American Government 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
vetoing
rejecting
1972
Gerald Ford (R)
filibuster
unlimited speaking time
incumbent
person currently holding office
Article 5
Covers the Amending Process
Amend. #12
Election of the President
What law governs election process?
n/a
Government
Institution through which society makes and enforces its public policies
Courts
Created to administer local justice; to preside over the trials of those accused of breaking local laws
Populism
Common problems solved by common sense. A conflict seen as occurring between a common person and a greedy elite or a group of elitists tied to anti-intellectual sentiments.C
sovereighnty
the supreme and absolute authority within territorial boundaries
Packaging
Highlighting positive traits of a candidate
Oversight
Congress monitors policies of the executive branch (money, hearings, investigations)-checks and balances
26th Amendment
Voting rights for 18 yr olds.
# of Senators and Representatives in Congress
535
misdemeanor
A less serious crime that is punishable by a fine or a prison sentence of under a year.
federal courts
have power derived from the Constitution
Power
The ability for people or institutions to control public policy
Trail courts
Courts of original jurisdiction where cases begin
Socialism
A political ideology based on strong support for economic and social equality. Socialists traditionally envisioned a society in which major businesses were taken over by the government or by employee cooperatives.
implied powers
powers inferred from the express powers that allow Congress to carry out its functions.
impeachment
an action by the house of representatives to accuse the president, vice president, or other civil officers of the US of committing "treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors"
pocket veto
killing a bill by not signing
the terms are not expressly stated, but can be inferred from the actions of people involved and the circumstances
implied contract
how can lawyer be paid?
contingency or hourly basis
substantive due process
This involves considering whether or not a law is fair and reasonable and whether or not it unjustly restricts constitutional freedoms.
Standing Committee
A permanent committee established in a legislature, usually focusing on a policy area
articles of confederation
"firm league of friendship" between friends
Hierarchical Authority
A chain of command whereby the officials and units at the top have authority over the middle, who in turn control the bottom
What is political culture?
The composition of attitudes, assumptions, and beliefs that the American people have towards their govt. Impacted by economy and historical events; widely shared beliefs, values, and norms concerning the relationship of citizens to government and to one another. No dreams or fantasies. Political culture changes equality with historic events.
Division of Powers
basic principle of federalism (between National and State)
Progressive Tax
more you make higher percentage you pay
poll books
official lists of qualified voters in each precinct
police power
power reserved to the state to regulate the health, safety and morals of its citizens
Judicial Review
Power of the court to determine whether laws and other government actions are constitutional or unlawful
redistrict
to set up new district lines after reapportionment is complete
Obama's Dinero
Earns 400,000 a year, plus a 100,000 travel allowance. Benefits- lifetime pension of 148,400 a year, Lives in white house (132 room mansion), free medical dental and health care, Air Force 1
great compromise
plan to have a popularly elected house based on state population and a state-selected senate, with two members for each state
State Department
a department of government in one of the 50 states
runoff primary
a second primary election held when no candidate wins a majority of the votes in the first primary
federal principle
idea that we have both a federal/state government, but federal takes precedent
electorate
the mass of people who can cast votes in elections
philidalphia convention
55 men attended this and made the Constitution
Plaintiff
a person who brings an action in a court of law
Parlimentary System
a system of government in which the chief executive is the leader whose party holds the most seats in the legislature after an election or whose party forms a major part of the ruling coalition
Economic interest group
a group with the primary purpose of promoting the financial interests of its members
grandfater clause
exemption in a law for a certain group based on previous conditions.
Incentives for party building
In any system where collective choices are made by voting, organization pays. When action requires winning majorities on a continuing basis in multiple settings, organization is absolutely essential. The Constitution's provisions for enacting laws and electing leaders therefore put a huge premium on building majority alliances across institutions and electoral units. Parties grew out of the efforts of political entrepreneurs to build such alliances and to coordinate the collective activity necessary to gain control of and use the machinery of government.
Legislative Branch of Government
Legislative ( Senate and House of Representatives) they make laws. Another name for this branch is the Congress.
Dred Scott v. Sanford
The 14th amendment when it made African-Americans citizens overturned what Supreme Court case.
In 1948 what type of polling set back did they have?
Asked too early
The owner and proprietor of Bubba's Rib Cage, an eatery located at the confluence of three different interstate highways, despises minorities and wants to refuse to allow them to eat at his restaurant. His actions violate the
Civil Rights Act of 1964.
What is the primary duty of the president
To enforce the law
The electoral system broke down in the election of 1800 because of
the rise of political parties
CRM- what opinions were stirred up?
- March on Washington
o Positive image of blacks (peaceful, courageous)
o There was a "there, there" - Black America existed
- Freedom Summer
o Anger
o Shame
o This really was happening!
o Its not just a "black" problem
The New Jersey Plan (pg. 42)
a plan by lawyer William Paterson to revise the Articles of the Confederation and allow for Congress to regulate trade and impose taxes, establish the supremacy clause, several people would be elected by congress to form an executive office, and the executive office would appoint a Supreme Court
Taking a long view of the CRM
- not a single moment but the result of a long period of organizing
- not confined to the south
- about regular people and vents not simply about famous personalities and spectacular moments
- realizing the outcomes of the CRM didn't immediately make themselves manifest
espionage
spying
movable things
personal property
Chief of state
embargo
an agreement prohibiting trade
20th Amendment
Terms of congress-chapter 5
Constitution
law determining the fundamental political principles of a government
article 3
judicial branch clause
-the constitution set up the supreme court and it states that congress can create other courts if it sees fit
-no written qualifications to be part of the supreme court in the constitution
Article Six
state powers and interstate relations
defendant
the person or organization against whom the lawsuit is bought
Independent agency
National Aeronautics and space administration
Popular Sovereignty
The people are in charge
Shay's Rebellion
Armed uprising in western Massachusetts in 1786 led by Revolutionary War captain Daniel Shay. It was a group of farmers who were unable to pay taxes strongly and successfully for awhile so they rebelled against the federal government. It proved that the state government was too weak because they didn't know how to keep it under control. Result of the terrible articles of confederation!
congregationalism
form of Protestant church government in which the local congregation is independent and self-governing; in the colonies, the Puritans were Congregationalists.
gerrymandering
Favoring of a political power, or giving the party as many congressional seats as possible
initiative
process that permits voters to put legislative measures directly on the ballot
Concurring Opinions
Opinions written by Supreme Court justices that agree with the conclusion but not with the reasoning of the majority opinion.
Strict Constructionist
reads the letter of the law
Who added So Help me God
George Washington
Classic socialism
an economic and political theory advocatingpublic or common ownership and cooperative management of the means of production and allocationof resources. Reduction or elimination of hierarchial governance
Article VI
Debts, supremacy, oaths. Laws and treaties made, have to made in accordance with the supreme law of the land. Supremacy clause.
Article 6
Supremacy Clause- Constitution is "the supreme law of the land"
16th Amendment
Authorized Congress to enact a national income tax.
Covenant
A binding agreement made by two or more persons or parties. In Protestant churches during the Reformation, a covenant was an agreement made in the sight of God. The Mayflower Compact was such a covenant.
Caucus
A closed meeting of party leaders to select party candidates or to decide on policy
bureaucratic view
View that the government is dominated by appointed officials
9th Amendment
Assurance that rights not listed for protection against the power of the central government in the Constitution are stilled retained by the people
straight ticket
voting for candidates of the same party
discharge petition
procedure enabling members to force a bill that has been pigeonholed in committee onto floor for consideration
Spoils System
The firing of public-office holders of a defeated political party and their replacement with loyalist of the newly elected party
What marks early 1800s in media?
1 cent penny
civil disobedience
the willful but nonviolent breach of unjust laws
john adams
did not attend PC because ambassador to Britain
Jury
A groups of citizens who hear evidence during a trial and give a verdict
realigning election
An election during periods of expanded suffrage and change in the economy and society that proves to be a turning point, redefining the agenda of politics and the alignment of voters within parties. They have occurred cyclically, roughly every 32 years, and tend to coincide with expansions of suffrage or changes in the rate of voting.20 Political scientists generally agree that there have been four realigning elections in American party history: 1824, 1860, 1896,1932
developing western lands
-northwest ordinance=set rules on how lands would be governed
-5,000 males=own legislature
-60,000 people=new state
-slavery banned in new lands
-5 new states were formed from this land
Charles de Montesquieu
Developed the idea for separation of powers and he wrote the book The Spirit of the Laws
Double Jeopardy
putting someone on trial for a crime of which he or she was previously acquitted
Type of interest group well organized and financed, offers exclusive benefits
Economic Interest Group
Royal Colony
This type of colony was under the direct controll of the Monarchy. It had bicameral legislatures.
Republic
A government by which power is held by representatives elected by the people
definiton of politics
denote special feature of a concept, states in a way that isnt circular, in positive terms, and easily readable and clear
straw vote
polls that saught to read the public's mind simply by asking the same question of a large number of people
war powers resolution
in 1973 declared that the president can send troops abroad only with authorization of congress or if U.S. troops are already under attack or seriously threatened. Has been ignored by presidents such as Reagan Bush and Clinton with out objection of the congress.
Bicameral Legislation
legislature made up of 2 houses, the House of Representatives and the Senate
Equality of Result
Making certain that people achieve the same result
The Supreme Court
What is the highest tribunal of the United States?
state constitutions, state laws
state courts derive their power from the ___ and ___.
What is selective exposure?
The process of screening out messages that do not conform to a particular bias.
Unified Government
a situation in which one party holds a majority of seats in the house and senate and the president is the member of the same party.
commander-in-chief
A person who is in control of all the armed forces of a nation.
Federal question
A question that has to do with the us constitution, acts of congress, or treaties. Provides a basis for a federal jurisdiction.
Who fills the vacancy of the vice president?
Speaker of the house
The Declaration of Independence reflects what principles?
Life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness
what are the current voting requirnents
18, us citizen registered live in state...
Powers of the President
1. commander in chief 2,. sign a bill (to make it a law) 3. pocket veto-(bill that is brought up within the last 10 days of congressional session, and pres. ignores it) 5. power of foreign policy (diplomatic recognition-power to send and receive ambassadors 6. power of appointment 7. pardon 8. required to give a state of union message
In which case did the U.S. Supreme Court create a \"clear and present danger\" doctrine?
Correct Answer: Gitlow v. New York
Why is hate groups tolerated in our nation's streets?
The denial of the permit of the 'hate group' was unlawful and denying the march was a violation of the freedom to assemble
Subcommittees
B
Bill
A proposed law
Materialism
Matter is eternal+evolution-chapter 2
Missouri Attorney General
Chris Koster
Thomas Hobbes
Consent of the governed
School
Patriotic values and benevolent authority. Taught to submit to authority. The way schools are structured foster to the idea of submitting to authority.
incumbents
when making contributions to candidates for congress, PAC's usually tend to show a preference for...
Which group can bring impeachment charges?
Legislative
1765
The Stamp Act, Quartering Act; colonists begin boycott of English goods, Resolutions of the Stamp Act of Congress issued
district court
trial court (evidence submitted); minimum of 1 federal district court in every state; original jurisdiction
concept of politics
abstraction representing an object
political efficacy
influence or efectiveness in politics
Congressional elaboration
Congressional legislation that gives further meaning to the constitution based on sometimes vague constitutional authority, such as the necessary and proper clause.
Checks and Balances
All branches of government-chapter 4
political socialization
process by which background traits influence one's political views
National Committee
chief organizing committee of national political party
exclusive powers
powers only given to natl govt
Prejudice
An unfair opinion against a minority group.
Categorical Grants
Specific, give the national government a lot of control
External Efficacy
Messages, cues, social context and media , the willingness of the state to respond to the citizenry
Dillion's Rule
Legal doctrine that local governments are "mere creatures" of the state. (Supposedly "defines" federalism)
Analyze
This word requires that you do essentially the same thing you would do in a question that requires you to explain or discuss something. However, when asked to identify the success or failure of the program or institution by using specific examples.
patronage
The dispensing of government jobs to persons who belong to the winning political party.
subcommittee
subdivision of a standing group that considers specific matters and reports back to the full committee
Electoral college
representatives of each state who cast the final ballots that actually elect a president
strict-constructionist approach
the view that judges should decide cases strictly on the basis of the language of the laws and the constitution
Greenhouse effect
carbon dioxide traps the sund heat, lead to global warming
Hatch Act
the 1939 act to prohibit civil servants from taking activist roles in partisan campaigns. this act prohibited federal employees from making political contributions, working for a particular party, or campaigning for a particular candidate
Boycott
To join others in refusing to deal with a person, group, or to buy a certain product.
Representatives serve a...
Two-year term; may be reelected without limit.
Bill of Rights
First 10 ammendments to constitution laying out basic rights of American citizens.
electors
would meet in their own states and cast votes for two presidential candidates
General Election
the election in which voters cast ballots for house members, senators, and president and vice president.
quorum
least number of members who must be present for a legislative body to conduct business; majority
27th Congressional Pay
congressional pay does not change until after new election
authoritarian
Of or pertaining to a governmental or political system, principle, or practice in which individual freedom is held as completely subordinate to the power or authority of the state, centered either in one person or a small group that is not constitutionally accountable to the people.
President Pro Tempore
the temporary presiding officer of the Senate in the absence of VP
Open Primary
a primary election in which voters may choose in which party to vote as they enter the polling place
Habeas Corpus
A writ requiring a person under arrest to be brought before a judge or into court.
gitlow v NY
establish due process by the 14th amendment 1925
Constitutionalism, federalism, and republicanism
Three words that describe Madison's political thought.
James Madison
One of our presidents. Wrote the Big States Plan, and helped write the Federalist Papers
Ideological Polarization
the effect on public opinion when many citizens move away from moderate positions and toward either end of the political spectrum, identifying themselves as either liberals or conservatives.
interstate compact
an agreement among two or more states. Congress must approve most such agreements.
two most famous ppl to attend convention
Washington and Franklin(oldest)
democracy
a system of govt in which rule is by the people (YOU).
What is the name of the Vice President of the U.S. now/
Joe Biden
commander in cheif
the priesident's role as the head of the armed forces
Symbolic Speech
This is an action meant to deliver a message.
What is a green card
A card that legal immigrants must carry at all times. Shows that they are in the country legally. Citizens don't have to have one
United States Courts of Appeals
most active of the federal judiciary courts
separate but equal
Black and whites were able to go to the same school but could not be in the same classrooms and had to have different drinking fountains
Gag orders have been used to
restrict the publication of news about a trial in progress.
Majority Rules, Minority Rights
The vote of the majority is the ruling law, but the minority can criticize
The Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces
: 5 civilian judges appointed for 15-year terms. Hears appeals from court-martial convictions and usually the court of last resort for members of the armed forces.
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