome by entercoely
Protostome body plan?
Form mouth from blastopore, produce coelome schizocoely
Define tissue?
Layer of cells w/common structure and function
4 types of tissue & function
Epithelial: covering/lining, Connective: connects tissues, Muscular: contraction/movement, Nervous: send/receive info
5 adjectives describing epithelial tissue?
Simple: 1 layer, Stratified: 2 or more layers, Squamous: thin/flat, Cuboidal: cube shape, Columnar: tall
Connective tissues contain 2 things?
Cells (living), Matrix (non-living)
Types of Connective Tissue (6)
Cartilage, Dense fibrous, Loose fibrous, Bone, Blood, Adipose
Cartilage matrix, cell type, location?
Matrix (collagen protein, chondrocytes, joints)
Dense Fibrous Matrix, Cell Type, Location?
Matrix (collagen), cell type (fibroblasts), location (tendons/ligaments)
Loose Fibrous Matrix, Cell Type, Location?
Matrix (collagen) Cell type (fibroblasts) location (dermis)
Bone Matrix, Cell Type, Location?
Matrix (calcium phosphate crystals) cell type (osteocytes) location (skeleton)
Blood Matrix, Cell Type, Location?
Matrix (plasma) cell type (erythrocytes, leucocytes, platelets) location (circulatory system)
Adipose Matrix, Cell Type, Location?
Matrix (lipids) cell type (adipose cells) location (fat deposits)
3 types of Muscle tissue?
Skeletal, Smooth, Cardiac
Describe skeletal muscle (5)?
Striated, multinucleated, voluntary, fast speed, poor endurance
Describe Smooth Muscle (5)?
One nucleus, involuntary, slow speed, good endurance, intestines and blood vessel walls
Describe Cardiac Muscle (6)?
Branched fibers, multinucleated, involuntary, fast speed, good endurance, found in heart
How do muscles contract?
Thick: myosin Thin: actin, sarcomeres shorten during contraction & lengthen during relaxation via the sliding filament theory
3 components of a neuron?
Dendrite (receiving end), cell body (nucleus), axon (sending end)
What is electrochemical conduction?
Wave of electrical impulses converted to a signal releasing chemicals called neurotransmitters.
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