GeoPhysical Vocabulary Flashcards

Planet
Terms Definitions
ellipse
an oval
Milky Way
our galaxy
Inertia
resistance to change
astronomy
study of the universe
Acceleration
A change in velocity/time
erosion
the incorporation and transportation of material by a mobile agent, such as water, wind, or ice
liquefaction
a phenomenon, sometimes associated with earthquakes, in which soils and other unconsolidated materials saturated with water are turned into a liquid that is not able to support buildings
Galileo
Who proved the Heliocentric theory?
Supernova
Where do nebulae come from?
epicenter
the location on Earth's surface directly above the focus, or origin, of an earthquake
compaction
process by which sediments are squeezed together by the weight of overlying materials driven out by water
geocentric
describes the concept of an Earth-centered universe
hydrogenous sediment
seafloor sediment consisting of minerals that crystallize from seawater
Neil Armstrong
First man on the moon
Earth
Has 3 main regions (Atmosphere, Hydrosphere, Lithosphere), variety of carbon based life forms, has atmosphere
gravity
The attractive force between 2 objects
Comet or asteroid
What killed the dinosaurs?
mantle
layer of Earth located below the crust
front
the boundary between two adjoining air masses having contrasting characteristics
lithosphere
the rigid outer layer of earth, including the crust and upper mantle
focus
the point within Earth where an earthquake originates
fault
a fracture in Earth along which movement has occurred
geology
the science that examines the Earth, its form and composition, and the changes it has undergone and is undergoing
mechanical weathering
the physical disintegration of rock, resulting in smaller fragments
groundwater
water underground in the zone of saturation
chromosphere
the first layer of the solar atmosphere found directly aove the photosphere
hypothesis
a tentative explanation that is tested to determine if it is valid
constellation
an apparent group of stars originally named for mythical characters
humidity
a general term referring to water vapor in the air but not to liquid droplets of fog, cloud, or rain
meteorology
study of the atmosphere and the processes that produce weather and climate
latitude
distance north and south of the equator
deformation
general term for the processes of folding, faulting, shearing, compression, or extension of rocks as the result of various natural forces
geothermal gradient
the gradual increase in temperature with depth in the crust
Coriolis Effect
the apparet deflective force of Earth's rotation on all free-moving objects, including the atmosphere and oceans; Deflection is to the right in the Northern Hemisphere and to the left in the Southern Hemisphere
infiltration
the movement of surface water into rock or soil through cracks or pore spaces
geosphere
layer of Earth under both the atmosphere and the oceans; composed of the core, mantle and crust
Pulsar
Neutron stars that pulse out radio waves
Asteroids
minor planets, chunks of rock, has belt between Mars and Jupiter
Kepler
Who described the elliptical orbits of planets?
Phases
when the moon appears differently to us at different times of the month
Motion
related to force, this requires a force
star
sphere of reacting gas and plasma, emits large amounts of electromagnetic radiation (both invisible and visible)
342
how many exoplanets and extra solar planets do we know of as of 3-19-09
satellite
an object that revolves around a planet
intraplate volcanism
igneous activity that occurs within a tectonic plate away from plate boundaries
light-year
the distance light travels in a year, about 9.5 trillion km
Koppen Classification System
a system for classifying climates based on mean monthly and annual values of temperature and precipitation
igneous rock
a rock formed by the crystallization of molten magma
cleavage
tendency of a mineral to break along planes of weak bonding
cinder cone
a small volcano built primarily of pyroclastic material ejected from a singl vent
black hole
massive star that has collapsed to such a small volume that its gravity prevents the escape of everything, including light
atmosphere
the gaseous portion of a planet; the planet's envelope of air;
evaporation
the process of converting a liquid to a gas
fossil
the remains or traces of an organism preserved from the geologic past
flood
occurs when the discharge of a stream becomes so great that it exceeds the carrying capacity of its channel and overflows its banks
Average velocity
The total distance over the total time
Uniformed Circular Motion
The continuous changing in velocity, moving at a constant speed. E.g. fan blade
Venus
Close to the earth in size, thick atmosphere, high pressure, very hot, (thought to be what earth looked like early on)
Moon
May have been formed when a large object collided with earth and a piece of earth broke off
big bang theory
the theory that proposes that the universe originated as a single mass, which subsequently exploded
hot spot
a concentration of heat in the mantle capable of producing magma, which rises to Earth's surface; The Pacific Plate moves over a hot spot, producing the Hawaiian Islands
fault-block mountain
a mountain formed when large blocks of crust are tilted, uplifted or dropped between large normal faults
heliocentric
describes the view that the sun is at the center of the solar system
aphelion
the place in the orbit of a planet where the planet is farthest from the sun
lunar eclipse
an eclipse of the moon; occurs when the moon passes through Earth's shadow
convergent boundary
a boundary in which two plates move together
Earth Science
the name for all the sciences that collectively seek to understand Earth; it includes geology, oceanography, meteorology,
Net Force
Combination of all forces acting on an object
Balanced Force
The Net forces acting on an object that cancels each other out
Planet
a large body that orbits a star (name means wanderer)
Red Giant
When a stars core collapses and other parts of it expands, what is it then called?
intertidal zone
the area where land and sea meet and overlap; the zone between high and low tides
foliated metamorphic rock
a metamorphic rock with a texture that gives the rock a layered appearance
9.8 meters per second squared
What is the rate of gravity
Uranus and Neptune
2 planets, know little, edge of solar system, greenish blue color
Newton's Third Law
For every action force there is an equal and opposite reaction force
Linear Acceleration
A change in the velocity that can only be the speed, not the direction
Law of Conservation of Momentum
total movement in a system is conserved
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