recrystallization, recombination, rotation
texture of migmatite
metal working, construction, electrical machinary
6, 378 km
physical breakdown of weathering
H>S ; with conchoided fracture
|Cyclothems are a characteristic feature of which paleozoic cratonic sequence?||
cementation or otherwise consolidation of sediment into a rock
|land cools ______ than water||
chemical sedimentary rock, evaporation triggers deposition of chemical precipitates
ex: rock salt and rock gypsum
Formed by organic precipitation (shells_ corals_ etc.) of dissolved salts
(travertine) - found w/i caverns-calcite deposited as carbon dioxide evaporates from water-collectively called speleothems
• Non-specific ages and comparisons
• Ex. The upper layer is younger than the one beneath it
when water combines with chemicals within the rock.
crests, of submarine montain ranges
species may be classified as possessing a "bird-like" arrangement of pelvic bones, or a "lizard-like" arrangement.
|Ryolite and _______ are he same||
a desert has less than __________centimeteres of rain per year
age of mammals
66 million years ago
|Definition of an Aquifer||
A water-bearing layer
solid particles ejected during an eruption
The weathered and eroded particles making up the various clastic sedimentary rocks are sometimes referred to as
Father of the Continental Drift
|Hurricane Season 2005||
-City was flooded a few days after storm
-Large part of New Orleans under sea level (ground is subsided –sinking)
-Failure of levees engineering caused failure: man made failure
-Multiple levee failures: was known to be possible allowing info structure to fail.
-Mississippi coast had a lot more damage than New Orleans but not as publicized because there were fewer deaths
Common Silicate Minerals
Dark Ferromagnesian Silicate Minerals
-High temperature Fe-Mg silicate; individual tetrahedral linked together by iron and magnesium ions-Forms small, rounded crystals with no cleavage
-Single chain structures involving iron and magnesium; 2 directions of cleavage at 90 degrees-Augite is the most common mineral in the pyroxene group ~ black, opaque
-double chain structures involving a variety of ions
-2 perfect cleavages: angles about 60/120
-hornblende is the most common mineral in the amphibole group
Light Non-Ferromagnesian Silicate Minerals
-sheet structures that result in one direction of perfect cleavage
-biotite is the common dark coloured mica mineral
-muscovite is the common light coloured.. pearly lustre
-clay is a general term used to describe a variety of complex minerals
-clay minerals all have a sheet or layered structure
-most originate as products of chemical weathering
-most abundant mineral group
-3D framework of tetrahedra; two directions of perfect cleavage at near 90-degree angles
-Orthoclase (potassium feldspar ~ KAlSi3O8)
-Plagioclase (Na and Ca feldspar... replace them with K in KAlSi3O8)
|Add water to zone of saturation||
A mixture containing more than one type of metal atom
Sediments transported by a stream as fluvial deposits
block warm H20 from poles; glaciation
pure substance that can be subdivided into 2 or more elements
boundary between two plates moving away from one another
Fissure eruptions associated with rift valleys (spreading zones on the continents) or hot spots on the continents may produce flood basalts, which are thick basalt layers that develop into plateaus that extend over large areas.
Ex: Columbia Plateau
- causes tearing and smearing
- smears a rock block from side to side and may eventually tear it apart into two blocks of rock that slide past each other along a lateral or strike slip fault
Fines predominate far from land sources, shale found in this environment
the scientific study of the earth's atmosphere, especially in relation to weather in climate.
Rock salt and limestone are examples of
A) metamorphic rocks
B) chemical sedimentary rocks
C) fragmental sedimentary rocks
D) igneous rock
|Regions of intense localized volcanism such as Hawaii form above plumes of fast-rising material that originate in the ______________.||
change in environment (climate, number of predators)
one of several subdivisions of the time between the Precambrian and the present
is a landform consisting of loose material, such as sand or gravel, that has accumulated by wave action at the shoreline.
|One of the largest drainage networks||
a chain of now dead volcanoes transported off the hot spot by the movement of a lithospheric plate
does basalt have big or fine crystals
the lowering of the water table immediately adjacent to a pumping well.
|What is the most important factor affecting soil formation?A. parent materialB. climateC. plant growth and decayD. topographic reliefE.time||
A location where groundwater flows back up to the surface, and may emerge at springs
describes how easily water can flow through a rock or sediment, which depends on the size and degree of interconnection of pore spaces.High permeability material has large connected poresLow permeability material has small or poorly-connected poresNote: a material may have high porosity but low permeability
|Commercial deposits of evaporite minerals may consist of||
A and B
|the ___ is made of iron and nickel||
A linear or arc-shaped chain of volcanic islands formed on the seafloor at a convergent plate boundary. The islands are formed in the overriding plate from rising melt derived from fluid-induced melting of the mantle wedge above the downgoing lithospheric slab.
process in which sediments are moved along a beach
|Where are rocks most likely to strain in a plastic fashion?||
a mix of all types of slides.
the process of rocks peeling of caused by erosion
makes up the foundation of a continent
the most important source of food on the plains
An explanation for the sudden release of energy that causes earthquakes when deformed rocks fracture and rebound to their original undeformed condition.
USA %4 population => use %____ of resources
• fault rupture expands on fault plane at ~2-3
when magnetic minerals cool below a temperature called the _______, domains within the magnetic mineral take on an orientation parallel to any external magnetic field present at the time they cooled below this temperature
|The salinity of the ocean ________.||
Remains approximately constant.
Big Bend National Park is located in which desert
Molten rock (magma) that comes to the Earth's surface through a volcano or fissure
|little ice age||
a period of cooler temperatures, between 1500 and 1800 c.e., during which many glaciers advance
the process by which a rocks overall chemical composition changes during metamorphism becase of reaction with hot water that bring in or remove element
viscous basalt lava that breaks as it flows. crumbly
|What are the floods called that flooded eastern washington||
|In general, chemical weathering would occur most rapidly in a:||
warm, moist climate
the total amount of sediment a stream is able to transport
have a positive charge exist in the nucleus # of protons = # of electrons
Earth heats up as you descend,
15 degrees to 50 degrees per km
Rate increases with depth
35km: 400 degree to 700 degree C
Rock is squeezed or sheared at high temperatures; the rock changes shape without breaking.
water returning to the ocean via the land surface
the number of protons in an elements atom
the flat land on either side of a stream that becomes covered with water during a flood
|what type of volcano consists of both lava flows and pyroclastic deposits||
570 million years ago to 230 million years ago; great development of sea life and the first land animals.
|What do you call the vertical distance from trough to crest?||
|Mount Saint Helens||
Volcano that began showing signs of unrest in March of 1980, grew 1.5 meters a day errupted may 18th 1980
|what type of waves are responsible for base shear and resonance||
|Turbidites are sediments associate with turbidity current. These sediments are classified as A. fining up the sequence B. fining down the sequence||
A. fining up the sequence
A resource that can be replaced by nature within a short time span relative to a human life span
|What are the two most abundant elements in the Earth's crust?||
Feldspar is the name of a group of rock-forming minerals which make up as much as 60% of the Earth's crust.Feldspars crystallize from magma in both intrusive and extrusive igneous rocks, and they can also occur as compact minerals, as veins, and are also
|driven by gravity||
what is the primary force driving mass wasting?
|What captures most of the water that flows as runoff, throughflow, and ground water?||
Rivers and streams.
this is a waste rock that must be removed before a mineral can be used
|What processes will cause metamorphism?||
An increase in pressure, interaction with hydrothermal fluids, and an increase in temperature.
a volcano that was once active but has stopped erupting and will never erupt again; these volcanoes are often eroded at the surface
|what is non clastic||
texture in which minerals form a pattern of interlinking crystals
a time span on the geologic time scale beginning about 65 million years ago following the Mesozoic era
form when clots of lava fly in the air in lava fountains and then freeze to form solid chunks before hitting the ground or when explosions from volcano shatter preexisting rocks
|animals and plants dispersed very widely in the Mesozoic fossils because||
the continents were close together during much of the Mesozoic and climates were mild even at high latitudes
|Wegner's theory of continental drift||
a theory that the continents have moved over the surface of the earth and prior to about 200 million years ago all of the continents formed one large land mass called Pangea.
|geologic processes we observe today have operated in the past||
According to the principle of uniformitarianism,
|What is a divergent boundary?||
A divergent boundary is wehre two plates are pulling apart and moving in opposite directions. This creates new lithosphere as magma intrudes into the cracks formed when the plates pull apart. This occurs along the central part (axis) of mid-ocean ridges.
|chars of Chemically active fluids are||
Mainly hot water with carbon dioxide, dissolved gases, salts, trace components of minerals.
Source of fluid may be the parent rock (sedimentary) or a nearby pluton
Enhances migration of ions, helps trigger chemical reactions.
|Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) logging - The relaxation time T2 is...||
the time taken for the nuclei return to normal random orientation when the field is removed.
|How do they cause DESTRUCTION?||
1. wind damage2. storm area surge in coastal areas3. inland freshwater flooding
|what is pahoehoe lava?||
it is a lava that form a relatively smooth skin that wrinkles as the sill molten subsurface lava continues to advance
|Which is the lightest (least dense) layer of the earth?||
The continental crust, because it is mostly granite.
|Which of the statements regarding economically valuable igneous rocks or minerals is NOT true?||
The fact that they crystalize at lower temperatures then most other.
|acidity of water is high in the valley||
chemical weathering of rocks in a valley is more pronounced than that of the same rocks on a hill top, because
|during the time when the Sun emitted its blast of energy, what took place||
the cratering of the planets and their satellites
|1. Earth is part of a heliocentric solar system2. Earth orbits sun= 365 days3. Earth spins on axis=24 hours4. Has 300 billion stars (solar system) & 2505. Universe has 100 billion galaxies & 10^21 stars||
How do we know the details of Big Bang Theory