Geology Test 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
melting
heat
pressure
water
Gradient
Slope
discharge decreases
aggradation
Invertebrates
Animals without backbones
Meaning of Mississippi
"Big"
viscosity
the magma's mobility
Intrusive Crystallization
Inside the Earth
Fluvial
formed in river beds
magma
underground, contains volatiles-CO2, H2O, SO2
asbestos
damage lungs,cause cancer, silicate, magnesium silicate, fibrous sheet formed from chrystalite,soft, no cleavage,dangerous,building material and is flame retardent
hemisphere
a half of a sphere
acritarch
organic walled microfossils that probably represent the cysts of planktonic algae
Continetal crust is primarily __________.
granitic
Shale
Very fine-grained, thinly layered, soft,rumbly, and easily weathered, mostly tiny bits of clay and quartz, most common sedimentary rock, forms from mud deposited in nonturbulent conditons, often deep water.
Gneiss
from Granite, crystalline rock, irregular bands, high grade, thick altering light and dark bands, crystals lined up
which is the larest planet?
Jupiter
melt
the liquid portion of magma
Breakers
Waves that crash onto the beach
Compaction
When the sediment accumulates, the weight of overlying material compresses the deeper sediments.
P Waves
Primary, first to arrive, fastest
geologist
a scientist who studies rocks, minerals, the forces that shape the landscape, and the earth itself
Erosional features of landforms
glacial troughs
truncated spurs
hanging valleys
aretes
horns
cirques
Roche Moutonee
(Glaciers)
Rock knob caused by plucking.
luster
The way a mineral reflects light
polymorphs
minerals with the same chemical composition but different crystal structures
poor
Felsic rocks are generally light colored b/c they are Fe and Mg __.
chemical
minerals that crystalize directly from water (sedimentary rocks)
Outwash plain
-Transport of Sediment by Glaciers-stratified drift
Meltwater streams swing back and forth widely
Passive Continental Margin
-accumulation of sediment
-stable interior plate
-places where great thickness of sediment accumulates
Coal?
Massive. black in color. sometimes shiny. light weight. does not scratch glass.
Establishing the equivalence of rocks of similar age in different areas.
correlation
Drainage Divide
Line of surface that seperates different drainage basins.
polymorph
One of two or more alternative possible crystal structures for a single chemical compound; for example, the minerals quartz and cristobalite are polymorphs of silica (SiO2).
Igneous Rocks
formed by crystallizing from the molten state
Volcanoes of the Andes Mountains along the west coast of South America are a direct result of...
Subduction
Streams velocity
gradient, shape, size, roughness of channel, and discharge
Meadowlands and Marshlands
What are the Jersey Meadows?
coarse grain (intrusive) rocks
Granite Diorite Gabbo Peridotite
Mantle
"Biggest layer of earth, discovered in 1908, 1800 miles thick."
Asthenosphere
A subdivision of the mantle situated below the lithosphere. This zone of weak material exists below a depth of about 100 km and in some regions extends as deep as 700 km. The rock within this zone is easily deformed.
Chemical Sedimentary Rocks
sedimentary rock consisting of material that was precipitated from water by either inorganic or organic means.
When did planets form?
4.5 Billion years ago
T/F Quartz weathers to form clay minerals.
False
consolidation of mineral or rock fragments, precipitation of mineral matter from solution, or compaction of plant / animal remains
sedimentary rock
Transform faults only occur only on land and dominantly in California
false
neocrystallization
growth of new mineral crystals that differ from the protolith (original rock) (metamorphic rocks))
felsic
When rock is partially melted, the chemistry of the melt is more _____ .
fault trace
(line) the intersection between a fault and the ground surface
Hotspots
-fixed point on the Earths surface defined by long-lived volcanism
Hydrosphere
All waters of earth including both surface and subsurface water
Abrasion
Windblown sand can cut and polish exposed rock surfacesLimited in vertical extent because sand seldom travels more than 1 m above the surface
symmetrical folds
limbs are mirror images of eachother
When was the Paleozoic Era?
542MYA to 251MYA
uncanformity
a gap in the geological record, such as an interruption of deposition of sediments, or a break between eroded igneous and overlying sedimentary strata, usually of long duration
Contour interval
on a topographic map, the difference in elevation from one contour line to the next
Geologic time scale
divides earth history into intervals marked by distinctive sets of fossils
Normal Fault
Hanging wall moves down relative to footwall
Alverez
1980, published a paper in the journal science on evidence for a massive asteriod impact on the earth at the end of the cretaceous period. Looking for oil to begin with.
Desert Varnish
Dark reddish brown surface coating of iron and manganese oxides that exposed rock surfaces develop
basal slip
water lubricates slip
surge up to 14 m/day
sortens lifespan of glacier because all the material in the zone of accumulation slips down the mountain
temperate polar
what 2 climates do glaciers form in
flash
this type of flood is local, sudden with large volumes over a short duration-often triggered by heavy thunderstorms
covalent bonds
form when electrons are shared between atoms
ice cores
method for studying climate change by drilling cores in ice caps and glaciers that have build up over thousands of years
n.l. bowen
investigated how magma evolves to make different igneous rocks
How do geologist measure the orientation of tock layers?
strike and dip
fracture
(geology) a crack in the earth's crust resulting from the displacement of one side with respect to the other
hanging Valleys
a tributary that enters a glacial through high above the floor of the trough
Confining Stress
Stress that is applied uniformly in all directions.
light year
Distance that light travels in one year 186,000 mi/s
tidal reach
the difference in sea level between high tide and low tide at a given point.
Geology
The study of the Earth, its origin, its composition, its structure, and its history
half-life
the time required for one-half of the unstable parent isotope to decay to its stable daughter isotope
_____- size of the minerals in the rock
Texture
Types of volcanoes?
Scoria Cone, Composite, Volcanic Dome, Shield Volcano
Principle of Superposition
The idea that younger beds are deposited on top of older beds
Plate Tectonics
Theory that the earths suface is made of large sections of crust that move
What does agricultural wastes contribute to water pollution?
Causes sediment pollution through plowing, pesticides, oxygen-demanding wastes from livestock produce infectious agents, and plant nutrients pollute from runoff carrying fertilizers.
Wadati-Benioff zone
a deep active seismic area in a subduction zone
98% of the universe's composition by weight
hydrogen and helium
Spring Tide
Highest tidal range that occurs to the alignment of Earth, the moon, and the sun
law of superposition
in undisturbed rock layers, the oldest rocks are on the bottom and the youngest rocks are on the top
tsunami
a long high sea wave caused by an earthquake, submarine landslide, or other disturbance
Regional Metamorphism
a change in the texture, structure, or chemical composition of a rock due to changes in temperature and pressure over a large area, generally as a result of tectonic forces.
Fault
a crck i the Earth's crust alon which the blocks of rocks on either side have been pushed together by pressure on Earth's plates as they move
water table
The upper limit of the zone of saturation. It is important in predicting the productivity of wells, changes in flow of streams and rivers, and water levels of lakes
Valley Glacier
Glacier that forms in the cole heights of mountains ranges where snow accumulates, usually in pre-existing valleys, and flows down the valley.  Can terminate on land or water.
Shear strength
is the force acting against the shear force; once overcome movement will occur
fossil fuel
any hydrocarbon that can be used as fuel
Describe the Archaen
Hotter than today and the formation of the continental crust
Lithosphere
The plates of the earth are made up of the:
Composite Cone Volcano
- Most are located adjacent to the Pacific Ocean
- large, classic-shaped volcano
- composed of interbedded lava flows and layers of pyroclastic debris
- Mt. St. Helen
A Shale is
clastic rock with a mixture of sand and clay sized particles.
most intense rains occur in
se asia, southern states,gulf of mexico, western coastal states, midcontinent states
What does the representative fraction tell you about the map?
How large that area is.
soil horizon weathering zone
soil is starting to form from regulith. Weathered rocks and minerals are breaking down.
Tidal Force Domination is characterized by what?
Few marshes, no lagoons, some rivers.
groundwater accounts for ___%...
95% of all the liquid freshwater on earth
The Theory of Plate Tectonics
Earth's crust is broken up into several distinct pieces, called tectonic plates, and these plates are in constant motion due to forces associated with Earth's internal heat.
how many pleistocene glacial advances can we document?
4: Nebraskan, Kansan, Illinoian, and Wisconsian
how do planets form?
planest form from the sun, it caused solar wind that drove the lighter elements into the colder out of reaches of the orbiting cloud while the denser materials remained behind. then eddy currents caused small particles to aggregate into the planetesimals, which continued to grow larger.
What is a Hot spot?
Volcanoes in the middle of a plate.
What are the nine major sources of groundwater pollution?
Landfills, waste disposal ponds, spills, agriculture and land use (all surficial percolation), septic tanks, buried wastes, underground storage tanks( all underground leakage), saltwater intrusion (overpumping), and deep well injection (which is the only intentional one)
creating most of the earth's magnetic field.
Electric currents within the earth's outer core are responsible for:
Which one of the following best describes the dominant minerals in an andesite?
Intermediate plagioclase (Na and Ca about equal), amphibole, and pyroxene.
What process forms basins in an ocean-continent convergent boundary?
Flexing and bending of the oceanic plate into the subduction zone and flexing of the continent by weight of the thrust sheets.
How is the Hawaiian island hotspot used to test plate motions?
the chain of volcanoes traces the direction of plate motion; also from the age of volcanoes, Hawaii is the youngest.
Wave Formation
1)Wind, Collision, Disturbance 2)Waves are formed 3)More Surface Area 4)Waves formed and continue to move
In general, when did glaciation occur in Illinois?
During the ice age. 1.8 million years ago to 10,000 years ago
Atoms of most elements can gain or lose electrons from their outer shells to form ions
Which of the following is an accurate statement about the structure of atoms?
Meso-
middle
Gabbro
Igneous
Intrusive
Mafic
Phanaratic
Intragranular
within fossils
Gain electrons
become negative
Radiometric Dating
Half Life
Hierarchy of time
Eon
Era
Period
Epoch
mudflows
heavy precipitation liquefy ground
Horn
3 or more cirques
quartz sandstone
clasticsand sizedquartz grains
During the "_________":
Life evolved
The atmosphere became oxidizing (had free oxygen gas) as the result of photosynthetic bacterial action.
PreCambrian Eon
This mass-wasting process is especially associated with the permanently frozen ground found underlying much of Alaska and Canada.
a) Debris flow
b) Slump
c) Rockslide
d) solifluction
solifluction
time of greatest post-Paleozoic inundation of the craton occurred during
Cretaceous
Deserts
-Areas where evaporation exceeds precipitation or less than 10 inches of rain per year
-Cover 25% of land surface
marble
from limestone, large calcite crystals, common metamorphic rock, nonfoliated
sill
tabular intrusion that injects parallel to layering
Are diatoms glass or chalk?
glass
compressional stress
Squeezing laterally
Shorter Horiz. Thicker Vertical
erosional features
sinkholes caves cracks and cavities
Undeformed
Rock that contains no geologic structures other than a few joints (cracks)
Relative Age
age compared to something else
convergent plate boundaries
subduction zones are this
stratovolcanoes
tall and conical, associated with subduction zones. generally explosive eruptions
Pillow
Sack-shaped lava surfaces that form underwater, the skin freezes quickly, then splits.
which sedimentary rock contains mostly calcite?
limestone
Onychophoran
Burgess Shale fossil that modern versions inhabit humid terrestrial environments, also looks like a worm.
Deflation
-WlND EROSION
Picking up and removal of sand & dust by wind
Caldera
Large, usually circular depression at the summit of a volcano.
________ often contain gem-quality crystals of minerals such as beryl and tourmaline and high concentrations of relatively rare elements such as lithium, boron, and beryllium?
Granitic pegmactes
earthflow
Form on hillsides in humid regions
Water saturates the soil
Commonly involve materials rich in clay and silt
3 types of chemical weathering
dissolution, hydrolysis, oxidation
building code
Standards for the design and construction of new buildings that specify the level of shaking a structure must be able to withstand in an earthquake, based on the maximum intensity expected from the seismic hazard.
what drives thermohaline (deep sea) currents
global density
Cinder Cone
A(n) ________ is built almost exclusively from ejected lava fragments.
Secondary effects of earthquakes
tsunami, landslides, ground subsidence, fire, liquefaction
gold
very dense (19x more dense than water)
(blank) was discovered in the 19th century
radioactivity
Denudetation
(Weathering)
Any process that wears away or rearranges landforms.
Hazards of volcano
Lava flows, Ashfalls, Pyroclastic flows, Lahars, tsunamis, weather and climate, gasses.
aquifer
sediment or rack that transmits water easily
Living organisms
burrowing animals, plant roots and acids released by the bacterial breakdown of dead things accelerate weathering
Phynia
First woody plants Devonian Age. Wood allows them to grow higher.
Plutonic
Below ground the liquid rocks cools slowly- gives mineral crystals time to grow larger.
downwelling
a place where near surface water sinks
How Magmas Evolve
Bowen's Reaction Series
-N.L. Bowen demonstrated that as a magma cools, minerals crystallize in a systematic fashion based on their melting points
-difference in crystallization temperature for the different kinds of minerals plays a major role in the differentiation of rock composition as the magma cools 
-During crystallization, the composition of the liquid portion of the magma continually changes-Composition changes due to removal of elements by earlier-forming minerals-The silica component of the melt becomes enriched as crystallization proceeds-Minerals in the melt can chemically react and change 
 
Processes Responsible for changing a Magma's Composition:
Magmatic differentiationSeparation of a melt from earlier formed crystals to form a different composition of magma (fractional crystallization)AssimilationChanging a magma’s composition by the incorporation of foreign matter (surrounding rock bodies) into a magma Magma mixing-Involves two bodies of magma intruding one another-Two chemically distinct magmas may produce a composition quite different from either original magma
Sulfides
• compounds of sulfide ion: S2-• valuable ores include pentlandite, galena,
sphalerite
• most common: pyrite (FeS2)
recessional moraine
-type of end moraine

-end moraines that were created as the ice front OCCAIONALLY stabilized during retreat
(ablation & accumulation were balanced in different places along retreat)

*difference between terminal moraine & recessional morain = relative positions*
What is Saltation?
Bouncing transportation of Sediments in water or wind
surface waves
slowest seismic wave; long series of rolling motions; greatest ground motion; cause large proportion of damage; largest amplitude, longest period
reasons for discontinuity
change in composition; change in phase
Tension
stress that stretches rock so that it becomes thinner in the middle
Conduction
flow of heat through a material, only manner of heat transfer between earth layers
most chemical sedimentary rocks have a (blank) texture, and a few, such as limestones, have (blank) texture
cystalline, clastic
Soil that forms in arid climates, with little organic material & usually includes hardpans of salt, gypsum or calcite
Aridisols
oxygen, silicon
A silica tetrahedron is composed of four atoms of the element _______ and one atom of _________.
30
most desert lie in the belt 10-15 degrees wide centered on ________ degrees North and South latitude
fossil succession
the principle that states that fossil organisms succeed one another in a definite and determinable order. Therefore, any time period can be recognized by it's fossil contents.
divergent movement
when tectonic plates pull away from each other
the weight in pounds of the largest single mass of gold on record is
205
Accumulation of clay transported from above (subsoil)
B horizon (4th)
Disconformities
Breaks in the rock record where the strata on both sides of the unconformity are essentially parallel
Water of the World
Salt Water - 95.96%
Fresh Water-4.04%
seismic waves
waves of energy produced by an earthquake
Short Term Climate Change
Annual Variations in CO2 levels
In what city did the massive volcanoes, giant asteroid, or ice age occurred that led to the death of dinosaurs? A. YucatanB. Mexico CityC. Tijuana
A.     Yucatan
Oblique Fault
A fault with both vertical and horizontal displacement
Glacial Drift
term for all sediments of glacial origin-glacial deposits consist primarily of mechanically weathered rock (with little / no mechanical weathering)2 types:1)TILL2)STRATIFIED DRIFT
soil taxonomy
-emphasis is placed on physical and chemical properties
-six hierarchal categories exist
-latin and greek names
-12 basic soil orders are recognized
define Richter scale
a numerical scale of earthquake magnitudes
Organic Activity
soil collects in a crack in bedrock and may sprout growing roots while widening the cracks
cordilleran mobile belt
mobile belt in western North America bounded on the west by the Pacific Ocean and on the east by the Great Plains; extends north-south from Alaska into Mexico
Igneous rock with course grains formed
deep inside the Earth
What is shale gas?
Shale gas in an unconventional resource
Salinity
Halley and Joley used what to date the earth?
How are plate boundaries identified?
a)volcanoes b) deep-ocean trenches c)earthquakes d) mountain belts E)ALL OF THE ABOVE
Dew Point
the temperature to which a parcel of air would need to be cooled to reach saturation
Igneous Rock
produced by fire, great heat, or the action of a volcano; solidified from a molten state. Igneous rock is formed by the cooling and solidification of magma.
esker
a ridge of sorted sand and gravel that snakes across a ground moraine; the seiment of this was deposited in subglacial meltwater tunnels
The primary source of sulfur dioxide emissions is ________________?
Fossil Fuel Combustion
Cross-cutting relations
what ever is cutting is younger than what ever is cut or offset is older.
3 Components of Magma
1)MELT: liquid portion (mobile ions of elements from crust-mostly silicon & oxygen)2)SOLIDS:(if any)silicate minerals that have already crystallized3)VOLATILES:gases dissolved in melt [H20, carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide]
strike slip fault
-transform fault, so no footwall or hanging wall
-example: san Andreas
-result from shear stresses acting in the crust. can be left lateral strike slip fault or right lateral strike slip fault
plate tectonic theory
earths crust and mantle divided into 8 major plates & smaller 1s
What is strike
the compass direction of a line formed by the intersection of the horizontal and the rock unit/surface
all the 18th and 19th century attempts to determine the age of the Earth yielded ages that we now know were
much too young
The superposition of beds of sandstone-siltstone-mudstone (shale) from bottom to top emans:
deepening of depositional environment (sea level rise or increased subsidence)
transform boundrie
a place where 2 plates slip past each other, moving in opposite directions,is known as what boundrie?
the outer core
What layer in the earth does not transmit S waves?
Clasts close to source
Usually coarser and poorly sorted and angular
COURSE CLASTS
Breccia 
A limited supply of sand in a region of strong winds blowing in one general direction would likely produce
Linear dunes
textures of igneous rock; phaneritic
intrusive and can see grains with eye
zone of wastage
lies below the snowline there is a net loss to the glacier as all of the snow from the previous winter melts so does some of the glacial ice
distribution of seafloor rock ages
older as you get further from MOR
What is the inner core?
Solid inner most layer of the earth
What are Common elements
O, Si, Al, Fe, Ca, Mg, K, Na
What happened in Aral Sea
Tried to divert water from river into the desert. 80% of water is now gone due to poorly built canals.
Transform faults are associated with?
stike slip on a ridge. san andreas fault
What are some observations in regards to basalts and fractional melting?
Ocean & Continental crus randomly distrubuted mantle is the source and little gas
Which is NOT a type of plate boundary
The edge of the continental shelf
What shows if the outer core is a liquid?
Longitudinal and transverse waves (p&s).
Seismic waves.
What is Continental Margin?
It is the zone of the ocean floor that separates the thin oceanic crust from thick continental crust.
How does the modern day distribution of Gorillas in Africa support climate change during the late Neogene?
At one time, gorillas were found in forests that spanned between two habitats in Africa. Then a climatic drying event reduced their environments down to two separate sub areas, and even when the forests came back they remained separated and would not interbreed.
What does the Aleutian Range Province consist of?
a volcanic area: a chain of active and dormant volcanoes (approximately 60)
petroleum
liquid
Quartz
Mineral
Felsic
composite volcano
stratovolcano
Body waves
travel fastes
ignimbrite
welded ash flow
Clastic & Nonclastic
Clastic
atoms
___________are the smallest -electrically neutral assemblies of energy and matter that we know exist in the universe
erractic
out of place rock
conglomerate
clasticgravel sizerounded rock fragments
The _________is subdivided into periods and is known as the age of dinosaurs.
Mesozoic
T/F Eruptions of strato-type (composite) volcanoes are much more explosive and much more difficult to predict than eruptions from shield volcanoes
True
Weathering
breaks rock into smaller pieces
Triggering Events
-Shocks and vibrations
-Slope modification
-Undercutting (creation of overhang by erosion)
-Changes in hydrologic characteristics
-Changes in slope length
-Volcanic eruptions
detrital sedimentary rocks
made from detritus
transform
Plates slide past each other
Proterozoic glaciations occurred during all except:A. Paleoproterozoic B. MesoproterozoicC. Neoproterozoic
B. Mesoproterozoic
What do Theropods look like?
bipedal
spits
fingerlike projections of beach free end out into open water
Shield Volcanoes
Volcanoes characterized by broad, gentle domes. Most form from low-viscosity basaltic lava flows. Also has gentle upper slopes, and somewhat steeper lower slopes
no
do all groundwater contaminents form plumes
Jointing
Physical weathering. When rock layers rise from depth closer to the earth's surface. They cool down and change shape leaving cracks and joints
Isostacy
The theoretical concept of Earth's crust "floating" on a dense underlying layer.
sources (non-point)
agricultural runoff, mining draining, landfill draingage
Sand Blows/Boils
Water-saturated sand layers below surface. It can squirt into sir during quake.
the great lakes were formed from?
glaciers
Sponges
Reef Builder that Evolved in Proterozoic and became common in Cambrian
Thermohaline circulation -
-Global Ocean Conveyor System
Propelled by temperature and salinity of seawater
Lahar
A flowing mixture of water-saturated rock debris that forms on the slopes of a volcano, and moves downslope, sometimes referred to as debris flow or mudflow.
Cone of depression
The downward-pointing, cone-shaped surface of the water table in a location where the water table is experiencing draw-down because of pumping at a well
foliation
any planar arrangement of mineral grains or structural features within a rock
Permeability
flows of water in the pore spaces
claystone
A rock made up exclusively of clay-sized particles.
mountain glacier
glacier that covers a small region
Associated with Major Mountain Systems
Batholiths are typically
Normal faults
caused by extension and moves down
rock
solid material that makes up the earth's crust; usually consisting of a mixture of minerals.
Lava
magma that has reached the earth's surface
waves and tides
important agents on continental shelves
3 Ways Particles Are Transported
(Desert)
-Wind; Saltation; Cross-beds
mesosphere
"middle sphere" zone where rocks are solid again due to tremendous pressure on them
Love waves
Horizontal motion normal to direction of travel
stream gradient
downhill slope of the streambed
- usually decreases downstream
Coral reefs are generally limited to waters approximately ________ deep or less.
20m.
Soft Stabilization
Prevention of Beach Erosion- adding sediments to the coastline
Aysheaia
Burgess Shale fossil that is a segmented worm.
Triassic sediment deposits
terrestrial, shales/ sandstones from fluvial deposits==redbeds
aftershock
the series of smaller earthquakes that follow a major earthquake
saurischia: theropods
2 legged meat eaters
evolved into birds
original horizontality
-sediments are usually deposited in horizontal layers
-used to find folded and tilted rock layers
 
-Layered rocks form when particles settle from water or air. The Law of Original Horizontality states that most sediments, when originally formed, were laid down horizontally. However, many layered rocks are no longer horizontal. Because of the Law of Original Horizontality, we know that sedimentary rocks that are not horizontal either were formed in special ways or, more often, were moved from their horizontal position by later events, such as tilting during episodes of mountain building.  
Cation Substitution
• same crystal structure, but different
chemical composition
• e.g., Fe and Mg in olivine (Fe, Mg)2SiO4
• e.g., Al3+ and Si4+ in many silicate minerals
TARN

(landform by glacial erosion)
-small lake
-often occupies cirques
Bowen's Reaction Series
Olivine, Pyroxene, Amphibole, Biotite, K-Feldspar, Muscovite, Quartz. - Plagioclase
intensity
effects of an earthquake on a scale from I-XII; based on severity of damage; assigned to mapped regions surrounding epicenter
paleomagnetism
a record of the earth's magnetic field in the past
plate tectonic system
the convecting mantle and its overlying mosaic of lithospheric plates
Pumice
A type of igneous rock that contains air bubbles
dolostone is formed by the addition of (blank) to calcite in limestone
magnesium
The capacity of a rock to transmit fluids
permeability
basin and range
this province is characterized by rugged mountain ranges seperated by flat valley floors
glacier
any large mass of ice that moves slowly over land
continental drift
proposed by Alfred Wegener in 1912. suggests all present continents once existed as a single supercontinent. then it began breaking apart into their current positions
The ability of a material to allow fluids to pass through an interconnected network of pores is a characteristic known as
Permeablility
3 Extrusive textures and chemistrys
Rhyolite, Andesite, Basalt (RAB)
Artesian Well
A place where water under pressure, comes to the surface
Sulfide
a compound of sulphur and some other element that is more electropositive
surface
which type of waves cause the most property damage
388 ppm in Atmosphere
What are the CO2 levels?
characteristics of a mineral
•Any naturally occurring, inorganic solid that possesses an orderly crystalline structure and a well-defined chemical composition.
Inorganic, solid, naturally occurring, definite chemical composition that varies within very narrow limits, orderly internal structure that gives distinct physical properties
An arrangement of beds or laminations in which one set of layers is inclined relative to the others described what form of sedimentary structure A. ripple marks B. graded bed C. cross-bedding
C.    cross-bedding
Transform Boundary
A boundary between two plates which are sliding past each other. Example: San Andreas Fault
problems associated w. groundwater withdrawal
1)treating groundH2O as nonrenewable-h2o available to recharge aquifer often less than amt being withdrawn2)subsidence {to sink lower than normal levl}-ground sinks when h2o pumped out faster than its recharged3)saltwater contamination-saltwater is drawn into wells, contaminating supply-major problem in coastal areas-freshwater less dense than saltwater...floats on top-water table 40x greater below sea level than above sea level-excessive pumping lowers water table ==> the bottom of freshwater zone rises by 40x that amount*also as more surface is covered by parking lots/buildings/etc--->reduction in h2o infiltration
tar sands
mixtures of clay and sand combined with water and bitumen (viscous tar)
-several substantial deposits around the world
-obtaining oil from tar has drawbacks
What is a backwash?
Water going off a beach
Pelagic Sediment
collects even on the deep sea floor far from continents makes up layer 1
Fig. 6 includes some symbols that each consist of a long line with a short line protruding at right angles from the middle of the long line. There is a two-digit number at the end of each short line. These symbols are .
strike-and-dip symbol
Ice ages
not common, a number of advances and withdrawals of glacial ice
Glacial Drift
This refers to all of the sediment that a glacier picks up
What is Biomass?
organic matter that can be burned directly as fuel or converted into a different form and then burned
4.6B
Using radio decay what is the date of the earth?
At mid-ocean ridges, the "fracture zone" forms-- with respect to the ridge axis?
At the same time.
Latent Heat
heat absorbed or given off during a change of phase at a constant temperature
Types of Sedimentary Environments
- continental- dominated by stream erosion deposition, glacial, wind
- Marine- shallow and deep
- transition- shorelines, tidal flats, lagoons, deltas
Pumping of groundwater from a well creates a(n) _____________ in the aquifer.
Cone of Depression
What are Earthquakes?
Vibrations of the ground created by the sudden release of energy accumulating in deformed rocks.
Non-silicate mineralsw/ economic value
-Hematite (oxide mined for iron ore)-Halite (halide mined for salt)-Sphalerite (sulfide mined for zinc)-Native Copper (native element mined for copper)
Cycles or Systems of the Earth
Tectonic Cycle

Hot Spot Cycle

Hydrologic Cycle
Superposed Streams
A stream that once flowed on a higher surface and eroded downward into resistant rocks while maintaining its course
axial plane
^|U in the center of an anticline and syncline
gravel and sand with subordinate mud, or meandering where deposits are mostly mud with elongate sand bodies
fluvial deposits are mostly
Definition of Fossil Fuels
Remains of plants and animals trapped in sedimentary rocks form Paleozoic - ~Mid-Tertiary
drawbacks of dams (mitigation)
loss of habitats, loss of natural cycles of flooding, changes in aquatic and riverine biology, destruction of fish spawning grounds, discharge has less sediment and different temperature, dams can fail and actually create floods
Rhyolitic Lava Flows
Most viscous of all lavas because it is most silicic and the coolest
Out of the 3 Subdivisions of the Fluvial system (The Tree Symbol), which is in charge of transport?
The center subdivision
Brittle-Ductile Transition Zone
Occurs at a depth of about 15 km, below this point rocks behave in a more ductile manner. Above it, they behave in a more brittle manner
law of cross-cutting relations
a fault, dike, or any other igneous intrusion is younger than the rock it cuts across
copper-plated zinc
The current US cent is made out of two base metals
How are sheild volcanoes built?
by fluid basaltic laval flow and contain only a small % of pyroclastics
What type of rock is highest in silica tetrahedra?
Felsic Igneous Rocks
What processes would most likely yield a granitic magma?
Partial melting of the continental crust.
The earths mantle is mostly made of what kind of minerals?
olivine, pyroxine, and silicate materials enriched in iron and magnesium
Rivers will erode/deposit sediment depending on 2 things:
1) how fast it is (velocity)2) how much water there is (discharge)
What type of folds are anticlines and synclines
elongate folds where their length greatly exceeds their width
The source of quartz is granite from the Piedmont and Appalachian mountains. starting in the mtns, through weathering they break off and tumble into river beds. traveling south toward the coast, they are rolling around and breaking off bit by bit while be
why are georgia beaches characterized by well-rounded, well-sorted quartz sand
What are the three main steps that lead to glacial formation?
Snow falls - accumulates, Compaction, Recrystallizes
Why do we see a wedge-shaped package of sediment thickest in the east that formed during the Devonian in New York State?
Acadian orogeny formed a clastic wedge deposited in a retro arc foreland basin known as the Catskill delta.
How do the 3 main types of faults generally match up with the 2 types of plate margins?
-strike slip faults occur at active continental plate margins-normal faults & rifts occur at mid ocean ridges/ divergent plate margins-reverse faulting occurs at convergent margins
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