American history 3 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
nullify
cancel
moderate/constitutional
French Revo
overseer
plantation manager
Spirituals
religious folk songs
Isreal
the new Jewish state
The Feminine Mystique
Betty Friedan
Nashville Convention
1850, southern states meet
BLANK: They targeted Blacks, Catholics, Jews, immigrants. They were successful in passing laws outlawing Catholic schools in some states and were supporters of prohibition.
KKK
false
true or false:
southern states participated equally in the struggle and shared their resources openly with other states
Import
to buy from foreign markets
Chinese Exclusion
The ________________ Act prevented Chinese laborers from entering the country. This was racial & was not repealed until 1943.
Abraham Lincoln wrote the Emancipation Proclamation
A) because he considered emancipation to be "essential to the preservation of the Union."
B) as a response to the constant lobbying of abolitionists pressing him to free the slaves.
C) as a personal mora
A
Meat Inspections Act
dictated strict cleanliness requirements for meat packers created program for federal meat inspection
Monroe Doctrine
President James Monroe's declaration to Congress on December 2, 1823, that the American continents would be thenceforth closed to colonization but that the United States would honor existing colonies of European nations
Roger Williams
minister who challenged Puritan beliefs and escaped to found colony of Rhode Island
1948 - President Truman orders desegregation of federal civil service and armed services:
...
Impressments
practice of forcing men into involuntary military service, especially the navy. This was a major reason that the U.S. declared war on England in 1812 - the British were taking American sailors and forcing them into the British Navy.
Lynching
illegal activity of a group; illegal capture, mock trial, and persecution of a person
crusaders
religious wars over the Holy Lands agaist Muslims and Christians
Which candidate of the election of 1864 promised an end to the war; to negotiate with the south and repeal the Emancipation Proclamation?
McClellan
Loyalists
colonists that wanted to remain loyal to the king/Britain
1890
was the turning point in immigration; old wavers saw new wavers as completely different, but maybe not even adjustable. (new wavers were mostly catholic and jews)
Antifederalists
believed in strict, word for word interpretation of the constitution; verbatim
American Protective Association
anti-foreign association created in 1887
against Catholics holding public offices
Mass Media
forms of communication, such as newspapers and radio, that reach millions of people
Anasazi
farming and trading people of the Colorado Plateau
What are climates and landscapes that surround different things?
Environment
oil
Which occupation made him rich: John D. Rockefeller
Walter Raleigh
The person that persuaded Queen Elizabeth to renew Gilbert's charter, and landed on Roanoke - Virginia
Socialist Party
Founded in 1901, believed in socialism: pay by work rather than need
who is the arthor zimmermann?
german foreign minister
Mayflower
the ship in which the Pilgrim Fathers sailed from England to Massachusetts in 1620
urban
lived in the city; related to city where people live close together; associated with industry
Apollo 11
U.S. space mission, which, in 1969, landed the first person, Neil Armstrong, on the moon
Vladamir Lenin
He promised Russia peace, land, and bread. And took over very little fighting.
Trust Busting
way of keeping everything equal. made it illegal to have monopolies that no other company could compete with.
federal reserve system
the nation's central banking system that was established in 1913
Legislative branch
branch of government that makes the laws
General "Butcher" Weyler
Valeriano Weyler y Nicolau, Spanish general who as governor of Cuba (February 1896 to October 1897) used repressive and brutal measures to fight Cuban rebels thereby gaining the epithet "Butcher" in the U.S.
Renaissance
The great revival of art and learning in Europe during the 1300s, 1400s, and 1500s.
Andrew Jackson
An Indian fighter from Tennessee who was sent to defend the city of New Orleans against an attack by the British in 1814
pull factors
an attraction that draws immigrants to another place.
thomas paine
saved the army getting people to inlist by writing "the american crisis" it said "you aren't a true american if you dont stand by your country even when its at it's worst"
Berlin Wall
concrete wall that seperated East and West Berlin, built by the Communist East German government to prevent its citizens from fleeing to the West.
Freedmen's Bureau
A federal agency that assisted former slaves.
Main achievement was in education. 
How many changes were made to the treaty to help get it ratified?
20
concept of new frontier
defined by Frederick Jackson Turner, that the frontier was closed and new territory needed to be pursued
Election of 1832
Herbert Hoover vs Franklin D Roosevelt (winner)
American Indian Movement
organization founded in 1968 by Native American leaders calling for a renewal of Native American culture and recognition of Native Americans' rights
Charles Lindbergh
United States aviator who in 1927 made the first solo nonstop flight across the Atlantic Ocean (1902-1974)
triangular trade
A three way system of trade during 1600-1800s Aferica sent slaves to America, America sent Raw Materials to Europe, and Europe sent Guns and Rum to Africa
de La Salle
First European to go down Mississippi River to Gulf of Mexico--Father of Louisiana Territory
Columbian Exhange
the global exchange of goods and ideas between the Eastern & Western hemispheres that sparked exploration
Battle of Yorktown
Am American victory in Virginia that forced the British to surrender
7 years war
Fought both in continental Europe and also in overseas colonies between 1756 and 1763; resulted in Prussian seizures of land from Austria, English seizures of colonies in India and North America.
open door policy
All nations want equal access to Chinese ports
Wade-Davis Bill (1864)
the bill made re-admittance to the Union for former Confederate states contingent on a majority in each Southern state to take the Ironclad oath to the effect they had never in the past supported the Confederacy. The bill passed both houses of Congress but was pocket vetoed by Lincoln and never took effect.
Where did the first shots of the Civil War take place?
Fort Sumter
Christopher Columbus
Italian - took years for him to get funding from Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand of Spain. Landed in the Bahamas (San Salvador) - thought he was in India - called the people he met "Indios". Brought back exotic things to Spain - said the Indios could be easily converted to Christianity. King and Queen agreed to more voyages - made 3 more voyages. Founded 1st Spanish Colony on Hispaniola - claimed much land for Spain.
What was the purpose of the 15th ammendment?
Blacks could vote
April and May
What two months did people start the trek to Oregon?
McCulloch v. Maryland
an 1819 case in which the Supreme Court ruled that Maryland had no right to tax the Bank of the United States, thereby strengthening the power of the federal government's control over the economy.
Lord Baltimore (Cecil Calvert)
(son of George Calvert, an English Catholic who was granted a charter to establish the colony of Maryland for Chatholics), he became proprietor of Maryland when his father died, passed the Act of Toleration in 1649 to ease religious tensions
Federal Reserve Act (1913)
1. created a Federal Reserve Board2. divided the country into 12 federal reserve districts3. made possible an elastic currency
Civil Rights Act of 1964
comprehensive US law intended to end discrimination based on race, color, religion, or national origin
Tariff of 1832
(AJ) , The Tariff of 1832 was a protectionist tariff in the United States. It was passed as a reduced tariff to remedy the conflict created by the tariff of 1828, but it was still deemed unsatisfactory by southerners and other groups hurt by high tariff rates. Southern opposition to this tariff and its predecessor, the Tariff of Abominations, caused the Nullification Crisis involving South Carolina. The tariff was later lowered down to 35 percent, a reduction of 10 percent, to pacify these objections.
Pendleton Civil Service Act of 1883
Which of the following congressional acts essentially eliminated the patronage system?
-Wilson-Gormon Tariff Act of 1894
-Bland Allison Act
-Sherman Silver Purchase Act of 1890
-Pendleton Civil Service Act of 1883
Freedman's Savings and Trust Co.
Freedman's Bank
place where black soilders could keep their money safe
name four states before 1803 and year admitted to union
vermont, 1791; kentucky, 1792; tennessee, 1796; and ohio, 1803
What role did Alber Einstein play in WWII?
He developed the atomic bomb
What was the relationship with the economy and artistic expression during the Depression?
The homeless and unemployed became the subject of pictures and stories as artists and writers tried to portray life around them.
What did Germany do to Belgium?
1) Asked them if they could move their troops through to France.*when Belgium said no*2) Attacked and defeated Belgium in a matter of a few hours.
Where did the revival of the Great Awakening begin?
Germany in 1690 and spread to America
cotton
Baumwolle
Means "restructuring"
perestroika
Kiva's
underground ceremonial chambers
Pennsylvania.
Little coast line.
Claude McKay
poet, Jamaican immigrant
Taylor Administration
Dies before in office
BLANK: Russian work for workers
Bolshevik
economy
unlike the federalists, Jeffersonian republicans objected to the interference of the national government in the __
Define terrorism.
bombings, assassinations and kidnapping by groups or individuals for revenge and/or publicity.
Yellow Journalism
_______________ was sensation news coverage which dug up lurid details to sell more newspapers. Sometimes they were facts & sometimes they were false.
In attempting to establish a reconstruction policy after the Civil War,
A) Congress wated to ensure the return to power of the former southern ruling class.
B) Lincoln's primary goal was to extend full political rights to ex-slaves.
C) Congress and the pr
C
Franklin Roosevelt
1933-1945, Democrat, "forgotten man," broke two term rule, platform - prohibition, help farmers, prevent fraud, balanced budget, decrease public spending, third election - two groups: "Defend America by Aiding the Allies" and "America First"
John Marshall
established foundations for American jurisprudence, the constitutional supremacy of the national government over states, and authority of the Supreme Court
extractive activities
activities that directly consume natural resources
The policy of maximal publicity, openness, and transparency in the activities of all government institutions in the Soviet Union.
Glasnost
J.F.K
1961-1963 Democrat :Dbay of pigs, cuban missle crisiscivil rights movement
Elkins act
illegalized secret rebates in the railroad system
pilgrims
English settlers who can to the Americas for religious freedom
Productivity
(economics) the ratio of the quantity and quality of units produced to the labor per unit of time.
Shay's Rebellion
Some farmers couldn't pay debts/taxes and their land was taken by the court or they were jailed. Daniel Shay's started a rebellion to retaliate and the farmers closed courts, stopped land seizures, and took over local arsenal (weapons storehouse). The MA militia put down the rebellion, but it made the government realize that a stronger central government was needed to create a successful/strong nation.
14th ammendment
citizens are guaranteed: due process of law&equal protection of law
Farmers' Alliances
included many people who sympathized farmers; sent lecturers from town to town to educate people about topics such as lower interest rates on loans and government control over railroads and banks
Imporvements to Railroads
steel rails
std track gauge
westinghouse air brake
Pullman palace cars
Feminism
the belief that women should possess the same political and economic rights as men
2nd Amendment
Provides the right to bear arms
_____is the idea that political authority belongs to the people.
Popular Sovereignty
trust
A board of trustees manages many businesses as one.
The Hartford Convention
unauthorized federalist convention in hartford, ct, drafted 7 constitutional amendments, not adopted
Great Compromise
Equal vote in the upper house
germany swept through here in their plan to sweep across eastern and northern france
belgium
Boston Massacre
The first bloodshed of the Amercan Revolution, as British guards at the Boston Customs House opened fire on a crowd killing five americans
Gibbons v. Ogden
declared states could not interfere with congress regulated interstate trade
dictatorship
government by a leader or group that holds unchallenged power and authority
vladimir lenin
Russian founder of the Bolsheviks and leader of the Russian Revolution and first head of the USSR (1870-1924)
Oregon Treaty
established the boarder line at the 49th parallel.
recall
the process by which citizens vote on a law passed by the legislature
Boycott
a form of protest where people refuse to buy goods and services
Mississippi Plan
The plan for circumventing the 15th Amendment and disfranchising blacks in the South.
Propagated
To reproduce; to increase in number or intensity.
Election of 1800
o Everybody ran for president
o Another circumstance where president is federalists and the other anti federalist
 Nominate Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr
• tried to make T.J. president and Aaron vice
• Same number of electoral votes
 House of representatives voted a million times
• Asks Burr to step aside but didn't because as many people voted for him as Jefferson
 Decision went to speaker of the house
• Alexander Hamilton- he disliked both of them but dislikes Burr more so Jefferson wins election
o The main issues in the presidential election of 1800 were problem with France, taxes and the Alien and Sedition Acts
nativism
the policy of favoring the intrests of Native born americans over those of immagrants
A. Mitchell Palmer
Attorney General decided to take action to combat this "Red Scare."
Affirmative Action
policy thats eeks to correc tthe effects of past discrimination by favoring the groups who were previously disadvantaged.
Metaphysics
means, usually, the study or theory of reality. What is real? This involves, of course, many related questions, such as, is reality some kind of “thing?” Is it one or is it many? If it is one, then how is it related to the many things around us? Can ultimate reality be grasped by the five senses, or is it supernatural or transcendent?It should be mentioned that sometimes the word “metaphysics” is used in a narrower way to concern only transcendent reality, that is, reality which lies beyond the physical world, and cannot therefore be grasped by means of the senses.
What was the Anti-Immigrant Sentiment?
Americans started hating immigrants
railroad strike of 1877
interstate railroad strike started in West Virginia; mob violence and destruction of property
J Paul Getty
Took advantage of rock bottom prices (Getty and oil companies)
Swing
a type of jazz music popular in the 1930s
Marcus Garvey
Many poor urban blacks turned to him. He was head of the Universal Negro Improvement Association and he urged black economic cooperation and founded a chain of UNIA grocery stores and other business
quartering act
an act passed by the British that allowed British troops to live in the homes of the colonists
Hatch Act of 1887
gave federal funds for establishment of agricultural experiment stations
Sons of Liberty
Secret societies formed to protest new taxes passed by Parliament. Led the Boston Tea Party and threatened tax collectors.
george whitefield
one of the preachers of the great awakening; known for his talented voice inflection, known to bring many a person to their knees
Maize
an early form of corn grown in Central America
Big stick policy
Roosevelt said "Speak softly and carry a big stick". Point is don't need to make boastful threats but if a country (especially European) gets out of line in the Western Hemisphere use your strong military and make them pay for it.
What changed the procedure of electing the President and the Vice President?
the twelfth (12th) amendment
House Divided Speech
made by Lincoln comes from King James bible, decision about slavery
Who was the first Presdent to ever not be elected?
Gerald Ford
Birth of a Nation
Movie released in 1915 - promoted White supremecy and pro KKK - first blockbuster
Harriet Beecher Stowe
United States writer of a novel about slavery that advanced the abolitionists' cause (1811-1896)
economy effectedby war in north & south? war funded by?
industry increased, agriculture &manufacturing ~ taxes & paper currency
Intolerable Acts (1774)
Close the port of Boston and forbade town meetings
new south creed
philosophy that tried to find a way to develop a new South and change its economy's focus from agriculture to industrialization; diversifying the economy
Ten Percent Plan*
(AL) , 1863, when 10 percent of the voters of a state took an oath of loyalty to the Union, the State could form a government and adopt a new constitution that banned slavery
farmers on the great plains
many of them were populists because they wanted "hard money" to protect themselves from inflation
Brown vs Board of Education
ended segregation in schools and other public places
summarize trends in slavery at this time
planting was a hugeinvestment in slavery. seperated from family punishment. cotton was huge.
What event led to the US entering WWII?
The bombing of Pearl Harbor
Outcomes of the Voting Rights Act of 1965?
Authorized the attorney general to send federal examiners to register qualified voters and suspended discriminatory devices such as literacy tests.
repeal of the tenure of office act
under cleveland,was the act used to impeach johnson,gave presidency more power-- can dismiss people for lack of action
Treaty of Paris (year?) ended what war?
Treaty of Paris 1763 ended the French and Indian war (aka 7 year war).
Perot
Clinton
precedent
a tradition
cudgels
small, heavy clubs
federal projects
internal improvements
Father of the Constitution
Madison
Leader of Plymouth
William Bradford
Brain trust
Roosevelt's group of advisers
Horace Mann
Taxes for public education
parliament
a representative body in England
suspended
hung by a support from above
Grant's early victories
Fort Henry, Fort Donelson
Whitewater
(WJC) an Ame political controversy that began with the real estate dealings of Bill and Hillary Clinton and their associates, [Jim and Susan McDougal] in the Whitewater Development Corporation, a failed business venture. David Hale, the source of criminal allegations against Clinton, claimed in November 1993 that Bill, while govnr of AK, pressured him to provide an illegal $300,000 loan to Susan McDougal, Kenneth Starr major player
Reparations
payments for damages and expenses caused by war
settlement houses
community centers in slum neighborhoodss that provided assistance to people in the area especially immigrants
prohibition
a ban on production, sale, and consumption of alcohol
operation overlord
the codename for the Normandy invation
Farmer/Planter
-Someone who owned more than 20 slaves
-These wealthy families of planters called the "cottonocracy" because they made their money from cotton. Few in number, but dominated the South
Who was Nixon's national security advisor during his first term?
Henry Kissinger
Veto
The power of the Executive Branch (President) to reject a bill
Catharine Beecher
Daughter of minister, reformer, and wrote the book, The Treaties on Domestic Economy
Chinese Immigrants
mostly single men
Worked for Central Pacific RR
Used to replace blacks on plantations
James Meredith
United States civil rights leader whose college registration caused riots in traditionally segregated Mississippi
Columbian Exchange
transfer of plants, animals and diseases from one hemisphere to another resulting from Colunbus's arrival in the Americas
ATippecanoue and Tyler Too
"Whigs, William Henry Harrison"
Conservationist
People who favor the protection of natural resources.
Upton Sinclair
published "The Jungle" on meatpacking industry
Abolitionist
these are people who believed in freeing the slaves. Many were northeners who had no economic reason to keep slavery around. This marked a period of a new train of thought. Many up north were more concerned with industrial things rather than
Emancipation Proclamation
the proclamation issued by President Lincoln on January 1, 1863, freeing the slaves in those territories still in rebellion against the Union during the Civil War
Wilmot Proviso
A proposal to ban slavery in territories gained from the Mexican War
McKinley
President of the US during the Spanish American war
Fidel Castro
Communist political leader of Cuba; he helped overthrow the Cuban government in 1959 and seized control of the country, exercising total con­trol of the government and economy.
Balkan Peninsula
What place's population was very angry about being under foreign rule ?
Continental Army
• Army formed after outbreak of American Revolutionary war
• George Washington was Commander-in-Chief of army throughout war
Treaty of Paris
Established that the u.s was independent, boundraies would extend to the Mississippi River, Recive fishing rights, Each side would repay debts, return slaves, and take back properties taken by loyalists
totalitarian
a single party and its leader suppress all opposition and control all aspects of people's lives.
Looking Backward
Novel published by Edward Bellamy in 1888 which advocated the replacement of the competitive society of the 19th century with a classless, caring, cooperative new world.
immigrant
a person who comes into a foreign country or region to live
Boston tea party
demonstration (1773) by citizens of Boston who (disguised as Indians) raided three British ships in Boston harbor and dumped hundreds of chests of tea into the harbor
Baruch Plan
Bernard Baruch's proposal to create an international agency that would impose penalties on countries that violated international controls on nuclear weapons
True
T/F: The increase in the number of patents after the Civil War can be attributed to the harnessing of electricity.
angel island
where the asians primarily the chinese gained entrance to america
sommission plan
segregating the functions of the city into 5 groups, all headed by a commissioner who directed their peice of the city and then came back and discussed it with the others
Brigham Young
took over as head of Mormons and decided they should move near the Great Salt Lake
seperation of powers
division of powers of government into seperate branches
Pacifist
a person who does not believe in the use of military force
Who sponsored the Americanization Movement
the government and concerned civilians
Vertical integration
combination of all steps in a process to increase efficiency
Marshall Plan
It aimed to combat the idea that capitalism was in decline and communism the wave of the future. It defined the threat to American security not so much as Soviet military power but as economic and political instability, which could be breeding grounds for communism.
Hartford Convention
a metting of Federalist opposed to the war
Indentured Servant
Laborer who agreed to work without pay for a certain period of time in exchange for passage to America
Dollar Diplomacy
Term used to describe the efforts of the US to further its foreign policy through use of economic power by gaurenteeing loans to foreign countries
Virginia Plan- 1787
1787, called for a strong central government and two-house legislatures based on population
Seperation of Powers
Political power is divided amoung the Legislatiive, Executive, and Judicial branches
Treaty of Versailles
the treaty imposed on Germany by the Allied powers in 1920 after the end of World War I which demanded exorbitant reparations from the Germans, Created by the leaders victorious allies Nations: France, Britain, US, and signed by Germany to help stop WWI. The treaty 1)stripped Germany of all Army, Navy, Airforce. 2) Germany had to rapair war damages(33 billion) 3) Germany had to acknowledge guilt for causing WWI 4) Germany could not manefacture any weapons.
Franz Joseph emperor
Who refused to give Bosnia any freedom and what was his title?
Midway (June 4, 1942)
10:25 am US attacks Japanese fleets; turning point in the Pacific war
Oliver H. Kelley
of farmers and founder of the Granger movement in support of their rights
John Rolfe
He was one of the English settlers at Jamestown (and he married Pocahontas). He discovered how to successfully grow tobacco in Virginia and cure it for export, which made Virginia an economically successful colony.
George washington Plunkitt
wrote about what was going on at Tammany Hall; told everything that went on; was frank; makes no excuses or apologizes
What was Watts?
the first race riot in US started by blacks
National Housing Act
(FDR) 1934 , June 28, 1934- It created the Federal Housing Administration (FHA) and the Federal Savings and Loan Insurance Corporation. It was designed to stop the tide of bank foreclosures on family homes, it instead gave loans
What had a strong affect on the growth of public education after the Civil War?
compulsory education laws
How did Native Americans come here?
20,000 years ago climate (glaciers) were covering a lot of the world and ice bridges formed connecting Syberia to Alaska. Napolean Indians were the first to step foot on North America. These people crossed this bridge to help with survival. Wars, better climate, getting away from diseases or just exploring may have been motives for coming to North America.
captured pocahontas and held her hostage
with all new settlers, the jamestown people were still in danger of indian attacks, so they_______.
Battle of Little Big Horn
Crazy Horse led the charge at what became known as Battle of Little Big Horn, killing Custer and all of his men.
What was "Tora Tora Tora?"
Code used by Japs in the attack on Pearl Harbor meaning they have succeeded
This was the Worst Goverment ever used by the U.S. it Lasted for 8 years
Articles of Confederation of Perpetual Union
What is the Cult of True Womanhood?
the way women should be as portrayed by society
Sexual harassment
Clinton
Winfeild Scott
Pierce
1716-1726
Golden Age of Piracy
north
north or south?
ambrose burnside
Enlightenment
natural reasons for natural occurences, reasonable
5th event on D-Day
Naval Crossings...
NAACP
national association for the advancement of colored people
NATO
The collective security alliance between the USA and the allies
Ambrose Burnside
Replaces McClellan, had successes fights one major battle (Fredericksburg) as leader, planed another operation, '63 relieved
Freedom Riders
activists who challenged segregation in bus terminals in the South in 1961
deregulation
the removal of some government controls over a market
Belknap
1876
Secretary of War pocketed $ 24,000
selling privilege to distribute supplies ( mostly junk ) to the Indians
First cabinet member to be impeached
John Dewey
professor from Columbia Universtiy from 1904 to 1930; set forth the principles of "learning by doing" that formed the foundation of so-called progressive education, with its greater "permissiveness"; believed that workbench was as essential as the blackboard and that "education for life" should be a primary goal of the teacher
Jonathan Edwards
-Started the Great Awakening-Most influential theological writer and thinker of the movement-Blasted teh idea of salvation through free will dependence on God's grace is paramount-Emphasized eternal damnation
contraband
goods prohibited from being imported or exported; in time of war, contraband included materials of war.
de witt clinton
planned the erie canal
Deportation
Palmer raids caused thousand of people to be detained and expelled from the country or...
william hull
attempts to invade canada,out of detroit
babe ruth
famous baseball player of the 1920s
virtual representation
Dubious opinion espoused by Treasury minister George Grenville, that each member of the British Parliament represented not only the district that elected him, but also the interests of the entire country and empire, including the American colonies.
martial law
an emergency rule by military authorities that suspends some of the bill of rights guarantees
GI's
Term used for American soldiers in World War II, derived from the term "Government Issue"
La Salle
First European to trace Mississippi River to the Gulf of Mexico
Claimed Mississippi River for France
Attack 2
Japanese hit planes at Pearl Harbor
reactions stamp act
thomas hutchinson, patrick henry resolutions in House of B, Taxation wo representation
Stephen Austin
Original settler of Texas, granted land from Mexico on condition of no slaves, convert to Roman Catholic, and learn Spanish; his father Moses Austin was the first to get the land, Stephen just re affirmed that the grant was still valid after the change in government
Sharecropping
landowners divided their land and gave each worker a few acres, alond with seed and tools. When crops were harvested, each worker gave a share of his crop, usuallly half, to the landowner.
graft
illegal use of political influence for personal gain
Republicanism
the idea that government should be based on the consent of the governed
American System
an economic regime pioneered by Henry Clay which created a high tariff to support internal improvements such as road-building. This approach was intended to allow the United States to grow and prosper by themselves This would eventually help America industrialize and become an economic power.
Alfred E. Smith
Roosevelt succeeded this New York governor when the governor ran for president
Truman Doctrine
Statement that declared that the U.S. should support free peopole throughout the world who were resisting takeovers by "armed minorities" or " outside pressures"
religious dissenter
someone who speaks out against the established religion of an area
annus mirabilis
The miraculous year 1759, during which Great Britain secured an empire "on which the sun never set."
Civil Service Act
created a Civil Cervice Commission which classified government jobs and tested applicants' fitness for them
(Earl )Warren
Chief Justice, presided over the Brown V. Board of Education case
Black Tuesday
16.4 million shares of stocks were sold on this day
Impeachment Process
1. The House votes
2. If majority votes for the impeachment, it proceeds to the senate
3. Senate hears evidence and votes to convict (2/3 vote require to convict)
Thomas Edison
Inventor of light bulb, phonograph and numerous other innovations
What were large farms that grew just one kind or crop?
Plantations
refuge
a place where one is safe from persecution
U.S.S Maine
Cuba to protect American lives and property. On February 15, 1898, an explosion sent the ship's ammunition up in flames, and the Maine sank.
This African American group preached a militant approach to Civil Rights?
Stokely Carmichael.
John Robert Edward Lee
head of negro defense council
In battles in teh East, McClellan was best known for his __________________?
get
New Jersey Plan
Opposite of the Virginia Plan, it proposed a single-chamber congress in which each state had one vote. This created a conflict with representation between bigger states, who wanted control befitting their population, and smaller states, who didn't want to be bullied by larger states. Proposed by William Paterson.
raiding british settlements
during the wars between france and great britian, native americans often helped the french by raiding british settle ments
Dawes Act
An act that removed Indian land from tribal possesion, redivided it, and distributed it among individual Indian families. Designed to break tribal mentalities and promote individualism.
judicial review
the supreme courts power to declare an act of congress unconstitutional
Constitutional Convention
meeting of delegates in 1787 to revise the Articles of Confederation, which produced the new U.S. Constitution
What was the percent of the banks that failed during the Great Depression?
33%
mission
a group of people sent to a foregin country to conduct negotiations establishing relations
the Harlem Renaissance
A period of African American artistic achievement in the 1920's, that included those who lived in Harlem and some who did not. The artists of this renaissance expressed frustration and anger with racial inequality, as well as their pride and hopt for the future. The renaissance included artists such as actors, musicians, painters and writers, making Harlem a mjaor center of African American dultural activity.
Northwest Ordinance
Opened the states by the great lakes up for settlement
prohibited slavery in that area
told them how to make a government and become a state
 
What was the 1st vote voted on?
The amended treaty
Bull Run
site of the first battle of the Civil War
Battle of New Orleans
battle in 1815 between american and british troops for control of New Orleans, ending in an american victory; made jackson a hero
McKinley's War Message
he sent list of demands to Spain, Spain accepted all but last one (Cuban independence), so he sent war message to Congress to use authorized force on Spain
Japanese Interment Camps
Detention centers on the West coast of America, where more than 100,000 Japanese Americans were relocated during WWII because America was worried that the Japanese might be spying for Japan. Japanese were forced here after Pearl Harbor Bombing in the in Hawaii.
What did Hitler and Mussolini use as a tool to gain power?
economic unrest
Comstock Lode
a rich deposit of ore found in western Nevada in 1859 that yielded nearly $500 million worth of silver
Jim Crow
a network of local and state laws that institutionalized racial segregation in the post-reconstruction South- very few southerners accepted racial equality and those who supported were previously forced by Fed Gov Supreme was complict in the birth of Jim Crow by stripping 14th and 15th Amendment of its substance. Stripped blacks f modest political and social gains from reconstruction. MORE THAN JUST A LEGAL NETWORK and produced daily interaction between blacks and whites
Defender of the Faith
Title given by the pope to England's Henry VIII prior to England's break from the Catholic church.
What could Congress not do?
raise army, tax, regulate trade, coin money
American Federation of Labor (1886)
was the The Federation of Organized Trade and Labor Unions and started by Gompers and Strasserbased on craftconcentrated on hours, wages and working conditions
"Middle Ground" in the New France
Hybrid Culture between the French and the Indians, cooperation of one another, Indians hunted Beaver for the French. Clothes, food, intermarriage, language, war, religion
Why did Madison and Jefferson oppose the creation of a national bank?
Madison and Jefferson opposed creation of natl. banks becasuse they believed the Constitution didn't give the government enough power.
to start a popular uprising agaisn't Castro.
What was the purpose of C.I.A. missions?
The Spanish Encomienda and then Hacienda Systems
The Spanish set up large estates run by Indian slaves - later when most Indians died from europian diseas -spainiards began importing African slaves. ( the hacienda system came after the encomienda and was more mild)
List the 3 policy goals the U.S. pursued and achieved in the early 20th century
1. Expanded its access to foreign markets in order to ensure the continued growth of the domestic economy
2. U.S. built a modern navy to protect its interest abroad
3. U.S. exercised its international to ensure American dominance in Latin America
What was Morse Code and how did it work?
Morse Code was a system of long and short signals that stood for letters of the alphabets. Telegraph operators used it to send messages over wires
mcCormic
federal supremacy
Southern
Jamestown/Roanoke-gold
joint stock company-people investing
rice, tobacco, mallaria, depended on wealth
*self-gov't
longhorns
sturdy, short-tempered breeds accustomed to the dry grassland of southern plains
initiated
to have started or established
popular campaigning
using slogans, parades, etc.
McNamara
secretary of defense. resigned after tet offesnive
National Road
Extension of Cumberland road. Stretched from Maryland to Illinois by 1850.
william Quantrill
prominent Confederate Community; In Bleeding Kansas
Thaddeus Stevens
Pennsylvanian Representative who led the Radical Republicans along with senator Charles Sumner (Massachusetts).
William Penn -
1680's
-Significance - founded Pennsylvania, Pennsylvania was the prototype of what the U.S. Was to become. Quaker
Quaker, wanted utopian society, egalitarian (gender and race) pacifist, religious freedom, free land, diverse
was slavery allowed in Missouri or not?
Yes
Great Awakening
Religious revival in the American colonies of the eighteenth century during which a number of new Protestant churches were established.
Tea Act
1773 act which eliminated import tariffs on tea entering England and allowed the British East India Company to sell directly to consumers rather than through merchants. Led to the Boston Tea Party.
Abraham Lincoln
Sixteenth president of the United States, including during the Civil War.
Tratantes
bottom level of commerce; these are petty bourgeoisie: small artisans like potters, etc...signify the existence of goods and services in the New World like those found in Spain!
Submarines
weapon used by Germany to blockade Britain's navy
Nation of Islam
Organization dedicated to black seperation and self-help
Spain
What country lost Florida after the French and Indian War, but regained it after the Revolution
Kristallnacht
The name given the the night of violence on November 9, 1938 when Nazi storm troopers attack Jews in Germany and Austria.
benedict arnold
United States general and traitor in the American Revolution
General Zachary Taylor
general that blockaded RIo grande; fought alongside Winfield scott in Mexican campaign; furture president
The Great Awakening
1730 to 1760.religious revival, moral reform that swept through colony. all about reason. great awakening is the polar opposit of enlightenment because it is a faith based revival. 2 greatest preachers were Jonathan Edwards and George Whittfield. many of the planter elites (who were anglican) begin to feel threatened with great awakening. concerned that its going to be used to stir up and unite the poor white classes. seen as threat to their control. associate new denominations as lower class religions. try to stop great awakening, by banning new religions, but the force was too strong and the numbers of followers make gov't proclaim general religious tolerance.
increased lay church workers, and new denominations. significance: illistrates tension bewn upper and lower whie classes and efforts the upper whites wold go to to control lower class
James Garfield
president that served the least amount of time in office
operation rolling thunder
massive air bombing assault on NVN
Clipper Ships
These ships sacrificed cargo room for speed and were able to transport small amounts of goods in short amounts of time. These ships faded away after steam boats were made better and able to carry more goods and, hence, become more profitable
Watergate
1972; Nixon feared loss so he approved the Commission to Re-Elect the President to spy on and espionage the Democrats. A security gaurd foiled an attempt to bug the Democratic National Committe Headquarters, exposing the scandal. Seemingly contained, after the election Nixon was impeached and stepped down
Margaret Sanger
American leader of the movement to legalize birth control during the early 1900's. As a nurse in the poor sections of New York City, she had seen the suffering caused by unwanted pregnancy. Founded the first birth control clinic in the U.S. and the American Birth Control League, which later became Planned Parenthood.
Stono Rebellion
a 1739 uprising of slaves in South Carolina, leading to the tightening of already harsh slave laws.
Square Deal
prgram of reform, made to protect the common ppl
Race riots of 1919
racial tensions mounted, and race riots broke out in several cities. some of the worst violence occured in chicago, where 13 days of rioting in 1919 left 38 people dead and some 500 injured.
Susan B. Anthony
born Feb. 15, 1820 in Adams, Massachusetts, she viewed marriage as a distraction from the ultimate goal, her family home was a stop for the underground railroad
Policy of Isolationism
Stated that U.S. should minimize its involvement in foreign affairs (1920s & 30s)
industrial union
Union that organizes all workers in an industry, whether skilled or unskilled, and regardless of occupation.
What was the Social Gospel?
-churches tackle the burning social issues of the day
-Protestant christian movement that applied Christian ethics to social problems
Universal white male suffrage
common man" all white man could vote
National Recovery Administration
Government agency that was part of the New Deal and dealt with the industrial sector of the economy. It allowed industries to create fair competition which were intended to reduce destructive competition and to help workers by setting minimum wages and maximum weekly hours.
How was Andrew Jackson elected President and the changes he brought to the office of the President?
During 1824-1828, he campaigned by telling citizens that gov't will listen to them and follow
The changes he brought to the office of Presidency was that he brought true democracy
buffalo bill cody
began a wild west show to give people a glimpse of life in the west
First Battle of Bull Run
First "real" battle of the Civil War, it was expected by Union officials to be short but ended up a Confederate victory
Reasons why Napoleon decided to sell Louisiana
(1)-had suffered big losses at Santo Domingo/Haiti (due to tropical disease. Napoleon responded,"Damn sugar,damn coffee, damn colonies...")
(2)-hoped to check British ambitions in the New World (didn't want British to grab a hold on the territory)
(3)-didn't want to have the Americans to sign on alliance with the British;
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