Geology Second Exam Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Low Temperature
Deep Water
lystrosaurus and cynognathus
metallic streak
dark colored
Afred Wegner
Continental drift hypothesis
Electrically neutral subatomic particle found in the nucleus of an atom. Same mass as proton.
Tectonic Diagram B
Oceanic Crust
Wrangell-St. Elias National Park
course grained/ slow cooling rate
water soaking into the ground
Charles Lyell
Father of Modern Geology
divergent plate boundaries under water-- long mountain chain
vvegner named his super continent
Daughter Isotope
product of this decay
What is the largest sphere?
Continental Features?
Mountains and Broad plains
Recessional Moraine
Both Continental and Mountain Glaciation- Ridge of till that forms at terminus of a glacier, behind (up-glacier) and generally parallel to the terminal moraine; formed during a temporary halt (stand in recession of a wasting glacier.
________ is a large circular depression formed after an eruption. It is wider than a crater
the distance wind travels over water.
shield volcano
basaltic magma, gentle eruptions, regular eruptions, wide, low viscosity
The chemical reaction between the minerals in the rock and hydrogen in rain water.
the vertical distance between the valley floor and mountain summit
Weathering processes
Physical, chemical and biochemical weathering may concentrate some minerals to the point of being an ore.
Binding of particles by minerals deposited by water moving through pores.
Emergent Coastlines
Formerly submerged features now exposed on land.
-Ocean terraces.
Made of organic hydrocarbons formed from plants
a dark brown/red extrusive igneous rock with a frothy texture and air pockets
used in foot care
a vast composite, intrusive, igneous rock body up to several hundred km long and 100 km wide, formed by the intrusion of numerous plutons in the same region
Formed by dissolving rock beneath earth's surface
formed in zone of saturation
pyrite group, formed from metal ore mixing with sulfides,hydrothermal enviroment,thi sheets
series of walls built perpendicular to the beach
A mixture of liquid rock, crystals, and dissolved gas
The stripping of concentric rock slabs from the outer surface of a rock mass.
Scientists define it as solid earth material that has been altered by physical, chemical, and biological processes such that it can support rooted plant life. Engineers define it as solid earth material that can be removed without blasting.
Combination Movement
Reverse plus left-lateral; Normal plus right-lateral = Oblique-Slip faults.
Nuclear Waste
Radioactive material produced in a nuclear plant. Includes spent fuel, which contains radioactive daughter products, as well as water and equipment that has come in contact with radioactive materials
Enhancements & immitations
nearly all emeralds are oiled
obsididian are produced from Mt. St. Helens to produce fake emeralds on QVC
The scientific study of the origin, history, and structure of the earth.
Salinity is typically measured as a concentration of grams of salt per kilogram of water (g/kg). For example, the average concentration of salt in seawater is about 35 g/kg. In other words, there are 35 grams of salt dissolved in 1 kilogram of typical seawater.
This quantity is usually expressed as the measure of parts salt per thousand parts seawater (ppt or 0/00). For example, 35 grams of salt dissolved in 1 kilogram of seawater is equal to 35 parts of salt dissolved in 1000 parts of seawater, or 35 ppt.
the layer of the atmosphere between the stratosphere and the thermosphere and in which temperature decreases as altitude increases.
what is the most common volcanic rock
As seismic energy travels deeper into the earth, it emerges to the surface ____________ from the earthquake.
100 year flood
statistical statement of probability that a flood will occur- not that it will occur
Oil Shale and Tar Sands
Not cost effective
Volume of water moving past given point in certain amount of time
pass Mg solution through calcite to exchange calcium for mg in CaCO3. formed from dolomite
a material that does not have interconnected pore space, thus not allowing water to flow through it
half-bowl shaped recess carved into a mtn. at the head of a valley by a glacier.
LUSTERphysical property
appearance of mineral in reflected light-1-metallic (have appearance of metal, regardless of color)-2-non-metallic-other: oily, silky, earthy
direction of the intersection of a rock layer with a horizontal surface
a specific geomorphic feature on the surface of the earth, ranging from large-scale features such as plains, plateaus, and mountains to minor features such as hills, valleys, and alluvial fans.
transported soil
a soil that is formed from weathered
materials that have been eroded and
transported from the site of original
Event in Time Scale
Geologically instantaneous marker that can be traced globally
-Ex. Permian-Triassic boundary marked by 96% extinction of marine species, 70% of land vertebrates
-Ex. Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary: extinction of the Dinosaurs
how does "topping off" by cutting off the top of a hillside make it less likely to fail?
destructive forces
slowly wear away mountains and all other features on the Earth's surface
plate tectonics
The theory that pieces of Earth's lithosphere are in constant motion, driven by convection currents in the mantle.
Magma is
the reason volcanoes form, the source of all igneous rocks and melted rock.
542 to 0
The Phanerozoic extended form ____ million years ago to_____
strike slip
a _______________ fault, is a fault were the movement is predominantly horizontal and therefore paralllel to the strike of the fault
the study of the overall structure of the Universe
Elevation of the ground surface is measured relative to
sea level
What is sediment?
A collection of transported fragments or precipitated materials that accumulate, typically in loose layers, as of sand and mud
weather system
a specific set of weather conditions, reflecting the configuration of air movement in the atmosphere, that affects a region for a period of time
liquid injection
____ has been suggested as possible means to release locked fault system.
thing that is built at rivermouths to keep the channel open is a
heat transfer
rising magma carries heat with it, this raises the temperature in nearby crustal rock which eventually melts
continental volcanic arc
mountains formed by igneous activity associated with the subduction of oceanic lithosphere beneath a continent
Materials Management
Making better use of materials to reduce the waste we produce.
What planet is right after planet earth?a. Jupiterb. Uranusc. Marsd. Mercury
c.    Mars
nuee ardent
a type of explosive volcanic eruption characterized by a dense, very hot mass of ash, gasses, and volcanic material traveling down a volcanic slope at high velocity. A nuee ardent, also called a pyroclastic flow,
What is the biosphere?
All living organisms on earth.
What are craters
depressions near summit from which volcanic materials are ejected
why does magma composition vary?
source rocks, mixing, assimilation
The way in which the surface of a mineral reflects light to produce the shine of its surface, described by such subjective terms as dull, glassy, or metallic.
all of the above
plate movement is possibly driven by
a) convection cells within the mantle
b) slab-push and/or pull and gravity
c) all of the above
d) none of the above
The way that a mineral breaks down by physical and chemical processes at or near the surface of the earth. It is important to forming sediments and soil
sedimentary rock
rock formed by wind, water and weather over time. The sediment is washed along the rivers and piles up, the pressure cements the sediment into a hard rock
basalt, andesite, rhyolite
extrusive rocks (in order; top to bottom)
Angular unconformity
layers above and below strata are not in parallel
Bowen's reaction series
rock formed under higher P&T is usually more stable at earth crust T&P
continental ice sheet
an extremely large ice mass that blankets much or all of a continent
what 2 things determine ice flow
thickness and slope angle
Stage 2 of Pangea Rifting
LATE TRIASSIC-JURASSIC, rifting of Gondwana--Antartica & Australia pull apart from SA & Africa, India goes Northward
the verticle drop of a stream over a specific distance
wave-cut terrace`
a level surface formed by wave erosion of a rocky shoreline beneath the surface zone, which may be visible at low tide
End Moraine
ridge of till that formed at terminal end of glacier-deposited when there is equilibrium between ablation & accumulation-->ice is melting at end but ice flow continually deposits more sedimentsTYPES:1)terminal moraine2) recessional moraine
An intrusive and extrusive example of Felsic Rock
Granite (Intrusive)
Rhyolite (Extrusive)
The growth of a solid form a gas or liquid whose constituent atoms come together in the proper chemical proportions and ordered three-dimensional arrangement.
radioactive decay and conversion of gravitational energy thermal energy
Earth's internal heat come from
sea urchins (EARLY MESOZOIC)
an echinoderm group in which numerous spines are attached to their rigid skeleton by ball and socket joints.
Why don't the oceans freeze solid near the poles
bc ice floats
Waves break because?
The moving water in the wave interacts with the bottom.
Tensional tectonics in the Basin and Range Province yielded
north-south oriented, normal faults
where was most of the damage after the Point Loma earthquake?
San Fransisco
During Jurassic, plates keep separating and what happens?
sea level^, climate ^ and wetter
How are elements in the periodic table arranged?
by increasing atomic number
What effects does vegetation have on slope stability?
Usually makes slopes more stable.
subtropical deserts are located?
between 20 and 30 degrees North and South latitude.
Mountains in Convergent Margin Settings: Aleutian-type convergent zone
-where two ocean plates converge and one is subducted beneath the other
-volcanic island arcs result from the steady subduction of oceanic lithosphere
-most are found in teh Pacific
-continued development can result in the formation of mountainous topography consisting of igneous and metamorphic rocks
Along some midocean ridges, earthquakes are more common along the transform fault offsets than along the actual midocean ridge because
deformation is taken up by ductile flow under the hotter ridge.
Size of Sun
It is only a Middle Size Star, it is yellowish-green
in general, what effect will crustal assimilation have on the composition of an ascending magma?
it will make it less mafic
when the temperature rises, and the pressure rises what happens?
produces solar wind -fusion of hydrogen into helium-> ions(charged particles coming off of the sun(cant feel))
Just prior to the discovery of radioactivity in 1896, John Joly and Lord Kelvin independently attempted to estimate the age of the Earth based on the salt content of the ocean and the rate of heat flow outward from the Earth. For his calculation, Joly nee
the rate of fluvial (riverine) input of salt to the oceans
Explain what is the evidence for global warming?
The effect of greenhouse gasses are, land and ocean temperatures rise, North and South Poles (Arctic and Antarctic) melt, glaciers melt, ocean currents change, weather patterns change, and sea levels rise (due to oceans warming the water 'swells' and from increased water as polar regions melt
Be able to explain Earth's magnetic record (normal versus reversed polarity) and how to use a magnetic record to identify mid-ocean spreading centers.
Normal polarity is small and wide on the diagram. Also, to identify mid-ocean spread centers using magnetic records, look for symmetrical lines.
What is Geothermal Gradient and whats it equation?
When you reach lower depths in earth you get hotter and hotter.
15-75 degrees C per kilometer down.
how can super volcoes effect the earth?
they can cause the earth to be winter for TWO YEARS. does not happen very often....obviouslyyyy
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