Geology Test 3 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Mars
25
Magnetic
Magnetite
ODD NUMBERS
WARM
Hypothesis
a tentative theory.
recessional
pause in retreat
principal shells
energy levels
Jurassic peaks
dinosaurs, ichthyosaurs, crocodiles
Mafic
high in ferromagnesium silicates
Crystalline
Made of interlocking crystals
Bauxite
oxide,source of ore;mined in jamiaca,brazil,guyana,aluminum oxide,soft 2-3 earthy feel/smell,formed in metal neon sedimentary enviroment, named for the french village les baux alum-ore
accreted terranes
individual fragments of crust.
little specialization existed among the
invertebrates
Viscosity
Resistance to flow. Controlled primarily by temperature and composition.
Plate Tectonics: Types
1) Divergent
2) Convergent
3)Transform
Andesite
volcanic, fine grains, coarse, intermediate, little or no quartz, found in extinct Noth Island volcanoes
Physical weathering
-sediment becomes smaller
-sediment becomes rounder
-sediment becomes more homogenous
Hydropower:• Main Disadvantages:
o High investment costs
o Hydrology dependent (precipitation)
o Ecological impacts of stream course alteration
o Inundation of local area for reservoir construction
o In the US, not many suitable sites left…
Lag Time
Difference between when heavy precipitation and peak discharge occur in streams
Continental drift
a single super-continent existed (Pangea) and 200 million yrs ago this giant land mass began to split into smaller land-masses. These smaller land-masses drifted to their current positions over millions of years.
Significance of clast size
proximity to source
Down Epeirogeny
Leads to deposition. Extensive sedimentary sequences. Stable continental platform
Paleozoic
first organisms with hard parts
no vertebrates
land plants
insects on land
rock
Aggregates of mineral crystals or grains, and masses of natural glass; can be classified as igneous, sedimentary, or metamorphic.
How deep are plates subducted?
2900 km
vados
unsaturated zone; above water table, pores are mostly filled with air
Horizontality
This principle states that sediments are always deposited in a flat-lying manner.
bedforms
occur after deposition while sediment is still soft
Recharge areas
(where precipitation seeps downward and reaches water table)
Dip
-down surface compass direction at right angle to strike
-angle measured b/w dipline and horizontal 
-the intensity of movement
Quartz?
SiO2; no cleavage; crystal faces maybe?; colorless; sometimes smokey gray, pink, yellow
a phaeritic (plutonic) rock composed of 5% quartz, 55% plagioclase, 25% amphibole and 5% pyroxene would be classified as___
granite
Esker
Ridge of till and stream deposits formed sub glacial streams.
sedimentary environment
A geographic location characterized by a particular combination of climate conditions and physical, chemical, and biological processes.
batholiths
large bodies of granite, cooled deep beneath mountain ridges. often a complex of plutons
Aftershocks
Major earthuakes are often followed by somewhat smaller events known as ________.
Streams erode by
abrasion, solution, and hydrolic action
porosity
The percentage of a material's total volume that is pore space
least soluble major mineral in granite is _____
quartz
Compaction
the process by which pressure of overlying sediments or pressure from the Earth compresses the particles of sediments
Alfred Wegener
credited with the theory of Continental Drift
angular unconformity
consist of tilted or folded sedimentary rocks that are overlain by younger, more flat lying strata
Plastic
Deformation remains even if stress is removed
T/F The energy released by an earthquake is the basis of the Richter scale.
True
Porphyritic
crystals of certain minerals in the rock are much larger than others, indicates period of slow cooling followed by more rapid cooling
Which igneous rock is the most "common" type?
granite
Sea-Floor Spreading
Cause global sea-level changing. Ocean crust rides higher (warmer so less dense) pushes water out of the basins and up onto the continents.
Ocean-Continent Collision
Convergent- The oceanic crust sinks and forms a deep trench on the ocean floor. Water in the ocean sediments cause melting. A chain of volcanoes results.
Darcy's law
a mathematical equation starting that a volume of water passing through a specified area of material at a given time, depends on the material's permeability and hydraulic gradient
stream terraces
some stream valleys have level surfaces that are higher than the present floodplain.  These are remnants of older floodplains that have been dissected (cut by younger streams) and are called ____
Hardness
the resistance of a mineral to scratching
Causes of glaciation
Proposed possible causes Plate tectonics Continents were arranged differently Changes in oceanic circulationAlters the transport of heat and moisture and consequently the climate Climate change caused by plate movement is extremely gradual and occurs over millions of yearsExplains widely space and non periodic onset of glacial conditions
Moraine
layers or ridges made by glacial till

TYPES:
[made by alpine glaciers]
-lateral moraine
-medial moraine
[other types]
-end moraine (terminal or recessional)
-ground moraine
Silica tetrahedra arrangement
Single Chained, Double Chained, Framework, Sheet, Independent
Paleozoic era
the part of geologic time 570-245 million years ago ; invertebrates, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, ferns, and cone-bearing trees were dominant
focus
the point inside the Earth where an earthquake begins
while Laurentia was moving northward, Gondwana moved to a
south polar location
Dissolved Load
ions taken into solution via chemical weathering
(Running water transports eroded sediment by this)
Aristotle
1st noted by greek scholar as remains of ancient life, he realized that fossils shells were similar to those on modern beaches, thus related and representive of life.
Pediment
A broad bedrock surface with a gentle slope away from highlands
ice cores
cyclinders of ice drilled from thick glaciers to determine the types and amounts of gases that existed in the atmosphere when the ice was formed
equilibrium line
the thickest and fastest moving part of the glacier is near the _________________
igneous rock
Igneous rock is formed through the cooling and solidification of magma or lava. Igneous rock may form with or without crystallization, either below the surface as intrusive (plutonic) rocks or on the surface as extrusive (volcanic) rocks. 95%
Deposition
the placing of materials in a new place
shear
two forces directed at one another but offset
glass
cools too quickly for ions to make crystals; ie volcanic ash
What feature is created when two lateral moraines join?
Medial Moraine
Laminar Flow
The movement of water particles in straight-line paths that are parallel to the channel. The water particles move downstream without mixing.
Cleavage
the way a crystal splits along weakly bonded planes
Permeability
A measure of a material's ability to transmit water.
Halocline
is a rapid change in salinity with depth
Rockfall/Talus
The fastest form of mass wasting, a free falling rock; talus (or scaree) is an accumulation of broken rock from rockfall at the base of a cliff
CONVERGENCE AT SUBDUCTION ZONES
-Volcanic Island Arc-Andean-Type Plate Boundary
How many known minerals are there?
4011, or 4000
Mafic. Coarsely and Finely crystalline
1. Gabbro 2. Basalt
Well sorted clasts are
all the same size, like sand.
Temp & Stability
every mineral is stable within a certain T range. (you can turn a diamond into lead)
Cirque
rock bowl at the head of a glaciated valley. may contain a small lake called a TARN.
gravitational energy
as earth puller to smaller and denser mass, gravitational energy was released as heat
probably provided the energy for synthesizing organic molecules
ultraviolet radiation and lightning
Beach Drift
When waves approach at angle to beach and retreat perpendicularly
normal fault
hanging wall moves down in relation to the foot wall
created by tensional stress
Thermohaline circulation (THC)
coneyor belt of water throughout the oceans. driven by water sinking and upwelling due to wind, sun's heat, salt content, cooling, and differences in density
Two different parts of a Porphyritic Igneous Rock
Phenocrysts=Large crystals; groundmass=smaller crystal matrix
Specific yield
the portion that will drain under the influence of gravity
What is the crescent shaped deposit of sand and gravel on the inside of a stream channel?
Point bar
Rockslide
the rapid sliding of a mass of bedrock along inclined surface of weakness
future of hydrocarbon use
• Global demand will continue to rise
o Primarily developing countries
• Peak oil likely within 30 years
• Decline in US consumption in the near future is desirable
o Environmental and public health
o Geopolitical reasons
• A decline in US consumption eventually is inevitable
• In the mean time…
Strike-slip Fault
a type of fault where rocks on either side move past each other sideways with little up or down motion
What is a monocline
a simple bend in horizontal or uniformly dipping layers, 1 bend
ex. Negev Desert, Israel
Fecal Coliform Bacteria
A type of bacteria commonly found in the gut of humans and other animals; usually harmless, but can cause some diseases; commonly used as a measure of Biological Pollution.
phyletic gradualism
slow steady change in a phylum with a steady accumulation of small changes
extraction from coal
In the US, most sulfer production is from
Fault Block Mountains
rifting auses the blocks to tilt with one edge rising as the other drops
theory that states the earths rigid outer shell (lithosphere) is broken into numerous slabs
Theory of plate techtonics
Define a Delta
Where a stream or river meets the ocean
What causes the tides?
Gravitational pull of the moon and the sun and centrifugal forces from the rotation of the earth moon and sun.
Where in North America can you find a passive margin? (p. 358)
The east coast
Great earthquakes, on average, occur
(a) 30,000 times annually
(b) 500 times annually
(c) 100 times annually
(d) 20 times annually
(e) once every 5 to 10 years
(e) once every 5 to 10 years
Which of these plate movements will trigger earthquake? a. convergent and transform b divergent and convergent c. transform and divergent d. all of the above
d.    all of the above
what is a pyroclastic flow
denser-than-air mixutre of hot gas and ash; fast and lethal
Primary & Secondary Effects of Flooding
1.Death, all damage done to physical property
2.Temporary pollution of rivers, hunger and disease, sometimes fires
How is biotechnology helping to reduce the environmental impacts of mining?
through efficient treatment of mine wastes and contaminated water
What are the landforms associated between plate boundaries?
Why fold mountains and ocean trenches form at destructive plate margins. The difference between composite volcanoes which are associated with destructive plate margins and shield volcanoes which are associated with constructive plate margins.
NOVA - In the future it may be possible to shut-down electric power transmission and natural gas distribution automatically, virtually instantly upon detection of the string of surface waves. The technology that makes this a possibility comes from...
Very compact, cheap accelerometer currently used to deploy airbags in automobilies
The Inner Core-Outer Core Boundary
It is between the solid inner core and the liquid outer core. Seismic velocities suddenly decrease, such as at the mantle-outer core boundary, waves get bent so that there is a shadow zone where no direct waves arrive.
What are 4 types of pyroclastic debris?
ash and dust, pumice, cinders, and lapilli
Which was greater, the eruption at St. Helens of the eruption of Mt. Katmai and Novarupta?
1912 Eruption of Mt. Katmai and Novarupta (30 times greater)
Why was Eric the Red able to explore Greenland in the 10th Century AD?
His explorations took place during a particularly warm climatic period
plant
glossopteris
limestone equivalence
marble
william smith
l
stream load
transported material
Small Stratovolcano
Mt. Vesuvius
sedimentary rock examples...
Conglomerate
Breccia
Sandstone
Shale
Limestone
Contact
surface separating rock types.
breccias
angular clasts, sedimentary rock
Seacliff
Steep(commonly near-vertical) bluff adjacent to and adjoining a beach or coastal environment; produced by a combination of erosional processes including wave activity and subaerial processes such as weathering, landsliding, and runoff or surface water from the land.
C horizon
essentially poorly weathered parent
rock. It is coarse grained and grades
downward into unweathered parent
rock.
Caves
naturally formed underground chamber provided by solution activity in limestone
specific gravity
density relative to water
Joints:
naturally formed cracks in rocks
plate
separate sections of the lithosphere
period
what eras are divided into
Cementation
Chemical precipitation of mineral material between grains binds sediment into hark rock
#12Covalent Bonds
when atoms share electrons
geochemistry
the chemistry of the earth's crust
Devonian
Amphibians are first found in the
unconformities
boundaries separating the rocks of different ages
bottom
oldest rocks are on the ______
Mechanical weathering
physical break up of rock
Fossiliferous
Grain Size: all sizes
Grain Sorting: Moderate
Composition: Clay and shells
Sedimentary Rock
rocks are a mixture of what
minerals
Plutons
Bodies of intrusive igneous rocks (frozen magma). Exposed at the surface by uplift and erosion.
Primary (P) Waves
-Velocity depends compressibility, rigidity, density of material it travels through
Issues with Hydropower:
-Stationary
-Reservoirs change the environment
-Reservoirs will silt up
-Evaporation
saurischia (reptile-hipped)
ornithischia (bird-hipped)
2 main groups of dinosaurs
Joints
-result from tension but without relative movement on them; cracks
felsic
relatively cool and very sticky (granite)
Disconformity
 Two horizontal beds separated by an uncomformable surface (erosion, etc)
metamorphic facies
Groupings of metamorphic rocks of various mineral compositions formed under different grades of metamorphism from different parent rocks.
Heat
provides the energy needed to drive the chemical reactions that result in the recrystallization of existing minerals and/or the formation of new minerals. Heating promotes recrystallization of mineral grains. Also, they eventually reach temperature at which one or more minerals become chemically unstable
P Wave
Primary wave, arrives first, travels fastest "pushing a slinky"
continental-continental collision
occurs where two plates carrying continental crust push together. ( himalayan moutains )
Teredo-bored petrified wood
The state fossil of ND
Oxidation
Reaction of iron and manganese with oxygen causing a rust material (metal oxide) to form
around ocean ridges, anomalies are
parallel and symmetrical
Fault
A fracture along which rocks on opposite sides of the fracture have moved parallel with the fracture surface.
Evidence for Continental Drift
Continents fit well together
Similarity of rock sequences
Similar mountain ranges on separate continents
Glacial evidence
Fossil evidence
stratification
layering that occurs in most sediments and sedimentary rocks
hydrosphere
the watery layer of the earth's surface
What type of metamorphic rock has undergone partial melting?
Migmatite.
Vegner
Uses fossil evidence to support idea of land movement
oxygen
when pollutants feed algae blooms, the end result is the depletion of what from the water?
Quaternary time periods oldest - youngest
Pleistocene, Holocene
Dike
a tabular or sheet-like intrusive rock that forms when magma oozes into a fracture cut across rock laers vertically up
cation
ion/group of ions with a positive charge
describe direct pressure
greater pressure on two sides
Fall
Material free-falls or bounces down a cliff
Sinuous ridge composed largely of sand gravel deposited by a stream flowing in a tunnel beneath a glacier near its terminus.
Esker
pit
a naturally formed or excavated hole or cavity in the ground:
Sulfide Minerals
ions of sulfur bonded with positive ions . exc chalcopyrite and glanea
Animikean & Huronian
PRECAMBRIANless than 2.5 bya, quartz sandstone significant, limestone appears, stromatolites appear---FREE OXYGEN
seafloor spreading
process of plates moving apart and asthenosphere filling in
continental shelf
long and gently sloping, thick layers of sediment, area of much ocean life, 1 degree
Drainage basin
The land area that contributes water to a stream
surface waves
occur at the earth's surface, most damaging (love & rayleigh)
Type of metamorphism
-foliated rocks, grow from one another
-shale-gniess : low-high
wave built
a type marine terrace- constructed of sediment carried away from the shore by waves
coriolis effect
is a process that changes wind direction
fluorite
comes in a variety of colors and usually glows under a black light
what element makes up most of the Earth's core?
iron
charles darwin
published Origin of Species in 1859. concluded that species are NOT fixed
Mass Wasting
Downslope movement of soil and rock under the influence of gravity.
divergent margin
a _____ ______ two plates move directly
away from each other
shield volcano
A low, flat, gently sloping volcano built from many flows of fluid, low-viscosity basaltic lava
Waterfall
A precipitous drop in a stream channel that causes water to fall to a lower level.
The law of ____________ states that rocks with similar fossils are most likely of a similar geologic age.
Faunal Succession
fossil assemblages

sets of different species that only overlap during a confined time interval) can also be used for the same purpose
Tectonic Forces
the forces generated inside the Earth, causing deformation of rock as well as vertical and horizontal movement of the earth.
2 Types of Dip-Slip faults
1) Normal Fault2)Reverse Faults
Formation of Universe
First generation starts and elements up to 92 were formed. Formed from Big Bang 13.7 billion years ago. This was a massive explosion allowed fusion reactions to produce elements up to iron. This heat and energy allowed particles to stick together. It forms star but they shrank collapse and blew up which resulted in Supernovae forming other elements up to 92.
lithosphere
the crust and upper mantle of the earth.
electron sharing
The mechanism by which a covalent bond is formed between the elements in a chemical reaction.
relative plate velocity
velocity at which one plate moves relative to another
canadian coast ranges
Granitic volcanic arcs formed in the Mesozoic (200 to 250 Ma)
Signs vs remains fossils
Signs- molds and impressions/ trace fossils. Remains: Hard parts, soft parts, and permineralization
Coal rank:
the quality of coal based on carbon content
heat capacity
a measure of how fast energy is absorbed or released and how fast things melt
The giant outer planets are composed mostly of ___________.
Hydrogen and helium.
what is the water table
water saturated sand level underground
rock cycle
The process by which rocks change to form new rocks. The changes in rocks are caused by by many things like heat, rain, snow, and underground pressure.
Environmental Impact Statement
A written statement that asseses and explores the possible impacts of a particular project that may affect the human environment; required by the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969.
The primary consumers of freshwater in the United States are _____________________.
Irrigation and Thermoelectric
recumbent fold
the axial plane of a fold is horizontal
Which methods are useful when studying the ocean crust?
seismic studies
satellite observations
magnetic studies
direct observation
Principle of Fossil Succession
The idea that fossil content will change upward within a formation
introduction of volatiles can
lower a rock's melting point to produce magma
mineralogy, grade, size/depth, location, value, waste
What determined if rock is an ore?
what are two types of body waves?
primary waves (p-waves)
secondary waves (s-waves)
The Saffir-Simpson scale is numbered 1-5 with __.
larger numbers indicating bigger hurricanes
wegner
cut up the map of the world and saw continental drift
The recent (geologically) volcanic activity in Yellowstone National Park is __________.
related to intraplate, hot spot volcanism
#16 The 6 Mineral Groups
silicates - silicon & oxygen carbonates - carbon, oxygen, & 1 or more metallic elements oxides - oxygen & 1 or more elements sulfides - sulfur halides - halogen ion & 1 or more other elements native elements - exist in relatively pure form
Roughly once a year, geologists discover a new fault in California because an earthquake occurs along that fault. The reason that most of the sub-metropolitan faults in California remain unknown is that there has been little documented earthquake activity
loose sediment overlies the rigid blocks which are being offset.
The Earth's crust and upper mantle are divided into several ________ which interact with each other to form volcanoes and earthquakes. They reside in the layer known as the ___________, which overlies a weaker zone above the mantle called the _________.
Tectonic plates, lithosphere, asthenosphere
Which of the following is true?
Transform fault motion typically ends abruptly at both ends
What are the properties used to define minerals?
Luster
-appearence in reflective light
-metallic/non-metallic
Color
-unreliable
-highly variable due to slight changes in mineral chem
Streak
-color of mineral in its powdered form
-helpful in distinguishing forms of the same mineral
Hardness
-Mohs hardness scale
Cleavage
-breaks along a plane of weak bonding 
-produces flat, shiny surfaces
-described by resulting geometric shapes
*# of planes
*angles between adjacent planes
Fracture
-no cleavage when a mineral is broken
Specific gravity
-ratio of the weight of a mineral to the weight of an equal volume of H2O
-avg. 2.7
Others
-magnetism
-rxn to HCl
-malleability
-double refraction
-taste
-smell
-elasticity
What three factors control the rate at which rocks and minerals weather?
1. Climate
2. Composition
3. Cracks
What are some responses of rock to metamorphism?
deformation, growing of large minerals, cut by veins, growing new minerals
the earths mantle is mostly made of what kind of minerals?
olivine, pyroxene and silicate minerals enriched in Iron and Magnesium
Shield volcanoes are most likely to form from:
effusive  eruptions from a central vent
WHat are the two major factors of determining ore
Value of mineral
Concentration of the mineral
Evaporite deposits & reefs in Penn
Western NA, SW Colorado to Utah = Paradox Basin (salt deposits in middle of basin Halite, Potash, Gypsum), dry & warm, limestone w/ Philloid algal reef
What S-P travel time tells us.
The time distance between the S and P wave is the distance travels by the earthquake.
What observations could be made to test that the Earth is round?
Watch the boats go over the horizon, go around the world. 
Why are silicate minerals the most abunant in the earths crust?
Because they are made up of the two most abundant elements in the crust (silicon and oxygen)
scoria
...
Non-Foliated: Quartzite
sandstone
basalt
Extrusive mafic rock.
silicate minerals
silicon oxygen
Glacial Erratic
Rock that differs.
intrusive
produced within the earth
Recumbent
Fold with inverted L
Sinkholes
Collapsed roof of caves
metamorphic grade
intensity of metamorphism
high grade=high temp
low grade=low temp
mineral
a naturally occurring substance neither plant nor animal
Texture
Indicates degree of deformation. Foliated and Non-Foliated
2 continental glaciers
Antarctica & Greenland
asthenosphere
What is under the lithosphere?
Location of magma
-intrusive
-plutonic
-below earth's surface
Horns/Aretes
-sharp peaks/ridges caused by backawrds erosion
name 2 intermediate rocks
diorite, andesite
The P Wave acts like a
slinky.
Monsoon
occur over continents, during warm months, air flows onto land
stallacite
travertine that hangs from the ceiling.
Marine terraces are landforms associated with:
uplifted coasts.
intermediate magma
moderate silica content, combination of minerals, moderate density, moderate crystallization temp, moderate viscosity
slippage
descending mass remains coherent, 2 types
Magnetic Stripes
indicators of magnetic reversals depicted as red and white stripes parallel to the mid oceanic ridges
metamorphic rock
a rock produced by metamorphism
Hard Stabilization
Working against beach processes.
-Groins, jetties, breakwaters, seawalls.
O-Horizon
loose and partly decay organic matter
quickly
does basalt cool quickly or slowly
springs
A natural outlet from which groundwater flows up onto the ground surface. Where the water table intersect the surface
Shales containing high amounts of organic matter are typically what color?
Black
Biofuels 1
• Fuels derived from biomass
• Non new (burning trees, etc)
• Current emphasis on increasing contribution to transport fuel
• Nebraska may have a big role to play!
o Corn ethanol and cellulosic ethanol
• Production of ethanol from grains:
o Simple sugars created by plant photosynthesis
o Sugars fermented to make ethanol
o Ethanol combusted in an engine to make heat and drive a piston
o Now frequently a fuel additive
Marianas:
Arc under extension; old, thick, cold and dense crust; has convection currents; Marianas Trench
internal waves
along a water-water interface. created by the movement of water of different densities. associated with a pycnocline which is a layer or rapidly changing densities.
Hogback
A narrow, symmetrical ridge formed in mountain beds that dip steeply
system
any size group of interacting parts that form a complex whole
Incineration
The reduction of combustible waste to inert residue by burning at high temperatures, it reduces the amount of waste by 75 to 95%
gravel
which of the following sediments would make the best aquifer
Radioactive Isotopes
The isotope that undergoes radioactive decay; also known as the parent isotope
Footwall
the lower wall of an inclined fault
Superposition
(geology) the principle that in a series of stratified sedimentary rocks the lowest stratum is the oldest
3. Oolite
spheres of calcium carbonate that precipitates in shallow, warm sea water
unconfined aquifer
An aquifer containing groundwater that is bellow porous materials such as soil, sand, and gravel.
what increases the surface area available for chemical reactions
mechanical disruption
spreading
plates that move away from each other
Slate indicates a high or lower metamorphism than schist
lower
Daughter Isotopes
Isotopes that are formed by radioactive decay
Wave Dominated Deltas
Longshore drift, barrier islands
Ex: Nile River
dark/ferromagnesian/mafic minerals
iron and magnesium, dark colors, ex-olivine, pyroxene, amphibole, mica (biotite)
turbulent flow
(chaotic twisting, mixing and swirling motion in flowing stream or rivers) is more common in nature.
subsidence
drop in ground level due to groundwater extraction.
Examines the materials composing Earth and seeks to understand the many processes that operate beneath and upon its surface.
Physical Geology
neocrystalization -
growth of new minerals from solid-state diffusion of atoms within crystals
D) Classification of Intrusive/plutonic
rock bodies
intrusive rock bodies are classified
based on their geometry and size.
Sedimentary Rock Formation
Solidification of loose sediments from weathering of preexisting rocks.
numerous caves, springs, solution valleys, sinkholes, disappearing streams
features of Karst topography
P waves
primary seismic waves; first waves of earthquake, cause earth to compress and expand
mantle
the layer of the earth between the crust and the core, dense rock, location of the athenosphere.
The soil horizon rich in clay is the:
B-horizon
Original Horizontility
layers of sediment deposited in a horizontal position (relative dating)
Bowen's reaction series
the sequence of which minerals crystallize in a cooling magma. shows that in a cooling magma, certain minerals are stable at higher melting temperatures and crystallize before those stable at lower temperatures.
can be used to show how two important processes that create and modify magma composition work. these are differentiation and partial melting.
where did the water on Mars likely go?
...
Sonic Log is used only in....
open uncased hole
principle of baked contacts
igneous intrusions "bake" surrounding rocks, therefore that rock that has been baked must be older than the intrusion
Meandering streams
flow faster along
the outside of bends (cut banks) and
more slowly along the inside,
depositing point bars on the insides
of the meanders
crustal uplift
This si not a consequence of groundwater withdrawal.
the difference between barrier island and a longshore bar/trough is that a barrier island
can be developed
physical geology
studies the processes that from and change the physical structure of the Earth.
geosphere
the solid part of the earth consisting of the crust and outer mantle
Stationary Sources
With respect to air pollutants, refers to those sources that are relatively fixed in location
Weathering of feldspars
Low dissolve-ability; # 1 mineral on Earth's surface
Factors controlling velocity
1. Gradient- steeper the gradient the faster the water flows2. Load- the larger the load the more force it takes to move the load and the slower the stream flows 3. Streambed roughness- the rougher the surface and more friction it has. The smoother the surface the faster is flows 4. Cross sectional area of the channel- the bigger the channel the more water it can hold. As pressure increases velocity decreases. The larger the channel the more pressure and it still has the same amount velocity it had when it had lower pressure in the smaller stream and therefore the stream doesn’t mover as fast as the channel gets larger (Bernoulli principle) 5. Discharge- the volume of water the stream carries
We can also understnad Earht's present by...
interpreting its past
What are craters
depressions near summit from which volcanic materials are ejected
lighter materials _____
remain at the surface (rocky material)
L and R
which of the following types of seismic waves are surface waves?
a) P and S
b) Q and T
c) L and R
d) all of the above
soft-bodied multicelled organisms presumably had
a long Precambrian history during which they lacked hard parts
Extrusive Igneous rock
Igneous rocks that form when molten rock solidifies at the surface.
What caused the Rift Valley in Ethiopia?
Graben and Horst
to the core-mantle boundary
Based on seismic tomographic images, how deep do subducting slabs extend?
SiIurian invasion of the land
i. Lycopsids- first vascular plants
ii. Arthropods: millipedes, centipedes scorpions
Terminal evaporites in Permian
basins entombed in evaporite minerals, layers of gypsum prove seasonal changes and rainfall
gravity separation
Methods used in the recovery of high density ore minerals such as gold, platinum— group metals.
Coal Mine Hazards (3)
-explosions (methane gas produced with coal ignites and explodes if it is not properly ventilated)-coal dust is very flammable-us laws regulaiting mine safety are weak, through recent coal mine disasters show that their not as bad as foreign nations like russia and china
cone of depression
a depression in the water table resulting from the drawdown effect from a well-->increases hydraulic gradient near well --> water flows more rapidly toward opening-->causes nearby shallow wells to become dry
Where do reefs grow?
in clear, shallow and warm water
basaltic lava
A lava of mafic composition that has a low silica content, erupts at high temperatures, and flows readily. Extrusive equivalent of gabbro.
Hell Creek Formation
is one of the more famous and intensely studied dinosaur fossil sites. Hell Creek is expansive, and includes areas of Eastern Montana badlands, Northwestern South Dakota, and Southwestern North Dakota. The strata's age ranges from about 65 to 70 million years old, and were formed in a delta with a warm and moist climate. Interestingly, the famous iridium enriched K-T boundary layer that separates the Mesozoic from the Cenozoic occurs as thin, discontinuous but distinct bedding plane near the top of the Formation.
East African Rift Valley
are an example of continental rift zones where an arm of the ocean ridge system runs across a continent.
Principle of original Horizontality
The principle that states that layers of sediment are generally deposited in a horizontal or nearly horizontal position.
homo erectus evolved from Homo habilis about
1.8 million years ago
Direct effects of volcanoes
eruption clouds, shock waves fromt eh eruption blast, lava and pyroclastic vlows and volcanic gases
What is Discharge?
The amount of water that passes a certain point at a certain time
What is the main geologic feature for which siccar point in scotland is famous for?
-Unconformity
-an ancient erosion surface
-a boundary between steep gray layers below and gently dipping red layer above
distance from the epicenter, focal depth, duration of shaking, population density, local geology, and construction type
Which factors do the magnified Mercalli intensity Scale include?
wave-cut notch
a notch in a coastal cliff cut out by wave erosion
Chemical Sedimentary Rocks: Evaporites (salts)
a rock composed primarily of halite,  salt forms as water in lakes and seas evaporates
One of the major ways in which urbanization affects a river system is...
Increased rate of runoff.
The rate of creep movement in soils
a centimeter or less per year
no infrastructure to support their widespread use
what are the disadvantages of hydrogen cars
location of Cimmerian plate, how it moves, and the timing of the Cimmerian orogeny. Be able to place this in the context of closing the Tethys Sea
-Oceanic plate under Tethys Sea-Moves west in the Mesozoic-Thick marine sediments overlain by coastal deposits
When seismic waves move the ground up and down the mass tends to remain stationary because of its inertia, BUT the mass and the ground move relative to each other because...
the spring can compress or stretch.
What is an unconformity?
a time gap in the rock record due to non-deposition or erosion
how are dew-point and wet-bulb temperatures defined?
dew point temp- the temp in which air must be cooled for saturation to occur
wet bulb temp- the lowest temp reached by evaporating water into the air
What is the source of Earth's internal heat?
Heat Engine is driven by geothermal heat, and drives the formation of volcanoes, mountain belts, the continents and the ocean basins
Fluid magma rises for all of the following reasons EXCEPT:
The Earths magnetic field acts on the iron component of the magma.
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