American History 4 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
settler
Siedler
alfred steiglitz
photographer
Versailles Treaty
ended WWI
Hitler
Dictator of Germany
First dog in space
Laika
Thurgood Marshall
lawyer for NAACP
Hooverize
Certain days without certain foods.
Fought in what?
World War 1
true
true or false:
general pemberton surrendered Vicksburg after a long siege that affected all the citizens of the city
Union League
black pro-Union, pro-Republican orginization; helped educate and campaign for Republicans; represent blacks in court, and raise militias to protect blacks from white terrorism
Women's Christian Temperance
The ________________________ Society was one of the three major groups of the Temperance Movement.
The new southern state constitutions required by the Reconstruction Acts introduced
A) universal male suffrage, debtor relief for home mortgages, prison reforms, abilition of the property qualification for holding an elected office, and state responsibili
A
SALT
(RN), Strategic Arms Limitation Talks- A pact that served to freeze the numbers of long-range nuclear missles for five years in 1972. This treaty between Nixon (U.S.), China, and the Soviet Union served to slow the arms race that had been going on between these nations since World War II.
Cornelius Vanderbilt
An American entrepreneur-Built wealth in shipping and railroads-The patriarch of the Vanderbilt family and one of the richest Americans in history
Transcendentalism
any system of philosophy emphasizing the intuitive and spiritual above the empirical and material
medicaid
federal program that provides low-cost health insurance to poor americans of any age
Truman
1945-1953 (took over after F.D.R kicked the bucket) Democrattried to contain communismHiroshimaMarshall plan
yellow journalism
journalilsm published in the united states that promoted political opinions of the war supporters...propaganda and overexaggeration of the situation in Cuba
John Smith
explorer who started Jamestown and helped saved the colonists by forcing them to work if they wanted to eat
Benjamin Spock
United States pediatrician whose many books on child care influenced the upbringing of children around the world. (1903-1998)
anne hutchinson
Puritan dissenter banished from the Massachusetts Bay Colony who fled to Rhode Island in 1638
Blacklist
list of troublemakers shared by all bosses
exoduster
African Americans who moved from the post-Reconstruction South to Kansas
holding company
company owing only stock interests instead of actual products
United Nations
an organization of independent states formed in 1945 to promote international peace and security
William Lloyd Garrison
United States abolitionist who published an anti-slavery journal (1805-1879)
What are a group of islands called?
archipelago
financing
Which occupation made him rich: J.P. Morgan
Oliver Cromwell
The commander of Parliament's Army during the English Civil War in 1642, later giving himself the title of "Lord Protector of England"
Scalawags
name given to white southerners who cooperated with the republican party and the Freedman's Bureau.
what is defense agreements made between and among nations for protection in case of war?
alliance systems
Apaches
A tribe of Native Americans who live in the Southwestern United States.
naturalize
legal process of becoming a citizen of the US
Neil Armstrong
American astronaut; he was the first man to set foot on the moon
Black Hand
What was the extremist group organized by Bosnian youth who wanted Bosnian independence and could technically be looked at as terrorists?
immigrants
people who have left the country of their birth to live in another country
What does the Specie Circular do?
ruins the economy
Altgeld, John Peter:
(1847-1902) Governor of Illinois from 1892 to 1896 who resisted the alliance of government with big business against labor and the accompanying ideology that labor unions were revolutionary.
Chivington Massacre
incident in the Indian wars where minister John Chivington's militia massacred 400 Cheyenne who had been promised immunity
Louisiana Purchase
o Dilemma because Jefferson was strict constructionist
 Elected on promise to keep government small
 Reversing a lot of his principles
 Approve treaty
o 1803 Purchase a done deal; achievement of Jefferson's first term
 Federalist opposed to this purchase
 Territory might become agrarian
o The constitutional question the Louisiana Purchase raise was whether the president ad authority to buy new territory from the nation. The debate was over strict and loose construction of the constitution, and Jefferson ad always been a strict constructionist
o Given Jefferson's strong feelings about strict constitution, he justified the Louisiana Purchase by reversing his position on the interpretation of the constitution because he believed purchasing Louisiana was in the best interest of the country. He based his decision on implied powers in the Constitution.
"New Deal Coalition"
alignment of froups dedicated to supporting the Democratic Party
Anarchist
people who opposed any and all forms of government.
Lyson Johnson
dreamed of Great Societ, had ambition and drive
Metaphysics
means, usually, the study or theory of reality. What is real? This involves, of course, many related questions, such as, is reality some kind of “thing?” Is it one or is it many? If it is one, then how is it related to the many things around us? Can ultimate reality be grasped by the five senses, or is it supernatural or transcendent?It should be mentioned that sometimes the word “metaphysics” is used in a narrower way to concern only transcendent reality, that is, reality which lies beyond the physical world, and cannot therefore be grasped by means of the senses.
What were the Lost Generation disillusioned about?
1) War2) Consumerism
Lend Lease Act
allowed sales or loans of war materials to any country whose defense the president deems vital to the defense of the U.S
Zheng He
a Chinese explorer who traded in Asia and Africa
Schenck v. US
(1917) an important court case that explained the limits of the First Amendment
Scopes Trial
a highly publicized trial in 1925 when John Thomas Scopes violated a Tennessee state law by teaching evolution in high school
Domino Theory?
The belief that if Vietnam fell to communism, so too would the other nations of Southeast Asia.
Crop Lien system
in exchange for tools, food, and seeds,
merchants would take a lien of sharecroppers harvest
System was manipulated so they were perpetually in debt
Ku Klux Klan
founded as a social club for Confederate veterans, started in 1866
Eddie Rickenbacker
________ was the most famous of the American pilots; he served in the French air force before the U.S. entered the war
Coercive Acts
This series of laws were very harsh laws that intended to make Massachusetts pay for its resistance. It also closed down the Boston Harbor until the Massachusetts colonists paid for the ruined tea. Also forced Bostonians to shelter soilders in their own homes.
Waco TX
Buckle of the bible belt where Lucy Fryer was murdered
Washington farewell address
In Washington's address his main point was to stay away from "entangling alliances". Washington didn't want other countries dragging the U.S. into wars or getting involved in their problems.
Who is called the Father of the Constitution?
James Madison
Fugitive Slave Act
1791 if slave escapes to free state they are still a slave
What was the most signifcant act of the New Deal?
Social Security Act
California Gold Rush
Gold is discovered in January 1848, by James Marshall, on John Sutter's land. Brought a flood of other settlers to California....
mass migration to California after the discovery of gold in 1848
How did President Lincoln originally hope that the slaves would be freed?
abolition of slavery by states
De Lome Letter
A letter by the Spanish Minister who critized President McKinley for being weak and ineffective. This made many want war with Spain.
Treaty of Paris
a) Spain gives up Cuba b) US should annex Puerto Rico c) US should occupy Manila
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution*
(LBJ) , The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution was a joint resolution of the U.S. Congress passed on August 7, 1964 in direct response to a minor naval engagement known as the Gulf of Tonkin Incident. It is of historical significance because it gave U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson authorization, without a formal declaration of war by Congress, for the use of military force in Southeast Asia.
little big horn
a battle in the Great Sioux War, also known as Custer's last stand. This was a great Indian victory
National Organization for Women (NOW)
group formed to advance womens rights and issues important to women
What steps were taken to rebuild the South by Reconstruction governments?
Schools were integrated, the Freedmen's Bureau helped freedmen with homes, jobs and food, and industries improved.
What was Wulson's most imprtant point in his Fourteen Points address?
To establish the league of nations
What was the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution?
A resolution from congress that handed over war powers to the president.
william seward's defining moment in 1867
1) purchase of alaska-- thought of as a bad move at the time2) formal occupying of the midway islands--naval post3) eventual acquisition of the hawaiian islands-- strategically setting up the US in the pacific ocean
Why was President A. Jackson voted to be impeached by The House of Representatives?
he violated the Tenure of Office Act
Pentagon
Bush
1873-Panic
amnesty act
"Social gospel"
Social Christianity
capital
money for investment
Samuel Morse
invented the telegraph
Thomas Jefferson
Declaration of Independence
term for Confederate Preident
6 years
NAACP
National Association fo the Advancement of Colored People
Edith Wilson
Wilsons wife,________,was very influential in handling which buisness of the country was discussed with Wilson
OPEC
Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries EST 1960
What did Ford do?
Utilized mass production
William McKinley
25th president responsible for Spanish-American War, Philippine-American War, and the Annexation of Hawaii, imperialism. Is assassinated by an anarchist
republic
government which citizens rule through elected reps.
***
KNOW CHAPTERS 8 and 9 ESSAY:
Samuel F. B. Morse
Inventor of telegraph.
Zachary Taylor
military leader in Mexican-American War. Sent by president Polk to lead the American Army against Mexico at Rio Grande, but was defeated.
Who invented the Steel Plow?
John Deere
Bloody Shirt
Practie of politicians referencing the blood of martyrs or heros to inspire support or avoid criticism
Fredrick Remington
_______________ was a famous western painter known for painting cowboy life.
John Fremont
challenged Lincoln for the 1864 Republican nomination
Who was the most famous urban political boss in the late 9th century?
Tweed
Many broad, slow, easy to navigate rivers- helped found ports
South
American Antislavery Society
Founded by Garrison, against slavery
boycott
an organization campaign to refuse to buy certain products
Beatniks
a United States youth subculture of the 1950s that rebelled against the mundane horrors of middle class life.
Protestant
person who belonged to the group revolting against the Catholic Church
Sedition Act
stirring up rebellion against a government
Gadsen Purchase
Gave U.S. Southern Part of Arizona
Open Range
Property that is not fenced in.
affirmitave action
employees actively seek to increase minorities in their work force
Big Five
the United States, Great Britain, France, Italy, and Japan during World War I and the Paris Conference of 1919
Jefferson Davis
President of the Confederate States of America
The Monroe Doctrine
President James Monroe (1823). If European powers tried to colonize land in the Americas, It would be viewed as an act of war against the USA. Refrain them from recolonizing in Western Hemisphere
Iron Curtain
term coined by Winston Churchill in 1946 to describe an imaginary line dividing Communist countries in the Soviet bloc from countries in Western Europe during the Cold War
Franz Joseph
Emperor of Austria-Hungry. He does not believe in representative government. He is against reform. Gives no help to the minorities. (Bosnia minority). Radicalism is the opposition which contributed to the formation of the Black Hand.
Mao Zedong was the communist leader of BLANK.
China
Silent Spring
Written by Rachel Carson, this book described how pesticides such as DDT were ruining the American environment.
New France
French colony west of the Appalachian mountains
Gompers, Samuel
(1850-1924) Labor leader who as a skilled worker (cigar maker) helped to organize the American Federation of Labor between 1881 and 1886 and, except for one year in 1895, served as its president until his death.
Incas
-1200 BC - 1535 BC
-Lived near the Andes
-Advanced culture
-Adapted engineering to go with mountains
-thrive off trade and war
-Beaten out by Francisco Pizzaro
Meriwether Lewis
United States explorer and soldier who lead led an expedition from St. Louis to the mouth of the Columbia River (1774-1809)
Berlin Airlift
transportation of food and supplies to west berlin in 1948 and 1949
John Tyler
elected Vice President and became the 10th President of the United States when Harrison died (1790-1862)
Pontiac's Rebellion
A Native American uprising against the British in the Great Lakes region
Chinese Immigration
-Chinese immigrated to the West after news of the gold rush hit China.-Chinese ended up with menial paying jobs.-Chinese suffered culterual and social misgivings.-1882, Chinese Exclusion Act was passed that prohibited Chinese immigration.
mann-elkins act
commerce court to deal with rate cases was formed
House of Burgesses
Only landowners could vote, and the company and its appointed governor retained the right to nullify any measure the body adopted. But its creation established a political precedent that all English colonies would eventually follow.
flexible response
A Cold War strategy used by the Kennedy administration that emphasized the use of conventional as well as nuclear weapons in meeting threats to American security.
flapper
a young woman of the 1920's who defied conventions in her behavior and dress
jamestown
a former village on the James River in Virginia north of Norfolk
founded in 1607
Thomas Hooker
A Puritan minister who led about 100 settlers out of Massachusetts Bay to Connecticut because he believed that the governor and other officials had too much power. He wanted to set up a colony in Connecticut with strict limits on government.
what was open to trade for great britain and US?
Mississippi river
Civilian Conservation Corps
FDR's favorite New Deal Program whose gave young unmarried men jobs in forests and parks was the
Black Hawk
a leader of Fox and Sauk Indians, decided to fight rather than leaving Illinios
Town meeting
a meeting of the inhabitants of a town
British Weaknesses going into the Revolutionary War
Offensive war, inefficient communication with their home country, too dispersed when they covered the whole country, poor leadership and provisions, French wanted revenge, inept government and military leaders
1864 Admiral Farragut
Damn the Torpedoes!" The Battle of Mobile Bay
Federalist Papers
A series of essays written by the authors of the Constitution urging ratification of the document
Cold War
A conflict that was between the US and the Soviet Union. The nations never directly confronted eachother on the battlefield but deadly threats went on for years.
Sckench vs. US
What said in times of safety crises people's rights can be taken away and it's still constitutional?
The city of New York was first called _______ ______
New Amsterdam
Saint Brendan "The Navigator"
-Irish Monk
-Legend says he found America (Isle of the Blessed) during the 500's
Radical Republican Collapse-4 reasons
1. Grant replaces AJ, but corruption weakens support.
2. idealism begins to fade
3. old radical leadership dies off
4. republican leaders are more business oriented (econ. growth)
Albany Plan of Union
the 1754 proposal, drawn up by Benjamin franklin, to form a colonial union with a representative assembly and an army; the plan was not adopted by the colonial assemblies.
Who led the Montgomery Bus Boycott?
MLK and his Southern Christian Leadership Conference
The muckrakers served Progressivism by
Informing people about abuses so that they could protest
What was the Kristallnacht?
The night of November 9, 1938, on which the Nazis coordinated an attack on Jewish people and their property in Germany and German-controlled lands.
America udner Pres. Kennedy
who wanted the soviets to agree to a ban on nuclear testing
Wherever Europeans settled in the Americas, Native Americans..
died out in large numbers from disease
How did the lives of women change during the 1920's?
Freedom, Allowed to work, Sexual Revoloution, Jazz Age
Why did the British try to conquer the south?
more loyalists in the south
What were the things that happened in America during the Great Depression?
1) Stock Market crash2) Failure of Banks3) Decline of agriculture economy4) Snowball effect5) Cyclical Nature of Economics
Surge
Bush
Operation OVERLORD?
D-Day
September 11, 2001
Bush
ambush
a surprise attack
Parliament
representative assembly in England
diversity
a variety of people.
John Marshall Harlan
Supreme Court justice
Imports
goods bought from other countries
ICBM
long-range Nuclear ballistic missiles that could be delivered from anywhere on the planet. They are nearly impossible to shoot down
Copperheads
Northern Democrats who opposed abolition and sympathized with the South in the Civil War.
John Steinbeck
Author of "Grapes of Wrath"
flappers
young women who challenged social traditions with their dress and traditions (shorter skirts and transparent hose)
england
where were the following explorers from- raleigh, john smith
Social Security
System established to provide financial security in forms of regular payments
17th Amendment
Direct election of U.S. Senators
1787
The constitutional convention meets in Philadelphia.
D-DayCh. 27
-operation overlord -June 6th, 1944+Dwight D. Eisenhower-supreme Allies Commander- 5 beaches with code names
Northwest Passage
passage directly to Pacific ocean, many hoped to find this in the New World
Tuskegee
Booker T. Washington set up the ___________ Institute for Blacks. He wrote an autobiography called "Up From Slavery."
Ellis Island
immigration station in New York Harbor
Secondary Source
Text/artifacts that are not original, but derived from something original (biographies, magazine articles, research papers).
nixon
he promised to pull American troops out of Vietnam and won the Democratic nomination in 1972
Social Gospel
A movement that applied Christian ethics to social problems, especially social justice
8th
Amendment that prohibits cruel or out of proportion punishments
Muckraker
nickname given to young reporters of popular magazines. These magazines spent a lot of money on researching and digging up "muck," hence the name muckrakers.
revivals
gatherings at which people listened to preachers and renewed their religious faith in the early 1800s were called __
Island hoppiong combined _______,________, and ________ operations in the Pacific.
land, air, and sea
abolitionist
a person who wanted to end slavery
St. Eustatius
Once Holland officially declares the United States as an independent nation, The Dutch allow the United States to use St. Eustatius (Caribbean Island) as a storage place. Britain declared war against Holland in 1780.
Recall
voters would be able to remove politicians who were corrupt and accepted bribes
mestizo
a person of racially mixed ancestry, esp., in Latin America, of mixed American Indian and European, usually Spanish or Portuguese, ancestry, or, in the Philippines, of mixed native and foreign ancestry.
Boston Massacre
March 5, 1770: British soldiers fired into a crowd of colonists who were teasing and taunting them. Five colonists were killed. The colonists blamed the British and the Sons of Liberty and used this incident as an excuse to promote the Revolution.
War Manpower Commission
WMC. assigned workers to defense industries
Khmer Rouge
Communists who took over Cambodia in 1975
the aztecs were what kind of buliders?
pyrmid buliders
Marbury
Judge who took his case to Supreme Court, but S.C. had no power to give him his appointment b/c of constitution
Kansas-Nabraska Act
created the territories of Kansas and Nebraska, opened new lands, repealed the Missouri Compromise of 1820, and allowed settlers in those territories to determine if they would allow slavery within their boundaries. The act was designed by Democratic Sen. Stephen A. Douglas of Illinois.
Treaty of Paris 1783
American delegates Franklin, Adams, John Jays; they were instructed to follow the lead of France; John Jay makes side treaty with England; Independence of the US End of Loyalist persecution; colonies still had to repay its debt to England
ANDREW CARNEGIE
LEADER OF THE SOCIAL GOSPEL MOVEMENT WHO BELIEVED THAT ACESS TO KNOWLEDGE WAS THE KEY TO GETTING AHEAD IN LIFE
export
to send goods out of a country (manufactured goods)
Kitchen Cabinet
a group of unofficial advisers to Andrew Jackson who met with him in the WHite House kitchen
Quartering Act
Required colonists to provide room and board for British soilder living in the colonies.
oligopoly
a market structure dominated by only a few large, profitable firms
Nat Turner
An enslaved minister who believed God had chosen him to bring his people out of bondage. and have lead to one of the biggest revolt.
Un. and Conf. at battle of Vicksburg?
Union-GrantConfed- Pemberton
What is the form of government in which the people rule themselves?
democracy
Hudson River School
a group of artists whose paintings reflected national pride and an appreciation of the American landscape
fugitive slave law
compromise of 1850 made the ___ law
Archduke Francis Ferdinand
The violent act in Bosnia that triggered World War I was the assassination of
sharecropping
After the Civil war, this new form of economics kept power in the hands of wealthy land owners and hurt African Americans
Worldview
A commonly held view of how the world is based on facts and assumptions.
Bill of Rights
The first 10 amendments to the Constitution
Second Great Awakening
Religion became an important part of national identity. Christianity became more democratic, and free will and human reason were celebrated.
segregated, non-combat support units
During WWI, African American military men served primarily in
emmett till
murdered in 1955 for whistling at a white woman by her husband and his friends. They kidnapped him and brutally killed him. His death led to the american civil rights movement.
Unrest among Massachusetts farmers over taxes
Shay's rebellion grew out of
3-25 Nullification
John C. Calhoun was one of the strongest defenders of states' rights before the Civil War. He believed that states were sovereign and, therefore, should have a right to judge and declare acts unconstitutional. This doctrine of nullification had been at issue since the 1828 "tariff of abominations." The idea arose again as sectional problems increased in the years leading up to the Civil War.
The spoils system was
the practice of filling government jobs with political supporters.
Open Door notes
A message sent by secretary of state John Hay in 1899 to Germany, Russia, Great Britain, France, Italy & Japan asking the countries not to interfere with US trading rights in China.
Mayflower Compact
contract that had to be signed - by signing, agreeing to obey rules and also get to help make rules. made saints the majority
Mary Chesnut
kept diary which was a major source to civilian view
Declaration of Rights
1) king cannot suspend any laws passed by parliament 2) the king cannot levy taxes without parliaments permission 3) the king cannot make any courts for his friends
Sig. of Jackson's Indian Policay?(3)
Blackhawk Indian War, Seminole War, Cherokee Trail of Tears
Why is the US angry with GB/France/Israel?
never told about the attack
name three problems of modern city life
poverty crime and antiquate housing
"Who were brains of FDR's ""brain trust""?"
"Basil O'Connor, Felix Frankfurter, Raymond Mobley, Rexford Tugwell, Adolf Berle, Samuel Rosenman"
Boston Tea Party(Dec. 16, 1773)
Colonists disguise as Ind's and board 3 Br. tea ships. They throw all tea crates into Boston Harbor
Patrick Henry and thomas jefferson
not present at the revising of the constitution
WWll brought about all of the following changes except...
Accelerating the legal migration of Mexicans to southern California.
the "carrot" and the "stick" approach that ended the war
ended bombing in North and agreement by both sides to withdraw troops from South Vietnam
What is interesting about the roads built under the Interstate Highway Act?
the roads are wide enough to land bombers on
What were some of the problems in early Jamestown?
The first people there were not skilled at living off the earth, they were gentlemen who had never done labor before. So this caused there to be an extreme food shortage, as well as a lack of any social structure.
19th amendment
...
Australian Ballot
secret Ballot
Hiram Revels
First African-American senator
Leonard Calvert
First Governor of Maryland
Impressment
British policy that practiced seizing Americans at sea and "impressing" or drafting, them into British navy.
islam
a religion whose followers believe there is one god and that Muhammad is his prophet
Jamestown 1607
The first permanent English settlement, was founded 1607.
antifederalists
opponents of a strong central government who campaigned against the ratification of the Constitution in favor of a confederation of independant states
Pilgrims
Members of a Puritan seperatist sect that left England in the early 1600's to settle in the America's.
Richard Hakluyt
English writer. He is principally remembered for his efforts in promoting and supporting the settlement of North America by the English through his works
butte
an isolated hill or mountain rising abruptly above the surrounding land.
Alien Act
raised the residence requirement for citizenship from 5 years to 14 years
Powhatan
a group of Native American peoples that lived in eastern Virginia at the time of the first English settlements there
Geneva Conference
- Mapped out Indochina's future
- Vietnam is separated at the 17th parallel
- general elections to be held in 1956 to unify Vietnam
Pickney treaty
with spain
-Americans are allowed to ship goods down the Spanish controlled Mississippi River and through New Orleans
-1801: spanish secretly gie new orleans and louisiana territory to France
result: Jefferson decides to try to buy New Orleans and parts of Florida
and sends James Monroe to France who is helped by Robert Livingston the minister to France
eurocentric
the thought that european culture was superior to all others
affirmative action
steps taken to increase the representation of women and minorities, especially in jobs and higher education
War Guilt Clause
in treaty of Versailles; declared germany and austria responsible for WWI; ordered Germany to pay reparation to Allied powers
General Charles Cornwallis
British general at Princeton preparing counterattack on the Patriots after Battle of Trenton
alliance
people or nations involved in a pact or treaty
Lewis and Clark
Two explorers commissioned by Thomas Jefferson to explore the Louisiana purchase.
emilio aguinaldo
leader of an anticolonial movement in the Phillipines. McKinley's administration could have taken a course that would have negotiated a deal with him, that would have given the Philippines independence in exchange for a U.S. navel base at Manila.
Freedman's Bureau
An organization formed to help former slaves
Gentlemen's Agreement
was an informal agreement between the United States and the Empire of Japan whereby the U.S. would not impose restriction on Japanese immigration, and Japan would not allow further emigration to the U.S. The goal was to reduce tensions between the two powerful Pacific nations. The agreement was never ratified by Congress, which in 1924 ended it.
Samuel J. Tilden
Democratic candidate for president in 1876 against Hayes, and governor of New York. He won the popular vote (as expected) but lost the election because he was one electoral vote short of the required number to win. There were 20 disputed votes, but ultimately Hayes won because the committee sorting out the issue was mostly republican.
vertical integration
the combing of companies that supply equipment and services needed for a particular industry (pg. 321)
Homestead Strike of 1892
Henry Clay Frick cut workers pay
Carnegie and Frick fired all strikers
Jesuit priests
europeans in New France that wanted to convert Native Americans to Christianity
Colonel House
-Reported to Wilson about the war and England and Germany getting too close and how it could be bad
Henry Clay Frick
manager of the steel Mill; negotiated with the steel workers union for a 22% pay cut; wanted a yellow dog contract
employment opportunities
a reason for migration, given to women at this time/ becoming teachers and nurses
George Goethals
was a United States Army officer and civil engineer, best known for his supervision of construction and the opening of the Panama Canal. The Goethals Bridge between Staten Island, New York City and Elizabeth, New Jersey is named in his honor, as is the Goethals Medal.
migrate
to move from one place and establish a home in a new place
direct election of senators
part of the 17th amendment which states that each state should have 2 senators in the House of Senate and they can be changed or re-elected every 6 years. The house of Senate is divided up in a way so that 1/3 of the house is up for re-election every 2 years. At first, it was the state legislature who elected the senators, but after reform, it changed to the people electing the senators for their state.
General Winfield Scott
led federal troops on the trail of tears
central intelligence agency
an agency created in 1947 to gather and evaluate military, political, social and economic information on foreign nations...
Oliver Hudson Kelley
a founding member of the Patrons of Husbandry, an organization for farmers later known as the Grange
The Bank to Jackson
he vetoed the bill to recharter the bank; hated it; thought it took advantage of people; instead had "pet banks"
United States vs Nixon
The 1974 case in which the Supreme Court unanimously held that the doctrine of executive privilege was implicit in the Constitution but Could not be extended to protect documents relevant to criminal prosecutions.
How did improvements in transportation change life in the 1800's?
1. national unity
2. opened up larger markets
3. movement of people and goods were cheaper and easier
Pure food and Drug act
a law enacted in 1906 to a halt the sale of contaminated foods and drugs and to ensure truth in labeling. it did not ban harmful products all together but allowed for the people to act wisely. before the act manufacturers claimed their drugs could cure cancer of grow hair. Some of the medicines contained alcohol, cocaine, or opium.
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