Ch.10: Early Childhood: Psychosocial Development Flashcards

Terms Definitions
the ability to control when and how emotions are expressed.
Emotional Regulation:
Erikson’s third psychosocial crisis, in which children undertake new skills and activities and feel guilty when they do not succeed at them.
Initiative versus Guilt:
a person’s understanding of who he or she is, in relation to self-esteem, appearance, personality, and various traits.
drive, or reason to pursue a goal, that comes from inside a person, such as the need to feel smart or competent.
Intrinsic Motivation:
a drive, or reason to pursue a goal, that arises from the need to have one’s achievements rewarded from outside, perhaps by receiving material possessions or another person’s esteem.
Extrinsic Motivation:
an illness or disorder of the mind.
difficulty with emotional regulation that expressing powerful feelings through uncontrollable physical or verbal outbursts, as by lashing out at other people or breaking things.
Externalizing Problems:
difficulty with emotional regulation that involves turning one’s emotional distress inward, as by feeling excessively guilty, ashamed, or worthless.
Internalizing Problems:
play that mimics aggression through wrestling, chasing, or hitting, but in which there is no intent to harm.
Rough-and-Tumble Play:
pretend play in which children act out various roles and themes in stories that they create.
Sociodramatic Play:
an approach to child rearing that is characterized by high behavioral standards, strict punishment of misconduct, and little communication.
Authoritarian Parenting:
an approach to child rearing that is characterized by high nurturance and communication but little discipline, guidance, or control.
Permissive Parenting:
an approach to child rearing in which the parents set limits but listen to the child and are flexible.
Authoritative Parenting:
an approach to child rearing in which the parents are indifferent toward their children and unaware of what is going on in their children’s lives.
Neglectful/Uninvolved Parenting:
the ability to understand the emotions and concerns of another person, especially when they differ from one’s own.
feelings of dislike or even hatred for another person.
feelings and actions that are helpful and kind but are of no obvious benefit to oneself.
Prosocial Behavior:
feelings and actions that are deliberately hurtful or destructive to another person.
Antisocial Behavior:
behavior that hurts someone else because the aggressor wants to get or keep a possession or a privilege.
Instrumental Aggression:
an impulsive retaliation for another person’s intentional or accidental action, verbal or physical.
Reactive Aggression:
nonphysical acts, such as insults or social rejection, aimed at harming the social connection between the victim and other people.
Relational Aggression:
unprovoked, repeated physical or verbal attack, especially on victims who are unlikely to defend themselves.
Bullying Aggression:
a disciplinary technique that involves threatening to withdraw love and support and that relies on a child’s feelings of guilt and gratitude to the parents.
Psychological Control:
a disciplinary technique in which a child is separated from other people for a specified time.
biological differences between males and females, in organs, hormones, and body type.
Sex Differences:
differences in the roles and behavior of males and females that are prescribed by the culture.
Gender Differences:
Freud’s third stage of development when the penis becomes the focus of concern and pleasure.
Phallic Stage:
the unconscious desire of young boys to replace their father and win their mother’s romantic love.
Oedipus Complex:
in psychoanalytic theory, the judgmental part of the personality that internalizes the moral standards of the parents.
the unconscious desire of girls to replace their mother and win their father’s romantic love.
Electra Complex:
an attempt to defend one’s self-concept by taking on the behaviors and attitudes of someone else.
a cognitive concept or general belief based on one’s experiences— in this case, a child’s understanding of sex differences.
Gender Schema:
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