Lymphatic system and immunity Flashcards

Terms Definitions
What are microbes?
Microscopic organisms and particles that include: bacteria, viruses, prions and others ( parasites, fungi, etc)
NO NUCLEUS. Prokaryotic, SINGLE CELLED. Have DNA in a single chromosome , but no nucleus
What does bacteria contain?
Cell wall, plasmids ( accessory rings of DNA), and ribosomes ( protein builders and synthesizers )
What are the three shapes of bacteria?
Cocci, bacilli , spirillum
Cocci bacteria
Rod shaped
Comma or spiral shaped
Non living parasites . ACELLULAR ( no cells ) and must reproduce inside a host cell. Specific to which type of cell they attack. Have an envelope
Outer protein coat of a virus
Capsid . Made up of protein subunits
Inner nucleic acid of a virus contains..
DNA or RNA , not both
Infectious protein particles. Cause degenerative diseases of the nervous system ( mad cow) .. Transmitted by eating part of infected nerve tissue ..... Normal proteins that CHANGE SHAPE and make other proteins change shape
What are lymphatic vessels?
One way, valved tubular system that carries lymph fluid towards the heart.
What are lymphatic vessels made of?
Lymph capillaries, vessels, and ducts
Funtion of lymph vessels?
To return extra-cellular tissue fluid ( water, sollutes, cell products ) to the blood .... Defend against pathogens ... Carries lymph fluid to the heart
What are lacteals ?
Lymphatic vessels found in the SMALL INTESTINE. They carry absorbed fats we eat in the blood
What are the primary lymphatic organs
Red bone Marrow and thymus gland
What are the secondary lymphatic organs
Lymph notes and spleen ...,Peyers patches - small intestines and appendix.... Tonsils
Thymus gland
Primary lymphatic organ. Bilobed and found in thoracic cavity above the heart. Largest in kids then shrinks. Immature t lymphocytes move from r bone marrow to thymus where they nature & 95% stay
Lymph nodes
Secondary lymphatic organ Lymphatic vessels - filled with Bcells, T cells, and macrophages... Common in neck, axila (armpits) and groin regions
First line of defense consists of what
Barriers to entry : chemical and physical
What are physical barriers
First line of defense . Skin.. . Tears,saliva, and urine flush out microbes. Mucus membranes line respiratory, digestive, reproductive and urinary tracts Resident bacteria take up space
What are chemical barriers
First line of defense. Secretions of Sebatious oil glands Lysozyme ( anti bacterial enzyme ) found in saliva tears and sweat. Acidic ph of stomach and vagina
The second line of defense consists of what
Phagocytic wbc's: neutrophils and macrophages Inflammatory response. Protective Proteins: compliment and interferon cytokines
What are the four symptoms of inflammation
Redness , heat, Swelling, pain
What is the first thing that happens in the inflammatory response
Histamine is released by MAST CELLS, causing the capillaries to dilate and become more permeable = more phagocytic wbc's to pass from the inside of the blood vessel to the inflamed tissue = redness
What causes heat in the inflammatory response
Increased blood flow due to histamine that causes capillaries to dilate . ( redness and temp )
What happens if neutrophils cannot control Infection
Cytokines ( chemical messengers ) will call more wbc's including macrophages
What are complement cytokines
Second line of defense: protective proteins. Bind to mast cells to release histamine..... Attract phagocytes by binding to them...... Form a MEMBRANE ATTACK complex that make holes in bacteria and viruses , causing them to burst
what are interferons?
second line of defense: protective proteins, cytokines
proteins produced by virally infected cells- sent out to warn neighboring healthy cels
what are specific (aquired) defenses?
third line of defense; protects us against *specific pathogens* and *cancer*.
depends on action of B&T lumphocytes
Sentence: distinguishes self from nonself
B Lymphocytes
antiBody mediated immunity
Sentence: specific( aquired) defenses *third line* depend on action of B&T lymphocytes
T Lymphocytes
cell mediated immunity
Sentence: specific( aquired) defenses *third line* depend on action of B&T lymphocytes
Each B&T lymphocyte has a receptor for...
ONE type of antigen
what is the structure of an antibody?
Y shaped protein; Trunk of the "Y"= constant heavy chain reaction that determines class* of the antibody
Sentence: end of the arms of the
B cells
produce plasma cells and memory cells
plasma cells
produce specific antibodies; B cells
memory cells
b cells; ready to produce antibodies in the future
cytotoxic T cells
kill virus-infected cells and cancer cells
helper T cells
regulate immunity
memory T cells
ready to kill in the future
active immunity
antibodies produced by body; long-lasting, depends on mem. T&B cells; can happen through natural infection, or immunization- vaccines
Passive Immunity
injected into body; short-lived (weeks); can happen naturally as antibodies are passed from mom to fetus
what causes an immediate allergic response?
igE antibodies attach to mast cells and basophiles= histamine released
what causes organ transplant tissue rejection?
cytoxic T cells respond to transplanted tissue that is not recognized as "self".. and attack the foreign tissue
autoimmune disease
when cytotoxic T cells or antibodies attack the bodys own cells... multiple sclerosis
immonodeficiency disease
unable to defend the body against diseases... aids
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