American history Flashcards

Terms Definitions
over-popualated
overcrowded
profound
Deep
smuged
smeared
smudget
smeared
britle
stuff
prestige
higher status.
virtue
good ness
muscular
strongly built
Muted
Quieted, softened
passion
strong feeling
Humiliate
to embarrass deeply
phoneme
the smallest meaning-distinguishing sound unit in the abstract representation of the sounds of a language.
Hierarchy
In order of importance
warped
curved out of focus
dilapidated
rundown in poor condition
NORMS
"non-mobile, older, rural, male speakers" selected as informants in dialect surveys.
hysterical
not able to stop crying
residence
a place to live in
face
a person's public self-image as described in the study of politeness.
accent
aspects of pronunciation that identify where a speaker is from, in contrast to dialect.
speech accommodation
modifying speech style toward (convergence) or away from (divergence) the perceived style of the person being talked to.
rejection
a refusal to accept or hear
coinage
the invention of new words (e.g. Xerox).
language planning
choosing and developing an official language or languages for use in government and education.
morphology
the analysis of the structure of words.
nasal
a sound produced through the nose (e.g. the first sounds in my name).
blending
the process of combining the beginning of one word and the end of another word to form a new word (e.g. brunch from breakfast and lunch).
epenthesis
a sound change involving the addition of a sound to a word (e.g. timr  timber).
gender
a distinction between classes of nouns as masculine, feminine (or neuter), also called grammatical gender.
glides
sounds produced with the tongue in motion to or from a vowel sound, also called "semi-vowels" or "approximants" (e.g. the first sounds in wet, yes).
face-threatening act
saying something that represents a threat to another person's self-image.
diachronic variation
differences resulting from change over a period of time, in contrast to synchronic varation.
speech act
an action such as "promising" performed by a speaker with an utterance, either as a direct speech act or an indirect speech act.
phonetics
the study of the characteristics of speech sounds.
convergence
adopting a speech style that attempts to reduce social distance by using forms that are similar to those used by the person being talked to, as a type of speech accommodation, in contrast to divergence.
sociolect
social dialect, a variety of a language that is strongly associated with one social group (e.g. working-class speech).
dental
a consonant produced with the tongue tip behind the upper front teeth (e.g. the first sound in that).
tenement
A city apartment for poorer families that is usually unclean unsfe uncoomfortable
Maneuvering
Planning a movment to gain you something.
Abrupt
Said or done suddenly, without much explanation
gradable antonyms
words with opposite meanings along a scale (e.g. big-small).
polysemy
a word having two or more related meanings (e.g. foot, of person, of bed, of mountain).
dialect boundary
a line representing a set of isoglosses, used to separate one dialect are from another.
external change
influences from the outside that cause changes in a language, in contrast to internal change.
agent
the semantic role of the noun phrase identifying the one who performs the action of the verb in an event (The boy kicked the ball).
natural gender
a distinction based on the biological categories of male, female or neither, in contrast to other types of gender.
borrowing
the process of taking words from other languages.
Martyr
Someone who dies for a cause or religious belief.
coordinated
To move or act smoothly with someone else
corpus linguistics
the study of language in use by analyzing the occurrence and frequency of forms in a large collection of texts typically stored in a computer.
auditory phonetics
the study of the perception of speech sounds by the ear, also called "perceptual phonetics".
broadening
a semantic change in which a word is used with a more general meaning (e.g. foda (animal fodder)  food (any kind)), in contrast to narrowing.
articulatory phonetics
the study of how speech sounds are produced.
diglossia
a situation where there is a "high" or special variety of a language used in formal situations (e.g. Classical Arabic), and a "low" variety used locally and informally (e.g. Lebanese Arabic).
Epiphany
The moment in a story when a character recognized an important truth
Early Modern English
the form of English in use between 1500 and 1700.
Old English
the form of English in use between 450 BCE and 1100.
minimal pair (set)
two (or more) words that are identical in form except for a contrast in one phoneme in the same position in each word (e.g. bad, mad).
Flashback
A look into the past at some point in a story
passive voice
the form of the verb used to say what happens to the subject (e.g. The car was stolen) in contrast to active voice.
Over-populated
Overcrowed
logic
reasoning
solace
comfort
literally
accually,really
intention
a plan
utter
total; complete
neologism
a new word.
anticipate
to look forward.
postvocalic
used after a vowel.
tense
the grammatical category distinguishing forms of the verb as present tense and past tense.
Heaving
Moving up and down
Discreet
Careful, showing good judgement
hearving
moving up and down
nucleus
the vowel in a syllable.
temptation
an urge to do someting
glottis
the space between the vocal folds.
orthography
the spelling system of a language.
intersect
To persuade to particaipate or engage.
monstrosity
something that is huge and ugly
cognates
words in different languages that have a similar form and meaning (e.g. English friend and German Freund).
labiodental
a consonant produced with the upper teeth and the lower lip (e.g. the first sounds in very funny).
number
the grammatical category of nouns as singular or plural.
velar
a consonant produced by raising the back of the tongue to the velum (e.g. the first and last sounds in geek).
rhyme
the part of the syllable containing the vowel plus any following consonants(s), also called "rime".
register
a conventional way of using language that is appropriate in a specific situation, occupation or topic, characterized by the use of special jargon.
semantic features
basic elements such as "human," included as plus (+ human) or minus (- human), used in an analysis of the components of word meaning.
disbelief
holding on to sometihg as un true
hierarchical organization
the analysis of constituents in a sentence showing which constituents are higher than and contain other constituents.
goal
the semantic role of the noun phrase identifying where an entity moves to (e.g. The boy walked to the window).
pragmatics
the study of speaker meaning and how more is communicated than is said.
co-hyponyms
words in hyponymy that share the same superordinate (e.g. "Daffodil" and "rose" are co-hyponyms of "flower").
homophones
two or more words with different forms and the same pronunciation (e.g. to-too-two).
elision
the process of leaving out a sound segment in the pronunciation of a word.
assimilation
the process whereby a feature of one sound becomes part of another during speech production.
lexical relations
the relationships of meaning, such as synonymy, between words.
acronym
a new word formed from the initial letters of other words (e.g. NASA).
Coordinate
to move or act smoothly with someone else
affix
a bound morpheme such as un- or -ed added to a word (e.g. undressed).
complement phrase
a structure such as that Mary helped George used to complete a construction beginning with a structure such as Cathy knew.
eponym
a word derived from the name of a person or place (e.g. sandwich).
inflectional morpheme
a bound morpheme used to indicate the grammatical function of a word, also called an "inflection" (e.g. dogs, walked).
preposition phrase
a phrase such as with a dog, consisting of a preposition plus a noun phrase.
palate
the hard part of the roof of the mouth.
Modern English
the form of English in use since 1700.
trance
a condition in which one can't seem to move
verb
a word such as go, drown, or know used to describe an action, event or state.
social deixis
using words such as here or there as a way of "pointing" to a location with language.
refrain
stop
Lilting
Musical
reaction
a response
refain
Repeated words
embrace
to hug
interpect
to meet
hunmiliate
to embarrass deeply
dialectology
the study of dialects.
temptaion
an urge to do something
fricative
a consonant produced by almost blocking the airflow (e.g. the first and last sounds in five).
majority principle
in comparative reconstruction, the choice of the form that occurs more often than any other form in the descendant languages.
superordinate
the higher-level term in hyponymy (e.g. flower-daffodil).
pharyngeal
a sound produced in the pharynx.
consonant cluster
two or more consonants in sequence.
style-shifting
changing speech style from formal to informal or vice versa.
subject
the grammatical function of the noun phrase typically used to refer to someone or something performing the action of the verb (e.g. The boy stole it).
vowel
a sound produced through the vocal folds without constriction of the airflow in the mouth.
voiced sounds
speech sounds produce with vibration of the vocal folds.
aspiration
a puff of air that sometimes accompanies the pronunciation of a stop.
alveolar ridge
the rough bony ridge immediately behind the upper front teeth.
context
either the physical context or the linguistic context (co-text) in which words are used.
face-saving act
saying something that reduces a possible threat to another person's self-image.
conversion
the process of changing the function of a word, such as a noun to a verb, as a way of forming new words, also known as "category change" or "functional shift" (e.g. vacation in They're vacationing in Florida).
hypocorism
a word-formation process in which a longer word is reducted to a shorter form with -y or -ie at the end (e.g. telly, movie).
synchronic variation
differences in language form found in different places at the same time, in contrast to diachronic variation.
complementizer
a word such as that introducing a complement phrase.
phonology
the study of the systems and patterms of speech sounds in languages.
derivation
the process of forming new words by adding affixes.
diphthong
a sound formed by combining two vowel sounds (e.g. boy)
calque
a type of borrowing in which each element of a word is translated into the borrowing language (e.g. grate-ciel "scrape-sky" for skyscraper).
loan-translation
a type of borrowing in which each element of a word is translated into the borrowing language, also called calque.
linguistic variable
a feature of language use that distinguishes one group of speakers from another.
tree diagram
a diagram with branches showing the hierarchical organization of structures.
speech style
a way of speaking that is either formal/careful or informal/casual.
closed syllable
a syllable that ends with a consonant or coda.
associative meaning
the type of meaning that people might connect with the use of words (e.g. needle = "painful") that is not part of conceptual meaning.
physical context
the situation, time or place in which words are used.
negative face
the need to be independent and free from imposition, in contrast to positive face.
noun
a word such as boy, bicycle or freedom used to describe a person, thing or idea.
descriptive approach
an approach to grammar that is based on a description of the structures actually used in a language, not what should be used, in contrast to prescriptive approach.
open syllable
a syllable that ends with a vowel (or nucleus) and has no coda.
indirect speech act
an action in which the form used (e.g. interrogative) does not directly match the function (e.g. request) performed by a speaker with an utterance, in contrast to a direct speech act.
preposition
a word such as in or with used with a noun phrase.
Perjury
Clinton
Hydrogen bomb
H-bomb
exemplary
worthy of imitation
majority
more than half
Thomas Paine
Wrote Common Sense
Roger Williams
Founded Rhode Island
Silver
The Populist party's platform consisted of an unlimited mining of ________
D
Without the Bessemer process, Americans might not have been able to create
A. train engines
B sewing machines
C the Morse code
D the Brooklyn bridge.
Lincoln Steffens
Shame of cities, nickraker
Spying to acquire government secrets
Espionage
Bleeding Kansas
nickname given because of violence
U.S. Army Rocket Research Center
Huntsville, Alabama
William McKinley
1897-1901, Republican, supported gold standard, protective tariff, and Hawaiian Islands, against William Bryan (The Great Commoner), assassinated
False
African-American workers were paid the same as any other laboring group.
McClellan
who was Lincoln's democratic opponent in the election of 1864?
Schlieffen Plan
German strategy that provided instructions for waging war against France and Russia at the same time
mass transit
transportation systems designed to move large numbers of people along fixed routes, enabled workers to go to and from jobs more easily
armistice (Armistice Day)
a temporary end to fighting
Holocaust
the systimatic slauter of 6 million jewsduring WWII
New Jersey Plan
3 branch government (executive, judicial, legislative); bicameral legislature (house and senate) Representatives chosen based on state population
Who became President after Lincoln's assassination?
Andrew Johnson
Entrepreneur
Someone who starts their own business and assumes the risk of the business
Universalist
Believe in the universal salvation of souls / God intends to save everyone
Florence Kelly
lobbied in 1893 for anti-sweatshop law
30 years as general secret
Peace Corps
Federal program established to send volunteers to help developing nations
23 Amendment
Gave Washington D.C. an electoral vote
Inauguration
the ceremony in which the president officially takes the oath of office
Recall
A procedure that permits voters to remove public officials from office before the next election.
Great Migration
African Americans who migrated from the rural South to industrial cities in the north.
mainstreamed
mixing special needs with non special needs
Copperheadism
the advocacy of peace negotiations to restore the Union to its prewar condition during the Civil War, with continued slavery in the South
"Bleeding Kansas"
Name for the bloody violence that arose in Kansas over the issue of banning or allowing slavery
Monroe Doctrine
1823 US opposed efforts to control nation in Western Hemisphere other new settlements
Roe v. Wade
Supreme Court case ruling abortions legal in some states
predator reserves
what did roosevelt set aside so predators could repopulate?
Lexington and Concord
• British troops marched through because they were given secret orders to capture and destroy military supplies that were reportedly hidden by the Massachusetts militia in Concord.
• Fighting took place April 1775
• British started the fighting
• By the end of the day the colonists are winning and the British are in retreat
• The "siege of Boston" that follows Lexington and Concord are the opening phase of the American revolutionary war where New England militia men surrounded the town of Boston to prevent movement by the British army
Lord cornwallis
was a British Army officer and colonial administrator. In the United States and United Kingdom he is best remembered as one of the leading British generals in the American War of Independence.
nationalism
A feeling of intense loyalty to one's country or group, caused much of the tension in Europe.
Aguinaldo, Emilio
(1864-1969) Filipino leader who led a rebellion against Spain in 1896, led Filipino forces in alliance with the US against Spain in the Spanish-American War, and then, when the US refused to grant the Philippines independence, led Filipino forces against the US during the Filipino-American War (1899-1902). He represents how the US, during the Spanish-American War, transformed its effort from an anti-colonial war to a colonial war while continuing to claim that it was promoting democracy.
inflation
a sharp rise in prices resulting from too great expansion in paper money or bank credit
Magna carta
the royal charter of political rights given to rebellious English barons by King John in 1215
Ralph Bunche
mediator sent to persuade both jews and arabs to accept armistice
True
T/F: Many children left school to work in factories because their families needed the extra money to survive.
political machine
an organized group that controlled the activities of a political party in a city
***initiative
permits about 10% of the voters to initiate a petition/law and submit it to the politicians (easier at city level than district or state)
vigilante
people who take the law into their own hands
Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)
An organization founded by Martin Luther King, Jr. to direct the crusade against segregation. Its weapon was passive resistance that stressed nonviolence and love, and its tactic direct, though peaceful, confrontation.
F. Scott Fitzgerald
American writer famous for his novels and stories, such as The Great Gatsby, capturing the mood of the 1920s. He gave the decade the nickname the "Jazz Age."
indentured servant
Laborer who agreed to work without pay for a certain period of time in exchange for passage to America
Pendleton Civil Service Act
established a bipartisan civil service commission to make appointments to government jobs by means of the merit system
James B Duke
took advantage of technology to make manufactued cigarettes
convience led to spike in consumption
Namesake university in NC
What was prohibition?
Banning of alcohol in the United States
Adams-Onis Treaty
Agreement in which Spain gave up all of Florida to the United States- border disputes
Harriet Beecher Stowe
Author of "Uncle Tom's Cabin" which both angered the north and the south
William H. Tweed
Democratic boss who led Tammy Hall, and led a ring that had looted the city treasury and collected an estimated 200 million in kickbacks and payoffs.
Proclamation of 1763
Law passed by British which banned American colonists from crossing the Appalachian Mountains
The Third Reich
"The Third Empire" - the government of the Nazi party.
barnard baruch
Who was chosen by Wilson to lead the War Industries board because he loved taking on challenges?
What was the war in the pacific?
A race based war
Ulysses S. Grant
Former union general who went on to win the presidency in 1868. He served two terms marked with scandal within his administration
Treaty of Paris 1763
Ended French and Indian War, France lost Canada, land east of the Mississippi, to British, New Orleans and west of Mississippi to Spain
The Great Strike of 1877 took place in the:
railroad industry
What kind of candidate do many democrats want for the 1968 election?
many want an anti-war candidate
Civil Rights Act
(LBJ) 1964 , LBJ passed this in 1964. Prohibited discrimination of African Americans in employement, voting, or public accomidations. Also said there could be no discrimination against race, color, sex, religion, or national origin, had to take literacy test
Trail of Tears/Indian Removal Act
The forced movement of Cherokees in 1838 to land west of the Mississippi River
NATO formed for the purpose of
mutual defense against the warsaw pact
find the NW passsage, Dutch
what was henry hudson's goal and who was his voyage sponsored by?
Roderique Hortalez et Co.
Appears to be a trading Co. but is actually a revolutionary movement which secretly sends assistance to the United States.
West Virginia State Board of Education v. Barnette
Supreme Court ruled that students had a right to not salute the flag
National Origins Act of 1924:
had 2% of a nationality based on 1890 population.
What did Hitler do to the Rhineland in 1936?
He sent thousands of soldiers into it
Waco
Clinton
Saddam's strategy
...
distraught
(adj) deeply upset
Edward Henry Harriman
RR
wilhelm II
Who fired Bismark?
1607
The founding of Jamestown.
Pizarro
Spanish Conquistador- Saild down Pacific coast of So. Amer., in 1532 he captured the Inca ruler Athahuapla and destroyed Incan army, following year he executed Athahualpa b/c of this Spain to over the Incas
James Buchanan
1857-1861, Democrat, Know-Nothings Party (Fillmore), Democrats (Compromise of 1850 and Kansas Nebraska Bill)
printing press
Johannes Gutenberg;
spread ideas; increased literature and knowledge
Calvin
Protestant- like luther he rejected church traditions and broke away from the Catholic Church, he was a French thingker, mainly he rejected that good works ensure a persons salvation
Pendleton Act
created to administer competitive examinations for federal jobs.
How much did America cost?
35.5 billion.
labor unions.
President Wilson supported reforms that gave more power to
Hopewell
early advanced culture whose people where particulalrly artistic and used a social structured class system
horace mann
leader of education reform movement
William Pitt
the new leader after Braddock
Ralph Waldo Emerson
American Essayist, philosopher leading the Transcendentalist movement. Champion of Individualism
Vassar College
_____________ was the first college for women in the U.S.
Mao Zedong
Led the stuggle in the North
Great Awakening
a baffling moment of history, Traveling Evangelists, religious revival, no longer a need for an interview with a pastor to become saved, all about new birth and an internal feelings
Industrial Revolution
the beginning of factories. everyone moving to the city of jobs. start of pollution.
John Studebaker
Successful by selling and making wagons
entrepeneurs
people who risk their capital to organize and run businessess; attracted by the prospect of making money in manufacturing and transportation
Jimmy Carter
President who stressed human rights. Because of the Soviet war in Afghanistan, he enacted an embargo on grain shipments to USSR and boycotted the 1980 Olympics in Moscow.
Eli Whitney
United States inventor of the mechanical cotton gin (1765-1825)
Andrew Johnson
the seventeenth president of the United States
emancipation
the act of granting freedom from bondage or slavery.
Hepburn Act
TR's legislative victory that opened railroad books to government inspectors, > power of ICC
Appomattox Courthouse
Grant cuts supply lines, surrounds Lee. Lee surrenders.
national debt
the financial obligations of a national government resulting from deficit spending.
Teapot Dome Scandal
public land leased to private ownership
Muller vs. Oregon
Justified sex discrimination and & unfair labor laws
counterculture
a rebellion of teens and young adults against mainstream American society in the 1960s
conservationists
Who believes that resources ca be used but it must be very carefully?
equal rights ammendment
proposed failed ammendment to US constitution that would prohibit any government discrimination on basis of sex
Marshall Plan
After WWII, the US provides Billions of Dollars in aid to help rebuild the war torn nations in Europe
Beringia
an ancient land bridge over which the earliest Americans are believed to have migrated from Asia into the Americas
Transcendentalists
any group of New England writers who stressed the relationship between human beings and nature, spiritual things over material things, and the importance of the individual conscience
Formal withdrawal of a state from the Union is referred to as what?
secession
American System
a plan presented to Congress by President Madison for making the United States economically self-sufficient
renaissance
the period of European history at the close of the Middle Ages and the rise of the modern world
blanche k. bruce
another african american senator from ms
John Locke
An English philosopher that came up with the natural rights.
Roosevelt Corollary
European powers must not intervene in the Western Hemisphere, if they do, the US will use it's military to protect our economic interests.
umpton sinclair
"The jungle"-- about the chicago meat packing plants,because of this book, ppl thought we would become a meatless societymuckrakers on a mission to fix society-- helped teddy pass legislation
Huey Long
Senator from Louisiana who was a big critic of the New Deal
Boston Massacre
British soldiers fired into a crowd of colonists who were teasing and taunting them. Five colonists were killed. The colonists blamed the British and the Sons of Liberty and used this incident as an excuse to promote the Revolution.
igloos
hoses that were built out of blocks of ice by the inuit and the aleut tribes in what is now canada and alaska
truman doctrine
400 billion to greece adn turkey to prevent spread of communism
annex
to join a new territory to an existing one
Interchangeable parts
uniform pieces that can be made in large quantities to replace other identical pieces
Dow Jones
name given to the stock market index of major stock industries
James Madison
a federalist who promised that a bill of rights would be added to the constitution
Battle of Fallen Timbers
August 20,1794 Native Americans fought Wayne's troops and were defeated
Bull Run
These two battles were won by the confederate army
First Continental Congress
In September 1774 delegates from all the colonies except Georgia met in Philadelphia to protect the Coercive Acts.
What was the name of the ship that brought the Pilgrims to the New World?
Mayflower
map projection
ways of drawing the Earth on a flat surface
who did the aztecs worship?
fierce war god who demmanded sacifices
Where was the peace treaty for the War 0f 1812 signed?
Ghent, Belgium
Aticles of Confederation
1st System of government in the US; was WEAK because govrnment could not tax or easily make laws to protect citizens; had one branch of government.
who was the french and indian war between?
french and indians
3-3 Industrial Revolution
Refers to the move from handmade goods to machine-made items and the rise of factories. While it began in England, it moved to America in the late 1700s, progressing slowly at first but then picking up as America began to look to home for manufactured goods. This was especially true in New England, where manufacturing became central to the economy.
US had Collective Security
US makes alliances to protect the West (i.e. Communism)
Marbury v. Madison
1803 (TJ) , The 1803 case in which Chief Justice John Marshall and his associates first asserted the right of the Supreme Court to determine the meaning of the U.S. Constitution. The decision established the Court's power of judicial review over acts of Congress, in this case the Judiciary Act of 1789
national govt weak art of confed
no executive branch,
no national court system,
no tax,
no regulation interstate trade
why were industries drawn to cities? (2 answers)
good transportation & many workers
What was the Open Door Policy?
The policy that all countries should trade with China.
1st Great Awakening (Ivy League colleges founded by New Lights)
As the Great Awakening spread during the 1730s and 1740s,
various religious groups fractured into two camps, sometimes known as
the New Lights and Old Lights. The New Lights placed emphasis on a
"new birth" conversion experience--gaining God's saving grace. They
also demanded ministers who had clearly experienced conversions
themselves
Henry Cabot-Lodge refused because of sovereignty issues.
who led the opposition of the Treaty of Versailles?
How does Ike respond to the governor calling in the national guard?
sends in airborne troops to forcibly integrate Central High
What did Marx say would happen as time goes on?
There will be more and more Proletariat, and less and less Borgeoisie.
1775
Lexington/Concord
white gold
cotton
Algonguin
in Maine area
dejour
segregation by law
James Buchanan's political party
Democrat
articles of confederation
before constitution
1713-1726
Radical puritans offered an alternative societyto capitalism, colonial conquest, racism, religious intolerance, slavery; did the pirates of the "Golden Age"
Jefferson Davis
president of the confederacy
Frances Perkins
first woman cabinet member
Shays’ Rebellion
(1787) uprising of farmers
Women's suffrage movement
women's right to vote
presidio
a fortress established in the southwestern United States by the Spanish in order to protect their missions and other holdings
Southern Colonies
states-Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Maryland, and Georgia, economy-farm cash crops, rice indigo and tabacco, based on slaves, climate-hot, geography- flat lands
benjamin harrison
republican president who defeated Cleveland in the election 1888
who pioneered the assembly line
Henry Ford
John F. Kennedy
President 1961 to 1963
Wilson
The Democrat's candidate in 1912 was __________.
Harry Hopkins
Head of the Works Progress Administration
Marian Anderson
Singer who fought discrimination in the 1930s; Eleanor Roosevelt arranged for her to perform on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial in 1939.
Zimmerman Note
Message proposing an alliance between Germany and Mexico.
B
What effect did the Great Awakening have on religious life in the colonies?
A. It enhanced the political spiritual authority of ministers.
B. It reinforced the social order of the colonies.
C. It strengthened traditional Puritan teachings.
D. It helped make religion in the colonies more democratic
Braxton Bragg
replaces Beauregard as commander of Confederate forces in the Western Department.
John Brown
A fervent abolitionist and believed God had chosen him to end slavery. Led the attack at Pottawatomie Creek and killed 5 supporters of slavery. Also led attack at Harpers Family but defeated by federal troops and hug for treason and murder. Considered a martyr amongst some, hated by others.
Gavrilo Princip
person who assassinated the archduke of Austria-Hungary
Proprietary Colony
a colony with a single owner
Flexible Response
Kennedy's foreign policy to fight conventional war, Policy of using nonnuclear weapons to fight a war
William Lloyd Garrison
American abolitionist, journalist, and social reformer. Best known as the editor of the abolitionist newspaper The Liberator, and as one of the founders of the American Anti-Slavery Society. Promoted "immediate emancipation" of slaves in the US. Also a prominent voice for the women's suffrage movement.
Hitler sought to annex Czechoslovakia to provide more living space for Germans and countrol the region's important ____.
natural resources
seminole
only native americans who lived in florida and successfully stayed on their land during the indian removal act of 1830
sovereignty
ability of a state to govern its territory free from control of its internal affairs by other states
"Revolution of 1800"
Termed a "revolution" by Jefferson, since an opposing party came to power peacefully. In the election, John Adams portrayed as a tyrant; Jefferson as an anarchist. Jefferson and Burr tie in the electoral college—the House voted (on the 36th ballot) for Jefferson.
Fort Ticonderoga
Where did the Green Mountain Boys victory take place?
intolerable acts
created to punish the colonists for the boston tea party.
Cotton Mather
minister, part of Puritan New England important families, strongly believed on witches, encouraged witch trials in salem
San Jacinto
Battle that lasted for twenty minutes when Houston's army defeated Santa Anna's
Who helped elect Thomas Jefferson as Third President?
Alexander Hamilton
encomienda
A system of labor introduced into the Western Hemisphere by the spanish. It permitted the holder, to claim labor from Indians in a district for a stated period of time.
bounty-
money given as a reward, as to encourage enlistment in the army.
war production board
Created in 1942, this organization oversaw the production of planes, tanks, artillery pieces, and munitions needed for entering WWII
Upton Sinclair
muckraker who shocked the nation when he published The Jungle, a novel that revealed gruesome details about the meat packing industry in Chicago. The book was fiction but based on the things Sinclair had seen.
balance of trade
to export more than you imported
Northern Securities Company
TR targeted this Northeastern railroad monopoly helping him earn the moniker "trustbuster"
Thaddeus Stevens
Leader of the Radical Republicans in the House of Representatives.-Identified with outsiders because he was born with a club foot-spoke for abolition and equal rights for blacks-wanted blacks to be free
Name the New England Colonies
New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island,
Who do the Republicans run for the 1968 election?
Richard Nixon
Sick Chicken Case
court case that ended the NIRA, declared it unconstitutional
Aquisitions of Seward
The Pacific Islands of Midway and Alaska
14th ammendment
no rebels may hold federal or state office unless congress says ok
Rio Grande River
American govt. said this was their southern border
Andrew Jackson
won the Battle of New Orleans; vetoed bills for federal funding of internal improvements and the re-chartering of the Second National Bank; when South Carolina nullified the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832, he authorized a 'force bill' that would authorize him to used the army to compel the state to comply with tariffs; forced eastern Indians to move west of Mississippi River so their lands could be used by white settlers
Burgess
A member of the lower house of the colonial legislature in Virginia
irish immigrants
ten of thousands of Irish fled from famine in Ireland to America in the "Black Forties," settled in seaboard cities, luckless and received no good treatment, forced to live in a squalor, and scorned by the older American stock.
French and Indian War
sement engligh dominance; hybrid of new culture
Union Gunboats
they were used to blockade and in battle
10% Plan
Plan made by Lincoln that said that all states that swore loyalty to the Union by a 10% vote. Some people thought that his plan was too lenient, but he didnt want more rigid plans because they would prolong the war
how many men were drafted into the military service for WWII?
10 mill.
temperance movement
band of make and sale of all alcoholic beverages
Proclamation of 1763
Colonist could not settle west of the Appalachian Mountains. Colonist got angry.
why did the Europeans come
religious freedom and to get rich
ENGLISH BILL OF RIGHTS
King William and Queen Mary accepted this document in 1689. It guaranteed certain rights to English citizens and declared that elections for Parliament would happen frequently. By accepting this document, they supported a limited monarchy, a system in which they shared their power with Parliament and the people.
civil rights act of 1964
law that made discrimination illegal in a if areas like voting, schools, and jobs
Why was Gabriel's Rebellion important?
Gabriel's Rebellion – Some slaves wanted to march on the capital but their plan was discovered and twenty-six slaves, including Gabriel, were hanged and dozens more transported out of state. Showed that slaves possessed the love of freedom just as much as everyone else. They sought freedom as good and claim it as a right. This tightened reigns over slavery. The door to emancipation thrown open during the American Revolution was slammed shut.
alien and sedition acts
These consist of four laws passed by the Federalist Congress and signed by President Adams in 1798: the Naturalization Act, which increased the waiting period for an immigrant to become a citizen from 5 to 14 years; the Alien Act, which empowered the president to arrest and deport dangerous aliens; the Alien Enemy Act, which allowed for the arrest and deportation of citizens of countries at was with the US; and the Sedition Act, which made it illegal to publish defamatory statements about the federal government or its officials. The first 3 were enacted in response to the XYZ Affair, and were aimed at French and Irish immigrants, who were considered subversives. The Sedition Act was an attempt to stifle Democratic-Republican opposition, although only 25 people were ever arrested, and only 10 convicted, under the law. The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions, which initiated the concept of "nullification" of federal laws were written in response to the Acts.
How much did the Japanese lose by being put in the internment camps?
$4 million in property
Plantation mistresses were treated ___ & responsibilities were...
same as slaves, supervising, monitor house, restricted, nurse sick, make clothes
What was the Sedition act?
Made it illegal to critize the government
Palmer's Raids; Attourney General
____- Palmer was ____ of the U.S. and believed that radicals were conspiring to overthrow the government.
Trends In Middle Colonies (5)
1. various groups of people; 2. trade relations w/ natives (esp fur); 3. good r/ship w/ natives; 4. used slaves; 5. decent agriculture (not a focus)
Why was Lincolns election threatening to the South?
it led to succession and the civil war
What were the British troops going to do in Concord?
destroy weapons and ammuniton of the colonists
claim land for france - canada, and used beaver fur to sell
after not finding the NW passage, what did cartier do?
Bombs Sudan
Clinton
blitzkrieg
lightning war
Walt Whitman
Called contrymen-"Materialistic"
draft
call to military service
L
Spirit of st. Louis
transcendentalism
intellectual and philosophical movement of the mid-1800s esserting that the nature of reality can be learned only by intuition rather than through experience
Quebec
First French Settlement by Champlain
Alexander Graham Bell
invented the telephone
4th Amendment
Right against warrantless searches
James Monroe
5th president, began expansionism including Florida and Missouri, as well as reigning over the Era of Good Feelings.
The biggest disrupter of Native American life was
disease
Reconstruction
Process of bringing Southern states back into the Union
Union naval forces under ______________ captured the port of New Orleans, so the South could no longer use the Mississippi River to carry crops to sea.
"Stonewall" Jackson
Gentleman Johnny Burgoyne
surrendered army to Gates
Woodstock
Large outdoor music festival in upstate New York in 1969
thomas jefferson
U.S. statesman, diplomat, architect, and author: third president of the U.S. 1801–09.
Vicksburg
Port on Mississippi, Grant comes from behind
Allied Powers
the group of nations- originally consisting of Great Britain, France, and Russia and later joined by the U.S., Italy, and others- that opposed Central powers
USS Maine
in Havana when explosions ripped through its hull. Americans thought it was Spanish agents so we prepared for war.
sectionalism
devotion to the interests of one region rather than to those of the entire country is known as
Tobacco
Most important crop in the colonies but was hurtful to the land becfause it required a lot of nutrients
The Federalists
series of essays defending and explaining the Constitution
unrestricted submarine warfare
Sinking ships without warning. German's sunk the Bristish passenger ship Lusitania May 1915. 1200 killed included 130 Americans. Wilson demanded reparations and apology. Bryan instructed to send memo to Germany, hesitant, but did. Germans said Lusitania was armed (false) and carrying military cargo (true, British was using civilians to shield war cargo). Bryan refused to write 2nd note and resigned as Sec of State. Replaced by Robert Lansing who DID write 2nd note, and Germans pledged not to use USWarfare, civilians would be allowed to evacuate
literacy (literate)
the ability to read and write
grange
an organization for farmers to help farmers be organized.
generation gap
Differences of ideas between parents and their children
Article 2
establish the limits on the President
Ethnics and WW2
Germans descriminated agaist American Jews were treated better in US afterwards Japanese and asian descrimination
Who was the friendly Indian who helped the Pilgrims learn how to farm?
Squanto
What happens once to troops leave Arkansas?
school closes
What did Drake do?
Drilled the first oil well
Service Sector
The sector of the economy that provides services--such as health care, banking, and education--contrast to the sector that produces goods.
Sedition Act
Restrictions placed in freedom of the press
New Netherland
Dutch colony conquered by the English to become four new colonies New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware.
Soap Operas
a nickname given to daytime radio shows that were sponsored by laundry detergents
Montezuma
Chief of the Aztecs (part of modern day Mexico), sixteenth century. Was overthrown by the Spanish conquistadors under Hernando Cortes.
Zimmermann Note
In the _____, Germany proposed an alliance with Mexico.
flappers
Women of the 1920s were wore shorter hair, dresses
precedent
an example that is used to justify similar occurrences at a later time
Virginia, Kentucky resolutions
Virginia and Kentucky declared alien and sedition acts unconstitional
doctrine of nullification
Peter Stuyvesant
Leader of Dutch colony New Netherlands until it was taken by English and renamed New York
war hawk
congressmen from the South and West, led by Henry Clay and John Calhoun, who wanted war against Britain in the period leading up to the War of 1812
Warren G. Harding
Ohio senator who took the presidency in 1921 who yearned for a return to "normalcy". He had poor judgment; bright spot of his presidency was the Washington Naval Conference
What was "Iran-contra" scandal?
the trade of hostages for guns
George Washington is inaugurated
The Confederation Period ended with what event in 1789?
Problems in Africa
(RR), drought and famine = US humanitarian efforts, apartheid = Americans apartheid, soon Nelson Mandela (opposed apartheid) released by F.W. de Klerk, soon got Nobel Prize and became president
ethnic group
people who share a common language and traditions-demanded indepedant nations of their own.
Fireside Chats
was when the president sat down and actually talked to the people over the radio
St. Augustine
Spanish fort built in 1565, the oldest permanent European settlement in the U>S.
contract laborers
an immigratn who signed a contract in europe to work for an american employer often to replace a striking worker
virginia law 1662
defined slavery as a life long inherited status
What did James Marshall's discovery set off?
the California Gold Rush
Significance of the Articles of Confederation?
The 1st American Constitution.
Students for a Democratic Society
college kids angry over government, the war, and suburbs conformity
free speech
Fear of spies and sabotage in the US during the war led to repression of
what did progressives want to improve
government and quality of life
Cold War
was a war between the US and the Soviet Union but no one ever got hurt it was just deadly threats
Defeat of the Armada
This ended spanish domination of the oceans
The war between USA and Iraq (freeing Kewait) is called..
Persian Gulf War
She was better known as Molly Pitcher she carried water for Troops and Cannon to keep them cool so they could keep firing
Mary L. Hayes
Quartering Act of 1765
playing a large army in the colonies supposedly to protect the colonies from hostile Indians
Stamp Act 1765
if papers didn't have a stamp on them they would be seized, settlers would be tried without jury and be either fined or jailed.
What U.S. military strategy proved successful in winning the War with Mexico?
American forces invaded Mexico from more than one direction
Thomas Pickney and Pinckney Treaty
1796, US can use New Orleans, with Spain
New Amsterdam, Albany, & Philadelphia.
What are the three leading cities in the dutch settlements?
Thomas Jefferson saw navies as less dangerous than armies because
they could not march inland and endanger liberties
Thee famous writers of the 1920' expressed critical views of American culture and society?
Edna St. Vincent Millay an Ernest Hemingway.
a revenue system based on customs duties and excise taxes. He also sponsored a national mint and argued in favor of tariffs, using a version of the "infant industry" argument that temporary protection of new firms could help foster the development of comp
How did Hamilton resolve to pay back all the war debts?
1861: What 10 states were Confederated States?
AL, AR, GA, FL, LA, MS, NC, TN, TX, VA
/ 433
Term:
Definition:
Definition:

Leave a Comment ({[ getComments().length ]})

Comments ({[ getComments().length ]})

{[comment.username]}

{[ comment.comment ]}

View All {[ getComments().length ]} Comments
Ask a homework question - tutors are online