geology quiz Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Sufate
Gypsum
Pb
Lead
Rock Cycle
Volcano-->weathering-->sediments-->metamorphism-->new volcano...
erosion
headward, downward, lateral
Lacustrine
formed in lakes
Rhyolite
Igneous
Extrusive
Aphanatic
Fine Grained
Felsic
period
Cambrian, quaternary (right now)
Badwater
Lowest place on earth
foliated texture
leafy, layered appearance.
3 types of unconfomities
Disconfomity
Nonconformity
Angular Unconformity
dome
circular, upwarped structure, older rocks in middle
3500 km
radius of the core
Tuff
Formed from explosive volcanic eruptions of rhyolitic and andesitic magmas expelling large amounts of ash
Activated Charcoal
chemicals bond to it
meander
a curve in a stream
 
replacement,
 
hard material is replaced atom-by-atom by minerals in fluids
proton
positively charged subatomic particle (in nucleus)
Alfred Wegener
author of continental drift hypothesis
shale
Can get natural gas from _________
Compressive stress
squeeze or compress an object
apparent
when scientist talk about polar wandering they are talking about the ___________ motion of the poles
Triassic
Which is oldest period of Mesazoic?
puerto rico trench
SUBDUCTION plate tectonic process
Hot spots
volcanic plumes independent of tectonic plates
The weathering of pyroxene involves which chemical weathering process?
Oxidation
Slump
material moves along a curving, concave surface.
polymorphs
Different crystal shapes, but same composition = different mineral names and properties, but same composition
Perched water tables
overlie unsaturated material. represent a false watertable
Stock
similar to a batholith but smaller
Till
Unsorted debris transported by glaciers and deposited on land. Mixture of unsorted mud, sand, pebbles, and larger rocks deposited by glaciers. material deposited directly by the glacier
dissolution
chemical weathering aided by small amounts of acid in the water
pyroclastic flows
hot gas/ash/rock flows. up to 125mph
viscosity
A measure of a fluid's resistance flow.
chemical sedimentary rocks
crystalize from water or seawater
Many middle latitude deserts may also be characterized as __________ deserts.
a) Orographic
b) Ephemeral
c) Rainshadow
d) parabolic
rainshadow
Pyroclastic material
pulverized rock and lava fragments blown from the vent. Includes ash, pumice, cinders, blocks, bombs
The size of the largest aftershock will usually be about one magnitude unit smaller than the main shock. T or F?
True.
phenocrysts
rock with large crystals, embedded in a fine-grained matrix
culture
the way a group of people live
Crust
The very thin outermost layer of Earth.
Chemical Weathering
breaks down rock components and internal structures of minerals.
false
lava is always ejected violently as pyroclastic debris or tephra
An uplifted area bounded by normal faults is called a ?
horsts
molton rock material formed below the earth's surface
magma
hardness
how easily a mineral can be scratched
intrusive
frozen magma from below the earth's surface-visable crystals
sediment
Pieces of rock, minerals, and organic materials that are carried by water, wind or ice.
bedrock
rock still attached to the earth's crust
Plinian Eruption
A sustained explosive eruption which forms a high, jet-like column of pumice and ash in the atmosphere. -Commonly last several hours-Lay down thick layers of pumice as pyroclastic fall deposit.-May reach well into the stratosphere.
burial metamorphism
metamorphism due only to the consequences of very deep burial
Sand
smaller than gravel- worn down by physical processes. Rock and mineral composition. Larger than clay.
aquifer
underground bed / strata that yields water
Neap Tides happens how often?
Every 7 days
intrusive (plutonic)
Igneous rock that formed below the Earth's surface
core
made up of iron metal with minor nickel
Principle of superposition
each sedimentary layer of an undisturbed sequence is younger than the one beneath it and older than the one above it.
Gravitational Potential energy
position relative to earths center
(water possesses this)
plate tectonics
Fractures in crust; moving because of magma beneath; a few plates are the North American, South American, Pacific, Africa, Euroasian, and Australian. Underlying connection to all of geology; explains past and present.
Temperate Glaciers
Type of glacier whose temperature is near its melting point
eskers
a long, winding ridge formed when sand and gravel fill meltwater tunnels beneath a glacier
40
a crevasse should be no deeper than ______________meters
stream
a body of running water that is confined in a channel and moves downhill under the influence of gravity
extrusive rocks
rocks formed from molten lava that hardens on the earth's surface
faulting
a crack in the earth's surface where two pieces of land have moved in different directions
low grade metamorphism
rocks more flat and dense (slate)
Which type of faults probably dominate the area around Las Vegas in the rockies?
Normal faults
Capillary Fringe
the thin subsurface layer in which water molecules seep up from the water table by capillary action to fill pores
S-Wave
A shear wave that stops when it reaches a liquid.
Seismic Wave
A rapidly moving ocean wave, generated by earthquake activity, which is capable of inflicting heavy damage in coastal regions.
Immature River
young river (at early stage in development)
Principle of original continuity
Sedimentary layers, before erosion, formed fairly continuous sheets over a region.
Active Continental Margin
A continental margin that coincides with a plate boundary
dip
The acute angle between the plane and horizontal, measured perpendicular to strike.
Primary Porosity
The space that remains between solid grains or crystals immediately after sediment accumulates or rock forms
What is a swash?
Water going onto a beach
Plate Tectonic
The study of plates moving on the earth
Maritime tropical
from the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic Ocean
Sedimentary rock
A rock formed by the accumulation and cementation of mineral grains transported by wind, water, or ice to the site of deposition or chemically precipitated at the depositional site.
is the sequence of events in which rocks are formed, destroyed, altered and reformed by geological processes.
Rock Cycle
development of similar adaptive types in different groups of organisms results from
parallel and convergent evolution
Types of Aquifers
1) Unconfined- water table is exposed to the aquifer
2) Confined- when aquifer is confined between aquitards
Definition of Glaciers
System of flowing ice that originates on land through accumulation and recrystallization of snow and ice
geothermal energy
energy derived from the heat in the interior of the earth
sea arches
an arch of land protruding into the sea and connected by mainland by a narrow bridge
Exfoliation
When layers of a rock peel off like skin
What drives plate motions?
Plate tectonic theory describes plate motion
Tetrahedra Rings (Cyclosilicates)
• chains of tetrahedra form rings; small but important silicate subclass
fumerole
a vent in a volcanic area that allows fumes or gases to escape
Water table aquifer
the water ina water table well will rise naturally to the level of the water table
halite and gypsum
found in areas with high rates of evaporations (enclosed salt lakes or seas)
Increased Aridity and Greater Fog Frequency
Climatic influences associated with cold currents include _______
Where does contact metamorphism occur?
Where Igneous Plutons are injected into the crust
Sheet silicate structure
shares 3 oxygens; is layered ( i.e. mica)
slip and dip
attitude of a plane is expressed by its
Factors Controlling Soil Development - Climate
Temperature and Precipitation; climate determines the amount of water available to weather minerals, transport minerals and release elements. It also determines the rate of chemical weathering as it influences soil temperature. More tropical climates have more organic material matter in the soil while the opposite is true of colder, harsher climates. Rainfall also causes leaching and dissolves minerals, as well as bring in acid rain in areas close to industrial plants.
The dominant geologic process in the early history of all planetary bodies in the solar system appears to have been
intense meteorite bombardment.This process is not revealed by the bodies with the oldest surfaces.
How does topography influence soil formation?
Physical features of the landscape, influences the availability of water and the rate of soil accumulation (steep slope vs. gentle slope).
rain shadow
a desert forms here on the side of the mountain where little rain falls on the downwind side of the mountain
The earth's outer core is made of what?
molten iron and nickel
Below the CCD water is colder and CaCO3 dissolves, clay or siliceous sediments are deposited. At what depth is this?a. 4000 - 5000b. 2000 - 3000c. 6000 - 7000 d. 1000 - 2000
a.      4000 - 5000
why does quartz develop six cleavage plains?
the mineral does not cleave
What are the three sources of water pollution?
Industrial, Agricultural, and domestic wastes
A metamorphic rock that is described as porphyroblastic has _________.
Large crystals in a fine-grained matrix.
What is a crystalline texture?
the grains are intergrown and form an interlocking pattern.
refers to the order in which minerals crystallize
bowen's reactions series
a) refers to the order of metamorphic changes with increasing temperature
b) refers to the hardness of the mineral
c) refers to the order in which minerals weather
d) refers to the order in which minerals crystallize
Where are the sources of active fluids in metamorphism?
pore spaces of sedimentary rocks, fractures in igneous and hydrated minerals such as clays and minerals
What are the three main steps that lead to glacial formation?
Snow falls - accumulates, Compaction, Recrystallizes
Seismic activity serves as a tool of volcanic forecasting because
molten lava rising to the crust creates earthquakes through disruption of the rocks before the actual eruption
the stream in a valley does not erode as quickly as the river in the main canyon
within the national parks studied far, a hanging calley is formed when:
cambrian
paleozoic
d
d
Cenozoic
Recent Life
caldera volcano
volcano lake
Tectonic Diagram A
Asthenosphere
turbidity currents
get definition
examples of geysers
-old faithful
-ca
-iceland
Halides
Halite NaCl, Flourite CaF2
Subjective view
thoughts and feelings
ultramafic
Compositional catagory for igneous rocks made up almost entirely of ferromagnesian minerals (mostly olivine and pyroxene)
Type of stress... Normal Fault
Tension
predominant evolutionary trend in Pleistocene mammals was toward
giantism
Stream Flows
Can be:
-Laminar (linear)
-Turbulent (irregular)
scientific method
observation, hypothesis, prediction, test, theory
James Hall
Stratigraphic geologist and Paleontologist
fossil biases
abundance and sizebiological destructionmechanical destructionchemical destructionpost mortem transporthigh percentage of mineral matterfavorable environmentssurvival of sediments
Compared to bedrock, unconsolidated sediments or landfills are good foundation materials because they lessen the amplitude of earthquake shaking.
False
three
Using the S-P timing method, epicenters can be located using seismograms from a minimum of ___ recording stations?
ventifacts
stones with wind faceted upper surfaces in deserts
no
are all groundwater contaminents man made
gradient is steeper
glaciers move faster where
Sinkhole
a depression in the ground communicating with a subterranean passage (especially in limestone) and formed by solution or by collapse of a cavern roof
Love Wave
Surface wave with side-to-side motion.
Scheelite
Tetragonal. Vitreous. Uses: High temp steel hardening metal. Occurrence: granite pegmatites
Porphyroblastic Rocks
Some grains grow very large.
a sedimentary sequence of sandstone over shale over limestone indicates?
regression
Trilobite
Arthropods that is an extrememly common fossil. Evolve rapidly in Cambrian.
Emergence
Reflects sea level during previous interglacial period
North American Mountains
-Appalachians
-Western N. American Cordillara
Competency
Largest particle a river may transport
phyllite
Gradation in the degree of metamorphism between slate and schist
Platy minerals not large enough to be identified with the unaided eye
Glossy sheen and wavy surfaces
Exhibits rock cleavage
Composed mainly of fine crystals of muscovite and/or chlorite
longshore currents
move sand parallel to the shore.
creating depositional features
asteroid
One of the small celestial bodies orbiting the Sun, most of them between Mars and Jupiter.
abrasion
particle wear down bedrock channel by grinding away by friction & impact of the sediment load . Most effective method of erosion. Eg. Sandpaper on wood
Meandering Stream
Water and sediment in equilibrium, enough volume to keep channel full
Low latitude deserts
about thirty degrees from equator
Stream-flow Gauges
Primary means of reducing flood hazards.
Shield Volcano
Large, broad volcano with gently sloping sides that is formed by the buildup of basaltic layers; built by successive layers of thin runny lava (mafic) with low gas content. characterized by non-explosive eruptions
bedding plane
bounding surface seperating one layer of sedimentary rock from another
melt
Form when solid materials become hot and transform into liquid.
protons, neutrons, and electrons are made of
subatomic particles
where do komatiites get their name?
Komati river
Metamorphism
Alteration of existing rocks by heat, pressure, reactive fluids, or some combination.
What types of sandstones is most likely to form by the rapid mechanical weathering of a granite?
Arkose.
liquid water
chemical weathering is largely a function of ___________________
cooler
as basaltic magma rises through the crust, it becomes
Reptiles of Jurassic
flying, marine, freshwater, dinosaurs ( saurischian & ornithischian, found in Alberta)
terrace
the elevated surface of an older floodplain into which a younger floodplain had cut down
Straight Channel
-highest velocity segment found near surface in mid-channel
Fossil Preservation
 
1.Death in an anoxic (oxygen-free) environment- oxidation reactions do not take place -bacterial metabolism takes place slowly- scavenging animals not abundant ~such environments: bottom of stagnant lakes, deep ocean, in tar or amber
 
2. Rapid BurialE.g. sudden storm buries an oyster bed with a thick layer of silt ~ become part of the sedimentary rockRiver suddenly floods and buries a dinosaur carcass in silt ~ the carcass becomes fossilized 
3.The presence of hard parts-Organisms without hard parts commonly won’t be fossilized-Paleontologists know much more about the fossil record of bivalves that they do of the jellyfish or spiders 
4. Lack of diagenesis or metamorphism-Lack of these two may destroy fossils that had been present-Note high-grade metamorphism will destroy fossils 
basalt
fine grained igneous rock with low silica content (rapid cooling of lava)
What is a barrier island?
Offshore sandy barrier
Centripetal force
a center-seeking force that tends to make rotating bodies move toward the center of rotation; keeps planets in their orbits
benioff zone
a series of earthquakes in a subduction zone that get deeper as they move further from the plate boundary, defining the plate boundary
lithosphere
the solid part of the earth consisting of the crust and outer mantle
Deposition
Sediment falling to the lake or sea floor
of the more than 3,500 known minerals, most are
silicates
The top of the water saturated zone
water table
reverse polarity
a magnetic field opposite to that which exists at present
10 15
sand dunes may move only ___________ to ___________per year
A ______________ is the instrument to record the seismic wave, whereas a ______________ is the physical record of the wave's motion.
seismograph, seismogram
hydrogen bond
occur with other bonds; common in hydroxyl or hydrated minerals
a glacial valley filled by water is termed a
fjord
Wood and Whale Oil
Energy in colonial american (1600s-1750s)
Deep ocean circulation (Thermohaline)
Caused by temperature and density
Quartzite (Nonfoliated)
formed from parent rock of quart-rich sandstone, grains fused together
tilts
the surface of the earth _________ and changes elevation slightly before an earthquake
Glacial vs. Interglacial periods
Relative and absolute temperature of ocean water
What do oxygen isotopes show?
Contact metamorphism
or thermal occurs around edges of intrusions when rocks immediately surrounding a molten igneous body are baked. Metamorphism that is caused by heat from a magmatic intrusion.
magnetic field

a volume of space where magnetic force is present) is conveniently described by


 
magnetic lines of force.


ascending and descending
convection cells in the liquid alloy are what activate the earth’s internal dynamocomplex pattern of convection in the core changes, so do the directionality and strength of the magnetic field observed at the earth’s surface.
convection cells in the liquid alloy are what activate the earth’s internal dynamocomplex pattern of convection in the core changes, so do the directionality and strength of the magnetic field observed at the earth’s surface.


 

 
Deep Focus
350-670 km deep; limited to subduction zones along converging boundaries
discharge
amt of water flowing past a certain point at a given time(cross sectional area)x(velocity)*normally not constant due to rain & snowmelt*if discharge increases the stream either increases depth & stays at same rate OR must flow faster*
A type of lithification in which the weight of overlaying material compresses more deeply buried sediment. Most important in fine-grained sedimentary rocks.
compaction
device
a thing made for a particular purpose; an invention or contrivance, esp. a mechanical or electrical one.
Flat surfaces covering vast areas of the deep ocean floor are known as:
the abyssal plains
What are the three different rock types?
Igneous, sedimentary, metamorphic
End moranes
mark the former position of the front of a glacier
Mass Number
The sum of the protons and the Neutrons.
Beach drift
the transport of sediment in a zigzag pattern along the beach, caused by the uprush of water from obliquely breaking waves
Shock metamorphism:
when a meteorite slams into Earth that causes kinetic energy to turn into heat the heat and compression causes the crystal structure of quartz grains in rocks below the impact site to suddenly undergo a phase change to a more compact mineral called coesite.
Continental Slope
the steep descent of the seabed from the continental shelf to the abyssal zone
Andesitic and granitic magma
partial melting of seafloor at subduction zones/partial melting of continental crust
Pyroclastic Rocks
composed of material blown out of a volcano
Subduction zone
an area on earth where two tectonic plates move towards one another and one slides under the other
Milankovitch (orbital) forcing: Obliquity of plan of ecliptic

 

cycle ~ 41,000 years. Change in angel of equatorial plane relative to orbital plane.

 
fractional crystallization
as magma cools from a melt, low silicate minerals first fromed ny increasing more silica rich minerals, is Bowen's reaction series
Formation of Earth's core
-intense heating due to radioactive decay-causes iron and nickel to melt-dense liquid metal sank toward center of planet
Hydrologic cycle
-movement of the earth's water and gas layer

-powered by solar radiation with minor geothermal energy

-sculpts continental land surface
salt water intrusion
salt water intrudes and well pumps up salty water
Water pollutant categories: Plant Nutrients
Presence of too much "limiting nutrient" (phosphorus in fresh water and nitrogen in marine) can cause an algal bloom, which covers the surface of the water source and increases the BOD, suffocating the marine life below. Fertilizers and human sewage are rich in phosphorus and nitrogen.
superposition and fossil succession
were used to determine the relative ages of systems of the geologic column
Landforms Formed by Valley Glaciers
Cirque, Tarn, Horn, U-shaped and hanging valley, fjord
The earth is thought by geologist to be about how old?
4.6 billion years
geothermal gradient (geotherm)
the rate of change in temp with depth
What is the age of the earth?
4.57 Billion years old
2 ways to measure the size of EQs?
Intensity & Magnitude
Portion of the Earth that acts as a brittle solid
What is Lithosphere
What is the Moho?
The Moho is the boundary between the crust and the mantle. The moho changes types of rocks.
gas reservoirs are excellent
which of the following can be best said about the recoverable hydrocarbon reserves from Oklahoma in the next couple of decades
what is a reasonable rate for plate movement
5 cm per year
nonmetal mineral resource
mineral resource that is not a fuel or processed for the metals it contains
Iron and magnesium ions are similar in size and both have a "+2" positive charge. Therefore, we would expect iron and magnesium to _______________ .
Substitute for eachother in minerals.
What are some of the limitations/problems with solar and wind power?
High cost making generating solar and wind electricity is more expensive than electricity created with other resources
Phanerozoic Eon (3 eras) (542 mya-present)
-eon of visible life1) Paleozoic (old life)2) mESOZOIC (MIDDLE LIFE)3) Cenozoic (new life)
What is the principle of isostasy
idea that the earth's crust floats in the mantle, floating equilibrium like wood in water
What are the 3 heaviest elements?
O2 oxygen, Si silicon, Al aluminum 75% of all 8 elements
What is the Principle of Superposition ?
Younger deposits on top – older underneath. (younger rx on top, older rx under)
Which of the following reflects the correct parent isotope to daughter isotope?A. potassium – 40, lead – 206 B. thorium – 232, lead – 208 C. uranium – 238, lead – 206 D. potassium – 40, strontium – 87
B.    thorium – 232, lead – 208 C.    uranium – 238, lead – 206
A theory A. is not as reliable a representation of truth as is a “scientific law.” B. is not as reliable a representation of truth as is a hypothesis. C. is just an educated guess. D. can be proven. E. cannot be proven.

E.    cannot be proven.
gneiss
schist->gneiss
Carbonates
CO3 basis
Granite
Igneous Rock,intrusive
CaCO3
chemical formula calcite
lava
a'a' and pahoehoe
diamond
The hardest mineral is
the study of rocks
geology
elastically
The lithosphere behaves ___.
Rivers
Channelized Flow transports sediment
ONLY fine sand, silt, and clay
focus
point where an earthquake beings
Calderas
Large, nearly circular depressions that result from collapse follwing an explosive eruption
Pumice
Vesicular, Light colored, Small poees
What drives plate tectonics?
Thermal convection.
Travertine and geyserite are associated with?
Geysers
Name all carbonates.
Calcite and Dolomite.
breaking into smooth curved surfaces
conchoidal fracture
Drainage Divide
Line that separates drainage basins.
foot wall
rock block below the fault
seawall
if stabilized, beach lost, land preserved; if unstabilized, land lost, beach preserved
younger
discordant features are ________ than any feature they cut across
first serious evolutionary theory for the origin of the solar system was proposed by
Descartes
planet
a relatively large spherical object that orbits a star and has cleared its orbit of most debris
groins
blocks long shore transport of sand-erodes beach between the groins and builds up on the outside of one as a result of LSC
elastic limit
if stress exceeds, permanent deformation
fossiliferous limestone
limestone consisting of abundant fossil shell fragments
Sedimentary Green Rocks
Reducing potassium, transitional shelf, fish fecies
Lahar
a mudflow occuring when volcanic debris becomes saturated with water-can be triggered by ice melting when volcano erupts**caused by composite cone volcanos**
Main components of Granit?
Quartz, Feldspar, Mica
Linnaeus Classification
Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species
Relief
the difference in elevation between an area's high and low points
Subduction
The process in which a lithospheric plate descends beneath another plate and dives into the asthenoshpere
continental crust
composition varies, less dense than oceanic crust, thick
Which subdivision of geologic time is the longest?
Precambrian
isotope
variation of an element-# of neutrons varies, # of protons remain the same
Mud crack
Type of sedimentary structure caused by shrinkage on exposure to air.
A typical high population growth rate might be about ____%.
3%
Geology
study of all aspects of planet Earth:
history, composition, internal structure, and surface features
The silicate tetrahedron consists of 1 O atom surrounded by 4 Si atoms
False
beta
unstable parent turns in to daughter one neutron is turned in to a proton and loses negative charge
Magma
Hot molten rock emerging from the Earth's crust
Floodplains
The flat, low-lying portion of a stream valley subject to periodic inundation
Compaction Consequences


- New Orleans: Engineering on Mississippi river cuts off natural sediment to build on top of the natural subsidence.

- The city has subsided below sea level and river.
-Discharge on Miss. R. is controlled, land has been lost since and can never be recovered and only to fix it is add artificially.
 - Hurricanes increase severity with decrease in land. Coastal loss rate: 34.9 mi2/yr, Basin loss rate: 33.5 mi2/yr, Subsidence rates increase since 1978
The Varangian glaciation which is described as a period of extensive glaciation as evidenced by the tillites, dropstones, and varied clays occurred duringa. Neoproterozoic. c. Paleoproterozoic.b. Grenville. d. Mesoproterozoic.
a.    Neoproterozoic.
slide
Loose materiel slides down the plane of the scarp. Without coherent blocks. 1 large mass.
3 types of stress
tension, shear stress, compressional
aquatard
an impermeable layer that hinders or prevents water movement (such as clay)
Laminar Flow
The movement of water particles in straight-line paths that are parallel to the channel. The water particles move downstream without mixing.
Alaska
On 3 November 2002, a large earthquake occurred in ____. Because of its similarity to the 1857 Fort Tejon earthquake on the San Andreas fault, this event has been compared to the much-anticipated 'big one' in Southern California?
Stress
The amount of force divided by the unit area to which the force is applied. This is the cause strain
Earthquake epicenter
a point on Earth's surface directly above the focus
total preservation
ex: insect bodies tapped in amber, frozen carcasses of woolly mammoths
Steno's Three Laws
(1) Principle of superposition (2) Principle of Original Horizontality (3) Principle of original lateral continuity
cut banks
outside of meander zone of active erosion
Subphylum Vertebrata
The major division of Phylum Chordata, consists of animals with backbones.
Slope Failures
Sudden failures of slopes resulting in transport of debris downhill
-Slumps occur on curved surfaces
-Rock falls and debris falls occur on steep slopes
migmatite
mix of igneous and meta rock produced by incomplete melting
When was the Vindija cave in Croatia found?
1970s
zone of accumilation
part glacier additions exceed losses glacier surface covered with snow
Which mountain range is thought to be due to continent-continent collision?
Himalayas
Anticlines
1. Age - oldest rocks at axis (middle)
2. Dip - beds dip away from axis
3. Plunge - fold plunges toward the closed end of the outcrop
-gets bent upwards into shape of a capital A
-caused by compression
aquifier
A permeable layer of rock and sediment that stores and brings groundwater in enough quantities to supply wells
amniotic egg
an egg produced by reptiles, birds, and monotremes in which the developing embryo is maintained and protected by an elaborate arrangement of shell membranes, yolk, sac, amnion, and allantois
This term is used to describe an impermearble layer that hinders or prevents the movement of groundwater.
aquitard
RIPPLE MARKS
symetric- water moving back and forth, like in a lake or ocean-stagnant waterasymetric-water moving in a certain direction - rivers--upstream the ripples are to the right--downstream the ripples are to the left
Plates
The interaction of plates moving in a single direction.Takes place at plate margins
Tectonic Joint Development
rocks subjected to tectonic stresses and are deformed to produce fractures without displacement

square shape
Mercalli Intensity Scale
a 12-point scale developed to evaluate earthquake intensity based on the amount of damage to various structures
Milankovich Cycles
Produced Ice Age as we know it(Complex interaction of solar system things) Caused cooling down the last few million years
discordant intrusions
cut across the layers of the country rock that they intrude.
Herodotus
ca. 450 B.C. layers of mud in Nile Valley = series of flood so Earth must be thousands of years old
Floyd was a category 5 hurricane in September of 1999 before it made landfall. On Rocky Mount, NC, hurricane Floyd dumped some of its most intense rainfall, i.e., approximtely
20 inches
If a mineral is salty and composed of NaCl, then how many cleavage directions does it
exhibit?
3
5 characteristics to classify a mineral
naterally occuring,inorgantic, soild, crstal struture, difinite chemical compostion
relative age
the age of something in comparison to other things
What are typical source rocks for oil and gas to form in?
sandstone, shale,
yazoo tributary
a tributary that flows parallel to the main stream because a natural levee is present
Radiometric Ages
- actual number of years passed since rock formed
(closed system-not always true in nature)
lateral erosion (streams)
erosion and downcutting of a stream bank and valley walls as stream swings from side to side. stream channel remains same width, but valley widens by erosion.
along waht kind of plate boundary is the oceanic lithosphere formed
divergent bountries
What is Original horizontality?
Most sediments and volcanic are deposited in horizontal layers
Ground water flow
From areas of high hydraulic head to low hydraulic head
If you were to see a stream like that illustrated in Fig. 14, in which of the following US States would you most likely be? Choose among
Idaho.
lava domes and large calderas
What type of volcanoes for Rhyolitic?
what is the ratio after 2 half lifes
1 to 3
Ichthyosaur
Name given to a member of a group of extinct dolphin-shaped reptiles that were one of the top predators inhabiting the Mesozoic (Triassic, Jurassic and Cretaceous) seas.
Geologic Maps
a map as viewed from above showing the dristribution of different kids and ages of rocks and their structure
CONTAINS
legend-map colors, symbols, age and general description of rock types (old rocks/new rocks)
symbols recording- strike and dip of rock units/folds,faults and orientation
 
SPECIFIC GRAVITYphysical property
ratio of weight of mineral to equal volume of water-avg value = 2.7-hefting mineral can work too(comparing weight of mineral in hand to common rocks)
Periods in Cenozoic? starting with the oldest
Paleo gene, Neo gene
What happened in Mississippi 1993
Great Flood that lasted for 6 months
determine whether mass movement will occur
need shear strength and shear stress
What is marine regression
sea level falls with respect to the land with more dry land
Some ovservations in regards to fractional melting and andesites?
Ocean and continental crust ALWAYS near subduction zones. Mantle sourceMelting of subducting oceanic crustSEAWATER supplies source of gas
What is a fracture?
absence of cleavage when a mineral is borken
The nature of seismic waves
- depends on density and elasticity of intervening material
In 1958, Dr. Keeling set up weather stations and balloons throughtout the stations. He measured at Mauna Loa, Hawaii. He measured the CO2 concentration throughout a # of years. Now, by Nov 30, 2010 the CO2 level is 387.18 ppm.
What is the Keeling Curve?
How are sedimentary rocks formed?
bits and pieces of old rock affected by weathering and collect on bottom of lake in deposits the bed weighs down these sediments and are then lithified, or turned into rock.
water, weak materials, decrease in cohesion, triggers, adverse geological structures
what are the internal causes of slope failure?
What interesting patterns do we see with trilobite morphology during the Devonian? What might have been driving these patterns?
The development of spikes and spines on their bodies which would have protected them from predators.
Where is latent heat flux the highest?
In a band that is slightly aove equator (ITCZ)
What is not a major process at convergent plate margins?
Extrusion of large volumes of basaltic magma
What is frost wedging and how does it work
when water works its way into the cracks in rocks, the freezing water enlarges the cracks and angular fragments are eventually produced
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