American History Exam 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
john smith
Grant's surrender terms
coming together again
Protestant Christian churches practicing congregationalist church governance, in which each congregation independently and autonomously runs its own affairs.
Why did Reconstruction fail?
lines running east to west
Which Statement best describes British-American relations after the French and Indian War?
A. The British began to respect American culture
B. The colonists began to question British authority
C. The British began to treat Americans as equals
D. The colonist became more dependent on Britain
a lord's castle and land
John Brown
Fanatic abolitionist. Life-for-life literal interpretation of the Bible. Feds have to restore order.
The _________ (or Patrons of Husbandry) was set up by Oliver Kelly. They set up a co-op farmers where farmers could buy material at lower prices.
This president believed the economic crisis was temporary and "just around the corner".
He called on business leaders not to cut wages or production of goods and on charities to their best for the needy. He authorized public works and agreed to give money to each veteran of World War I. The jobless veterans made a camp, and this president called in the army to stop it. Shanty-towns were also named after him. They were called, "Hoovervilles" because of his failure to act.
Douglas MacArthur
(FDR), surrender the Phillippines during WWII, He was the supreme allied commander during the Cold War in 1945. After World War II, MacArthur was put in charge of putting Japan back together. In the Korean War, he commanded the United Nations troops. He was later fired by Harry Truman for insubordination.Allied commander and five star general in the U.S. army. He headed the U.S. army in Japan and Korea but was fired by Truman for questioning the actions of his superiors in the midst of the Korean war.
Many American army officers received their preparation for war by fighting in the Northern part of Mexico.
John Wilkes Booth
who assassinated president Lincoln?
British passenger liner that made regular voyages across the Atlantic between England and the United States
This stunning American victory over General Burgoyne gave a powerful boost to American self-confidence and led to the French alliance with the United States in the war against Britain.*TURNING POINT*
vj day
japan surrenders effectivley ends the war
What did Germany use that especialy distorbed America before they entered wwI?
Free Soil Party
-Formed in 1848
-Anti-slavery members of both Whigs and Democrats make up the party
-Main goal was to keep slavery out of the territories
What country took US hostages in 1979?
The income of a government collected for payment of public expenses
George Ripley
Established the utopian town, Brook Farm
informal agreement to fix prices share profits or divide market
Japanese-American Internment
Roosevelt signed a document Feb. 19,1942 stating that all people of Japanese ancestry needed to be removed and put them in internment camps
Religion founded by Mohammed in the seventh century
what was Amelia Earnhardt's intended destination?
Howard Island
What made him rich: John Insley Blair
the right that enables voters to remove unsatisfactory elected officials from office
Homestead Strike
homestead steel mill owned by Carnegie; wage cuts make the unions go on strike; Carnegie doesn't want to deal so he leaves; hired 300 thugs to protect the mill, battle, steel workers do not get much out of the settlement
a member of a secret organization, formed in Kansas in 1862, that engaged in guerrilla activities during the Civil War
Nullification Crisis
situation in 1832 where South Carolina refused to pay the tariffs (tax) that President Andrew Jackson set and military force was threatened
Sphere of influence
areas of economic and political control by another country
a domestic version of the Peace Corps that provided help to poor communities in the United States in the 1960s
woodrow wilson
who was first president of princeton, and then in 1912 elected president of the US?
Tea Act
• Passed in May 1773
• Passed because British owed money to those who helped them in French and Indian War
 Also because BEICO would be able to directly send tea to America
 Taxes are lowered because of this
 Colonists smuggles a lot of tea from the Dutch into the colonies, but by lowering price on tea more colonists will buy the British tea
• Colonists were angered by this act and it resulted in the Boston tea Party
A colony set up by Virginia Company (in Virginia) run by John Smith in 1607. Problems with starvation, supplies, Great Massacre, problems with Powhattan. Survived, still there today.
what year did the USA join the fighting of WWI?
Pendleton Act
Civil service reform act passed in 1883 which established a system of examinations to determine office holders in the federal government and therefore base appointment to office on merit rather than on political connections. Initially, the act applied to about one-tenth of the federal offices but was expanded to about 50% by 1900. Also see Civil Service Reform.
middle ages
the period in european history between ancient and odern times, from about (A.D. 500 to 1450)
Northwest passage
water route to asia through North America sought by european explorers
people of the Mexican descent born in Texas
Bernard Baruch
American business leader and head of the War Industries Board during WWI
Seventeenth Ammendment
This ammendment gave voters the right to directly vote for their senator instead of doing so through the state legislatures.
Proclamation of Neutrality
Washington's statement that the U.S. would favor neither France nor Great Britain in their conflict but would follow a policy that was fair and impartial to both sides.
What did th etemperance movement try to do?
Ban alcohol
Popular Soverignty
Idea that people living in a territory had the right to decide if slavery would be avoided there.
a group of people who have the power to make laws
Berlin Airlift
a program in which the United States and Britain shipped supplies by air to West Berlin during a Soviet blockade of all routes to the city; lasted from 1948-1949
Indentured Servant
Laborer who agreed to work without pay for a certain period of time in exchange for passage to America.
Literacy Test
test used to demonstrate if a voter could read write, and meet a minimum knowledge standard, mainly designed to keep African Americans from voting
Sherman Anti Trust Act
1890 law outlawed big business
no distinction b/w good and bad just big
no teeth until 1914
Made monopolies and trust illeagal
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
Two US ships gathering intelligence fire upon North Vietnamese torpedo boats. Lyndon B Johnson gets this, which allows president to conduct military operations in Southeast Asia without declaring war.
Emargo Act
in 1807 congress passed this. this law essentialy banned trade with all foreign countries
Quartering Act
an act passed by the British that allowed British troops to live in the homes of the colonists
William "Boss" Tweed
political machines and boss; boss of tammany hall; controlled the democratic party in new york city; went to jail; nick name " Boss Tweed"
Alien-Naturalization-Sedition Acts- 1798
1798, was four measures passed during the undeclared war with France that limited the freedom of speech and press and restricted the liberty of noncitizens
San Antonio
Town were 200 Texan rebels held out for weeks against 5,000 mexican troops
A. Mitchell Palmer
the Attorney General of the US after WWI who began raiding homes, businesses, etc. as a result of the red scare and growing amounts of anarchists and socialists.
paris peace conference
Where did Wilson see as an opportunity to make his vision of a new world a possibility ?
What was Stalin paranoid about?
The US and British making aly
George Armstrong Custer
famous civil war general sent west to exterminate Indians, he unwisely dismissed half his troops and was killed along with all his men by Indians in the Battle of Little Big horn
Louisiana Separate Car Act
1890 law mandating that black people and white people ride in separate train cars; challenged by Homer Plessy
Aircraft in world war uno
Machine guns strategic bombing (war ficilites, trans) dog fights, wuff?
Francis Gary Powers
pilot of the U-2 plane shot down by the U.S.S.R. (Yes, we were spying and were caught). He didn't die, but was captured. We had to negotiate to get him released. We exchanged Rudolph Abel (A USSR spy we captured) for him.
Hawley Smoot Tariff
(HH) 1930 , charged a high tax for imports thereby leading to less trade between America and foreign countries along with some economic retaliatio, HIGHEST EVER
John Wilkes Booth ?
He was the man who shoot Ahbraham Lincoln in the back of his head at the thearter
French & Indian War
4th war b/w Great Britain and France that ended with the defeat of France & the transfer of French Canada to Britain
Fugitive Slave Act
a law that made it a crime to help runaway slaves; allowed for the arrest of escaped slaves in areas where slavery was illegal and required their return to slaveholders
How was the revolt of the American intermediary crushed?
By the strong Mexican government
What was the supreme court ruling on Ozawa vs. US?
Americans of Japanese decent can't assimilate
What were some of the population trends in Jamestown (1606-1625)?
The original colony started out with about 100 people, about half of them died the first year, a man named John Smith convinced the company to send better skilled people over. By 1622 2000 of the 6000 people that came over there (over a period of time) were left. By 1625, only 1300 had survived.
How did the Cult of True Womanhood influence regulation of the work force at Lowell?
there were many rules: quiet hours, clean up, no disruptions, etc. think dorm life
a formal request
Charles Finney
religious reform
Ronald Reagan
1981-1989,"Great Communicator" Republican, conservative economic policies, replaced liberal Democrats in upper house with consevative Democrats or "boll weevils" , at reelection time, jesse jackson first black presdiential candidate, Geraldine Ferraro as VP running mate (first woman)
owners of huge estates
Sole economic control of goods
most jamestown settlers focus
gold, riches
National American Woman Suffrage Association; founded in 1890 to help women win the right to vote
radicals who oppose all government
Ennumerated powers
Under Federalism, the Federal Government may do these things.
What did Raplh Waldo Emerson write?
Virginia Plan
believed membership in political offices should be based on population
Volstead Act
the means of enforcing Prohibition
Which Middle Eastern country did President Eisenhower use the CIA to overthrow a government in the early 1950s, in large part because it attempted to nationalize British-owned oil fields?
to sail completely around the world
border states
Delaware, Kentucky, Maryland, and Missouri; slave states that lay between the N and the S. and did not join the confederacy.
-people grow more concerned with air pollution
-Earth Day starts in 1970
-EPA established
Clarence Darrow
Famous American criminal lawyer; he defended John Scopes's right to teach evolution in the Scopes Trial.
Declaratory Act
parliament could legislate colonies on everything and anything
a group of northern Democrats who opposed abolition and sympathized with the South during the Civil War
Ambrose Burnside
competent union general who replace McClellan
a situation during a conflict when action stops because both sides are equally powerful and neither will give in.
Yellow Journalism
Journalism that exploits, distorts, or exaggerates the news to create sensations and attract readers
Samuel Adams
Patriot; Son of Liberty; helped organize the Committees of Correspondence in Boston
o American revolutionary who led the Boston Tea Party; signed the Declaration; helpful in organizing the Committees of Correspondence in colonies
o Gavrilo Princip
 Serbian nationalist  Assassinated Austria-Hungary's Archduke Franz Ferdinand
colony that passed act of religious toleration in 1649
William McKinley
The Republican candidate in the election of 1896. He was put on the Republican ticket because he could be controlled.
cotton diplomacy
Confederate efforts to use the importance of S. cotton to Britain's textile industry to persuade the British to support the confederacy in the Civil war.
What did prison reformers hope to achieve?
Wilmot Proviso
David Wilmot any territory gained by Mexican War can't have slaves, made this a big issue (slavery), never in law
Tuskegee Airmen
332nd fighter group that shot down more than 200 enemy planes
League of Nations
Many senators opposed American entry into the League of Nations because they feared it would weaken the country's independence.
Charles Coughlin
This priest thought the nation should go more communist. He was anti-semitic and was later censored by the Pope.
guerilla warfare
tactics using a hit and run technique
Potsdam Conference
The final wartime meeting of the leaders of the United States, Britain, and the Soviet Union was held at Potsdamn, outside Berlin, in July, 1945. Truman, Churchill, and Stalin discussed the future of Europe but their failure to reach meaningful agreements soon led to the onset of the Cold War.
King Philip's War
a conflict between New England conlonists and Native American Groups allied under leadership Wampanoag cheif Metacom
shutting a port or roadway to prevent people or supplies from coming into or leaving an area
Compromise of 1877
Two Presidential nominees = Rutherford b. Hayes and Samuel J. Tilden. Both sides were corrupt, no college electoral vote, Electoral commission was esablished to determine results compromise(Under the table).
Atlantic charter
this agreement between USA and great Britain envisioned a post war cooperation after the nazi's were defeated
According to the Treaty of Paris of 1783, the ? River would be open for trade to both the Americans and the British.
Sherman Antitrust Act
encouraged competition by breaking up large companies; set precedent of government regulation of American businesses
Spanish colony in the Pacific whom the US helped free from the Spanish, but soon after took as their own colony
Thaddeus Stevens
A congressman who advocated a breakup of Southern plantations to give slaves "forty acres and a mule" in return for their years of unpaid labor
Radio talk show host hat promoted "social justice"
Father Coughlin
Berlin Wall (1961)
Soviets split Berlin to stop people from crossing in West Berlin
william lloyd garrison
published 1st issue of his militantly antislavery newspaper the liberator in boston (1831)
to acquire a piece of U.S. public land by living on and cultivating it
Port location
Why did the United States want Hawaii? [548]
Travels of Marco Polo
Lates 1200's
- increased interest in the far east and China
- He wrote a book on his travels which later inspired future explorers
Good Neighbor Policy
Franklin D. Roosevelt policy in which the U.S. pledged that the U.S. would no longer intervene in the internal affairs of Latin American countries. This reversed Teddy Roosevelt's Big Stick Policy.
Articles of Confederation
A weak central government that was adopted in november 1777 by The continental Congress.
Townsend Duties
In response to New York's failure to comply with Quartering Act. Paid England gov't salaries.
Booker T. Washington
Believed in education and urged black people to follow same road to success. He became the chief spokesperson for Black Commitment to Education- briefly seen as spokeperson for all African Americans.
His message was cautious and hopeful
1. emphasized putting a foot in agriculture
2. Industrial over Classical education
3. Pressed for adpotion of the white middle class standards; he argued this was necessary for any greater social gains
"cast down your buckets" - let white people show black people the way and black people will be very loyal to the white people in return basically we should be alright with segregation for now
This was important and appealed to both African Americans and white southerners- because it had hope for African Americans and it assured that African Americans were not going to overthrow them
sinking of the Lusitania
the Germans sank this ship, a cruiseliner. an example of unrestricted submarine warfare
Versailles Treaty
the 1919 peace treaty at the end of WWI which established new nations, borders, and war reparations; caused anger and resentment with the german people because they were blamed for the war and responsible for paying it all back. they also had to give up all colonies
balance of power
a system that prevents any one country from dominating the others.
Alvin C. York
a member of an antiwar relgious sect who becme a hero when he single-handedly killed 20 Germans and captured 132 more in the Meuse-Argonne offensive
Indentured Servent
When a paid trip across the oceas was traded for service for a specified time.
Constitutional Party in Election of 1860
nominate John Bell, ignore slavery issue
Oliver H. Perry
Drove the British out of the Lake Erie in the War of 1812, which prevented invasion of the English in the Northwest. He forced the surrender of an entire British fleet. If we hadn't stopped them we would have been attacked by the Northwest.
Prohibition, rise of organized crime
When alcohol became illegal, it gave rise to the organized crime syndicate in the United States. Wars among gangs, producing grisly killings, frequently made headlines.
What do we call the land north of the Ohio River that was taken from Great Britain during the American Revolution?
Northwest Territory
Germany's unrestricted submarine warfare
A major factor in the decision of the United States' to enter World War I
Second Battle of Bull Run
1862.. Civil war battle in which the confederate army defeated another Union advance on Richmond, Virginia.
Why did many Nothern members of Congress oppose admitting Texas to the Union?
President Andrew Jackson did not want to increase North-South tensions or risk a costly war with Mexico.
What is a naturalized citizen?
A person who is not from the same the US and becomes a citizen
What were some of the problems with the articles of confederation?
each stated its own money, no federal courts, federal government couldnt raise enough taxes.
Not guilty
Spoil System
Harriet beecher Stowe
Gold found in California
north or south?
james longstreet
Mexicans who lived in California
(National Association for the advancement of colored people)
Founded in 1909
W.E.B. Du Bois was very involved with this association.
Carry A. Nation
fought for prohibition
The Tennessee Valley Authority federation was created in 1933 in order to provide navigation, flood control, electricity generation, fertilizer manufacturing, and economic development in the Tennessee Valley, a region particularly impacted by the Great Depression
Continued to grow after the introduction of tobacco as a cash crop
Federal Reserve System
the nation's central bank
The Soviet Union needed satellite nations: the countries surrounding them to be BLANK.
Parris's slave from Barbados; first accused witch
December 4, 1783
Washington resigns from army
1775 colonist invasion fails in canada; too rash
the ongoing struggle to drive the moors from Spain- ended
Old Ironsides
Nickname for the American warship Constitution used in the War of 1812.
ragtime music
popular music grew from honky tonk
group of seperate companies that are plaved under the control of a single managing board
the illegal use of personal influence for political gain
roman catholics
what religion were most immigrants from Ireland and Germany
Columbian Exchange
The exchange of plants, animals, diseases, and technologies between the Americas and the rest of the world following Columbus's voyages.
vice president/president pro tempore
presiding officer in senate
World War 2
invasion of Poland and Germany
Native Americans
Diseases caused the deaths of countless____________ after Europeans arrived in the Caribbean.
benjamin harrison
grandson of pres. william henry harrison
An extreme dislike for immigrants by native-born people ana desire to limit immigration
Political Action Committees
organizations that collect money to distribute to candidates who support the same issues as the contributors
Social Gospel
believed that equality of wealth was required for freedom
Who testified for the Sacco-Vanzetti case?
immigrants (no good)
Peter Cooper
designed and built the first American steam locomotive
Christopher Columbus
Self-taught Italian mariner who in the late 15th C A.D. sailed west across the Atlantic Ocean in search of the Indies.
Interstate Commerce Act
outlawed the practice of giving special rates to powerful customers
(George )Wallace
the governor of Alabama during the Civil Rights Movement and a staunch segregationist. He was a popular figure among segregationists becoming a rallying point.
Joint-stock company
company in which investors buy stock in the company in return for a share of its future profits
a person who opposes war or warlike policies, such as the one who opposed the Vietnam War
Nat Turner
Leader of 1831 slave rebellion in Virginia.
What is a group's set of common beliefs, values, traditions, government, and language?
Indian Removal Act
Calhoun suggests it, Jefferson passes it, it is to relocate Native Americans to the Great Plains for them to settle it
Roosevelt Corollary
in his December 1904 message to Congress, Roosevelt defined his " big stick" diplomacy to this, the Monroe Doctrine
The commander of U.S. troops in 1941, in the Philippines?
Intolerable/Coercive Acts
Response to Boston Tea Party1. Closed Boston Harbor2. Quartering Act3. King appointed Gov. of Mass. (no more colonial council allowed)4. Boston under martial Law
Why did the US suffer a financial crisis in 1819?
spoils system
getting a job based on party loyalty, not merit
Eisenhower Doctine
said that the U.S. would deffend the Middle East against any attack by any communist country
Declaration of Independence
general function: to break away from Britain
Central Pacific Railroad
(USG), A railroad that started in Sacramento , and connected with the Union Pacific Railroad in Promentary Point, Utah; hired Irish immigrants
Boston Massacre
left 5 colonial men dead in March after fighting with soldiers
XYZ Affair
a 1797 French attempt to bribe the United States by demanding payment before talks could begin on the issue of French seizure of neutral American ships
John Adams called the French agents X, Y & Z to avoid conflict in Congress
treaty of Paris 1783
the treaty that ended the revolutionary war
Dorthea Dix
worked hard for the rights of the mentally ill
Who first used a telescope to look at the stars?
Electoral college
Electors who are selected to vote for the president
number per state = house reps + senate reps
When did the Senate vote on the treaty?
November 1919
Hudson River School
a group of American painters of the mid-19th century whose works are characterized by a highly romantic treatment of landscape, esp. along the Hudson River
World War Two
The war between the Axis and the Allies, beginning on September 1, 1939, with the German invasion of Poland and ending with surrender of Germany on May 8, 1945, and of Japan on August 14, 1945
Result of the Korean War?
On November 1951, peace negotiations began, but an armistice would not be signed until July 1953.
Federal Deposit Insurance Corps.
Protected bank deposits up to $5,000, but today it protects up to $100,000
In the Spanish American war, the U.S. won a quick and easy victory. As a result John Hay described it as a ______?
splendid little war
liberty loan
one of four bond issues floated by the u.s treasury department from 1917 to 1919 to help finance world war 1
What was signed in the year 1776?
The declaration of independence
joint stock company
A company made up of a group of shareholders. Each shareholder contributes some money to the company and receives some share of the company's profits and debts.
This Side of Paradise
book published in 1920 which turned F. Scoot Fitzgerald into an overnight celebrity; became a kind of Bible for the young; read by aspiring flappers and their ardent wooers
What was a political result of Johnson's Great Society initatives?
End poverty and recial injustice.
Why was Brown v. Board important?
it overturned Plessy v. Ferguson and said that seperation was illegal
workers would not join labor unions
Some employers forced workers to sign "yellow dog contracts" stating that ___.
Helen Hunt Jackson/ A Century of Dishonor
author of "A Century of Dishonor" (1881); the book created sympathy for native americans.
Women were inherently diff. from men in 3 ways:
1. more emotional2. more moral3. less intellectual
they did not trust them
by the end of the 1800s how did most americans view industrialists?
3. Why did America want to build the Panama Canal and what events led to its construction?
- They wanted to build it so they could trade easier
- Events: The U.S. supported a Panamanian revolution against Columbia for their independence. The U.S. shipped a bomb to Columbia's harbors
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