Geology Unit Test Vocabulary Flashcards

Terms Definitions
reverse fault*
Artesian Well/Aquifer
recrystallization, recombination, rotation
mt everest
largest mt.
partly molten
texture of migmatite
metal working, construction, electrical machinary
equatorial radius
6, 378 km
physical breakdown of weathering
H>S ; with conchoided fracture
Cyclothems are a characteristic feature of which paleozoic cratonic sequence?
cementation or otherwise consolidation of sediment into a rock
land cools ______ than water
chemical sedimentary rock, evaporation triggers deposition of chemical precipitates
ex: rock salt and rock gypsum
Formed by organic precipitation (shells_ corals_ etc.) of dissolved salts
(travertine) - found w/i caverns-calcite deposited as carbon dioxide evaporates from water-collectively called speleothems
Relative Dating
• Non-specific ages and comparisons
• Ex. The upper layer is younger than the one beneath it
when water combines with chemicals within the rock.
mid-oceanic ridge
crests, of submarine montain ranges
species may be classified as possessing a "bird-like" arrangement of pelvic bones, or a "lizard-like" arrangement.
Ryolite and _______ are he same
a desert has less than __________centimeteres of rain per year
age of mammals
66 million years ago
Definition of an Aquifer
A water-bearing layer
solid particles ejected during an eruption
The weathered and eroded particles making up the various clastic sedimentary rocks are sometimes referred to as
Alfred Wegner
Father of the Continental Drift
Hurricane Season 2005

2005 Katrina
-Wind damage
-City was flooded a few days after storm
-Large part of New Orleans under sea level (ground is subsided –sinking)
-Failure of levees engineering caused failure: man made failure
-Multiple levee failures: was known to be possible allowing info structure to fail.
-Mississippi coast had a lot more damage than New Orleans but not as publicized because there were fewer deaths

Common Silicate Minerals
Dark Ferromagnesian Silicate Minerals
-High temperature Fe-Mg silicate; individual tetrahedral linked together by iron and magnesium ions-Forms small, rounded crystals with no cleavage 
-Single chain structures involving iron and magnesium; 2 directions of cleavage at 90 degrees-Augite is the most common mineral in the pyroxene group ~ black, opaque 
Amphibole Group
-double chain structures involving a variety of ions
-2 perfect cleavages: angles about 60/120
-hornblende is the most common mineral in the amphibole group
Light Non-Ferromagnesian Silicate Minerals
Mica Group
-sheet structures that result in one direction of perfect cleavage
-biotite is the common dark coloured mica mineral
-muscovite is the common light coloured.. pearly lustre
Clay Minerals
-clay is a general term used to describe a variety of complex minerals
-clay minerals all have a sheet or layered structure
-most originate as products of chemical weathering
Feldspar Group
-most abundant mineral group
-3D framework of tetrahedra; two directions of perfect cleavage at near 90-degree angles
-Orthoclase (potassium feldspar  ~ KAlSi3O8)
-Plagioclase (Na and Ca feldspar... replace them with K in KAlSi3O8)
Add water to zone of saturation
A mixture containing more than one type of metal atom
Sediments transported by a stream as fluvial deposits
supercontinent disassembly
block warm H20 from poles; glaciation
pure substance that can be subdivided into 2 or more elements
Divergent Boundary
boundary between two plates moving away from one another
Flood Basalts
Fissure eruptions associated with rift valleys (spreading zones on the continents) or hot spots on the continents may produce flood basalts, which are thick basalt layers that develop into plateaus that extend over large areas.
Ex: Columbia Plateau
shear stress
- causes tearing and smearing
- smears a rock block from side to side and may eventually tear it apart into two blocks of rock that slide past each other along a lateral or strike slip fault
deep marine
Fines predominate far from land sources, shale found in this environment
the scientific study of the earth's atmosphere, especially in relation to weather in climate.
Rock salt and limestone are examples of
A) metamorphic rocks
B) chemical sedimentary rocks
C) fragmental sedimentary rocks
D) igneous rock
Regions of intense localized volcanism such as Hawaii form above plumes of fast-rising material that originate in the ______________.
Deep mantle.
Environmental Pressure
change in environment (climate, number of predators)
one of several subdivisions of the time between the Precambrian and the present
is a landform consisting of loose material, such as sand or gravel, that has accumulated by wave action at the shoreline.
One of the largest drainage networks
Mississippi River
a chain of now dead volcanoes transported off the hot spot by the movement of a lithospheric plate
does basalt have big or fine crystals
the lowering of the water table immediately adjacent to a pumping well.
What is the most important factor affecting soil formation?A. parent materialB. climateC. plant growth and decayD. topographic reliefE.time
Discharge area
A location where groundwater flows back up to the surface, and may emerge at springs
describes how easily water can flow through a rock or sediment, which depends on the size and degree of interconnection of pore spaces.High permeability material has large connected poresLow permeability material has small or poorly-connected poresNote: a material may have high porosity but low permeability
Commercial deposits of evaporite minerals may consist of
A and B
the ___ is made of iron and nickel
island arc
A linear or arc-shaped chain of volcanic islands formed on the seafloor at a convergent plate boundary. The islands are formed in the overriding plate from rising melt derived from fluid-induced melting of the mantle wedge above the downgoing lithospheric slab.
longshore transport
process in which sediments are moved along a beach
Where are rocks most likely to strain in a plastic fashion?
Complex slide
a mix of all types of slides.
the process of rocks peeling of caused by erosion
basement rock
makes up the foundation of a continent
the most important source of food on the plains
Elastic Rebound
An explanation for the sudden release of energy that causes earthquakes when deformed rocks fracture and rebound to their original undeformed condition.
USA %4 population => use %____ of resources
Fault Rupture
• fault rupture expands on fault plane at ~2-3
curie temperature
when magnetic minerals cool below a temperature called the _______, domains within the magnetic mineral take on an orientation parallel to any external magnetic field present at the time they cooled below this temperature
The salinity of the ocean ________.
Remains approximately constant.
Big Bend National Park is located in which desert
Molten rock (magma) that comes to the Earth's surface through a volcano or fissure
little ice age
a period of cooler temperatures, between 1500 and 1800 c.e., during which many glaciers advance
the process by which a rocks overall chemical composition changes during metamorphism becase of reaction with hot water that bring in or remove element
viscous basalt lava that breaks as it flows. crumbly
What are the floods called that flooded eastern washington
Bretz Floods
In general, chemical weathering would occur most rapidly in a:
warm, moist climate
the total amount of sediment a stream is able to transport
have a positive charge exist in the nucleus # of protons = # of electrons
Geothermal gradient
Earth heats up as you descend,
15 degrees to 50 degrees per km
Rate increases with depth
35km: 400 degree to 700 degree C
Plastic deformation
Rock is squeezed or sheared at high temperatures; the rock changes shape without breaking.
Run off
water returning to the ocean via the land surface
atomic number
the number of protons in an elements atom
the flat land on either side of a stream that becomes covered with water during a flood
what type of volcano consists of both lava flows and pyroclastic deposits
a stratovolcano
Paleozoic Era
570 million years ago to 230 million years ago; great development of sea life and the first land animals.
What do you call the vertical distance from trough to crest?
wave height
Mount Saint Helens
Volcano that began showing signs of unrest in March of 1980, grew 1.5 meters a day errupted may 18th 1980
what type of waves are responsible for base shear and resonance
love waves
Turbidites are sediments associate with turbidity current. These sediments are classified as A. fining up the sequence B. fining down the sequence
A.    fining up the sequence
Renewable resource
A resource that can be replaced by nature within a short time span relative to a human life span
What are the two most abundant elements in the Earth's crust?
1. Oxygen
2. Silicon
Feldspar is the name of a group of rock-forming minerals which make up as much as 60% of the Earth's crust.Feldspars crystallize from magma in both intrusive and extrusive igneous rocks, and they can also occur as compact minerals, as veins, and are also
driven by gravity
what is the primary force driving mass wasting?
What captures most of the water that flows as runoff, throughflow, and ground water?
Rivers and streams.
gangue minerals
this is a waste rock that must be removed before a mineral can be used
What processes will cause metamorphism?
An increase in pressure, interaction with hydrothermal fluids, and an increase in temperature.
Extinct volcano
a volcano that was once active but has stopped erupting and will never erupt again; these volcanoes are often eroded at the surface
what is non clastic
texture in which minerals form a pattern of interlinking crystals
Cenozoic era
a time span on the geologic time scale beginning about 65 million years ago following the Mesozoic era
pyroclastic debris
form when clots of lava fly in the air in lava fountains and then freeze to form solid chunks before hitting the ground or when explosions from volcano shatter preexisting rocks
animals and plants dispersed very widely in the Mesozoic fossils because
the continents were close together during much of the Mesozoic and climates were mild even at high latitudes
Wegner's theory of continental drift
a theory that the continents have moved over the surface of the earth and prior to about 200 million years ago all of the continents formed one large land mass called Pangea.
geologic processes we observe today have operated in the past
According to the principle of uniformitarianism,
What is a divergent boundary?
A divergent boundary is wehre two plates are pulling apart and moving in opposite directions. This creates new lithosphere as magma intrudes into the cracks formed when the plates pull apart. This occurs along the central part (axis) of mid-ocean ridges.
chars of Chemically active fluids are
Mainly hot water with carbon dioxide, dissolved gases, salts, trace components of minerals.
Source of fluid may be the parent rock (sedimentary) or a nearby pluton
Enhances migration of ions, helps trigger chemical reactions.
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) logging - The relaxation time T2 is...
the time taken for the nuclei return to normal random orientation when the field is removed.
How do they cause DESTRUCTION?
1. wind damage2. storm area surge in coastal areas3. inland freshwater flooding
what is pahoehoe lava?
it is a lava that form a relatively smooth skin that wrinkles as the sill molten subsurface lava continues to advance
Which is the lightest (least dense) layer of the earth?
The continental crust, because it is mostly granite.
Which of the statements regarding economically valuable igneous rocks or minerals is NOT true?
The fact that they crystalize at lower temperatures then most other.
acidity of water is high in the valley
chemical weathering of rocks in a valley is more pronounced than that of the same rocks on a hill top, because
during the time when the Sun emitted its blast of energy, what took place
the cratering of the planets and their satellites
1. Earth is part of a heliocentric solar system2. Earth orbits sun= 365 days3. Earth spins on axis=24 hours4. Has 300 billion stars (solar system) & 2505. Universe has 100 billion galaxies & 10^21 stars
How do we know the details of Big Bang Theory
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