American History FINAL Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Cuba
Clinton
Gadsden Purchase
Pierce
Raleigh
captured by Sherman
John Pierpont Morgan
finance
Wilson
who favored lowering tariffs?
Depression
a sever economic stump
Pilgramage
journey to a holy place
Zachary Taylor's Party
VP - Fillmore
True
(true/false) Other Allied leaders forced Wilson to make serious compromises in his Fourteen Points in order to keep the League of Nations in the Treaty of Versailles.
Stagflation
where inflation and economic stagnation occur simultaneously
March to the sea led by?
Sherman
Muckrakers
newspaper reporters and other writers who pointed out the social problems of the era of big business.
John Smith
Governor/ leader of the Colony
literacy
the ability to read and write
de witt clinton
planned the erie canal
13 Colonies
New Hampshire, Massachusettes, Rhode Island, Conneticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia.
Ethnic Nationalism
form of nationalism wherein the "nation" is determined in terms of ethnicity
Reservation
A _____________ is Federal Land set aside for Native Americans.
John Foster Dulles
Secretary of state; staunchly anti-communist
Corn
Indians were good at planting it, colonists refused to plant it because it was degrading for them, people ended up starving in Virginia especially.
Missouri Compromise
Agreement that balanced the admission of a slave state with the admission of a free state.
Sojourner Truth
Made antislavery speeches after she gained her freedom in NY
corporation
organization owned by many people but treated by law as through it were a person, people who own are called stockholders
Great Society
President Johnson's program to reduce poverty and racial injustice and to promote a better quality of life in the US
republicanism
The belief that government should be based on the consent of the people.
Mass Media
Means of communication that reach large audiences
transcendentalists
stressed the importance of humans and nature
Federal Reserve Act
Wilsonian legislation that created twelve regional banks to provide stability and new paper currency called Federal Reserve Notes
Battle of Antietam
Union disorganized. Bloodiest battle in American History. Lee's plans for Northern invasion are not accomplished.
john adams
2nd president of the U.S. 1797–1801: a leader in the American Revolution.
Dawes Plan
United States banks loaned money to Germany after World War I
Taft-Hartley Act
required union leaders to take a non-communist oath
Great Depression
1929- 1930s the most severe economic downturn in the history of the United States
also leopold
who wrote Sand County Almanac after realizing how wrong Roosevel's predator kill program was?
Marshall plan
(1947) program for US to supply economic aid to European Nations to help rebuild after WWII
McCarthyism
In the 1950s, One senators tactics of accusing and investigating suspected disloyal or communist Americans in government designed to damage their reputations.
Nathaniel Bacon
indentured servant who led a rebellion in 1676 against the governor of the Virginia Colony, showed division between classes
Normal School
a two-year school for training high school graduates as teaches
Period after Civil War is known as what?
Reconstruction
interchangeable parts
identical components that can be used in place of one another; replacement parts
henry hudson
was an english sea explorer and navagator in the early 17th centry he explored the region around modern new york city while looking for a western route to the indies
cash crops
the quickest way for southern farmers to repay debts
Cotton Mather
a Puritan leader that has successfully developed and inoculation for small pox.
Americans in Hawaii led by ________ overthrew Queen _____________.
Dole, Lilli
treaty of versailles
surrender areas to france, transfer german colonies to diff ally pwrs, reduce army, relenquish subs, ships, planes, guns, pay $56 1/2 bill. for damanges,germans signed under protest
Eleanor Roosevelt
wide of President Roosevelt who was a social reformers who combined her deep humanitarian impulses with great political skill
St. Louis
The Shame of the Cities by Lincoln Steffins exposed political corruption in ____________.
Proclamation of 1763
prevented colonists from moving to the west of the Appalachian Mountains
Paratroopers objectives
land in dropzones and clear roads and destroy German ammunition and guns
jim crow laws
system of legal segregation that many southern states instituted to keep african americans from gaining equality
Pet banks
A term used by Jackson's opponents to describe the state banks that the federal government used for new revenue deposits in an attempt to destroy the Second Bank of the United States; the practice continued after the charter for the Second Bank expired in 1836.
Czar Nicholas
abdication of this ruler led to a republican form of government in Russia
Zebulon Pike
an explorer of the West who reached the summit of the mountain now known as Pike's Peak
Neutrality Proclamation
the US wont take sides with either European countries that were at war
George Custer
Colonel Custer found gold in the Black Hills of South Dakota, and hordes of gold-seekers invaded the Sioux reservation in search for gold, causing the Sioux to go on the warpath, completely decimating Custer's Seventh Calvary at Little Big Horn in the process
Convention of 1800
The agreement with France that ended the Quasi-War, arranged for the release of prisoners, and reestablished normal relations with France
What two colonies was begun by England?
Jamestown and Plymouth
Battle of Bunker Hill
the first important battle of the American War of Independence (1775)
mayes had strong ssense of
physical beauty and long backward sloped heads
What was "Allotment Annie?"
Women who married multiple times to G.I. life insurance money
Stamp Act
Tax place on forms a stamp required on all newspapers and legal or commercial documents;
Mississippi and Missouri rivers
The longest and most important river system in the United States is made up of ____
American Neutrality Acts
-Passed to keep America out of the war-Nations at war could not buy ammunition-Nations at war could not borrow money from banks-Nations at war were restricted to cash and carry trade
2 step in the Vietnamization Plan:
train Vietnamese to take over
-build up their own army
Works Progress Administration
(FDR) WPA 1935, , May 6, 1935- Began under Hoover and continued under Roosevelt but was headed by Harry L. Hopkins. Provided jobs and income to the unemplyed but couldn't work more than 30 hours a week. It built many public buildings and roads, and as well operated a large arts project.
Give one specific example of a national women's organization committed to social activism. Briefly describe its progressive mission.
Womens organization; mission was dedicated to giving women equal rights to men specifically the right to vote. NAWSA.
Civil Rights Act of 1875
1875 required state gov'ts to provide equal access in public facilities such as schools and for blacks to serve on juries. Ruled unconstitutional in 1883.
What were the main objectives of the NOW movement?
To get greater educational opportunities for women and bring women into a fully equal partnership with men.
FDR aroused the most opposition when he
attempted to "pack" the Supreme Court
it was a treaty signed with Vladimir Lenin to end Russia's participation in the war.
Whay was the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk?
What did the Embargo Act of 1807 prohibit?
all American ships from leaving the U.S. for foreign ports
What was the plan called to overtake France and what was it?
1) The Schieffen Plan2) Knock France out of the war immediately3) Take on Russia
Mosul
Bush
Article 232
Reparations
distraught
frantic, frenzied;beside oneself
culture
way of life
Drums.
British irregular soldiers carry?
communist
Government of North Korea
Social Darwinism
survival of the fittest
Article 231
The War Guilt Clause
david lloyd george
big four: Britian
 
 
 
 
Plessy v Ferguson
-Separate but equal.
Hudson
English- Hiered by Netherlands to explore No. Amer. in 1609 he found a river now named after him, in his ship Half Moon, he sailed as far No. as Albany and then turned around back home.
Racism
when another race considers themselves superior
spain
where were the following explorers from- columbus, cotrez, pizarro, ponce de leon, corondo
Dissent
Dissagrement w/beliefs or practices of the Anglicans
arctic
hunted in kayaks, lived in igloos
Granville Woods
Telegraph system for moving trains
Square DealCh. 19
-Theodore Roosevelt's campaign slogan-pledging to balance the interests of business, consumers, and labor.
decree
an order given by one in authority
Gentlemen's Agreement
The ______________ was an agreement between President Roosevelt & the Japanese government to open up schools to Japanese immigrants.
Farmers Alliances
other organizations that arose from the Grange
The U.S. Government feared the spread of BLANK.
communism
Platt Amendment
prevented newly independent Cuba from making treaties with other nations and gave the US control over Guantanamo Bay
Washington's legacy
During his presidency a strong, functional government was formed. We still use it today.
Dollar Diplomacy
Taft's foreign policy which replaced "bullets with dollars"; involved investors instead of military. It eventually worked better in Latin America than China.
John Breckenridge
southern democrat in the 1860 election: __
What group benefited from the passage of the 19th amendment?
WOMEN!!
income tax
tax on the money people earn
Tenochtitlan
Capital of the Aztecs, destroyed by Cortes
Chancellorsville
Hooker vs. Lee. Lee sends Jackson around and surprise attacks them. Stonewall Jackson accidentally fired upon by his troops, dies.
suburb
a district lying immediately outside a city or town, esp. a smaller residential community.
Yalta Conference
1945 Meeting with US president FDR, British Prime Minister(PM) Winston Churchill, and and Soviet Leader Stalin during WWII to plan for post-war
SALT II
discussions in 1979 between the United States and the Soviets that began as SALT I in the late 1960s; SALT II set limits on certain kinds of nuclear weapons
the incas were what kind of farmers
terrace .
civil rights movement
movement in the United States beginning in the 1960s and led primarily by Blacks in an effort to establish the civil rights of individual Black citizens
Quartering Act
Declared that colonists had to house and feed British soldiers
Black Plague
the epidemic form of bubonic plague experienced during the Middle Ages when it killed nearly half the people of western Europe
new netherland
john cabot found it. the dutch enlarged it by taking over new sweeden
totalitarian
a type of government in which people are forced to comply with the wishes of one person - government has total control
Monroe Doctrine
A statement of foreign policy which proclaimed that Europe should not interfere in affairs within the United States or in the development of other countries in the Western Hemisphere.
john calvin
was a paster during the protestant reformation
teacher
career most available to women in the 1800s
Headrights
A system that allowed the settlers who bought a share in the company or paid for their passage were granted 50 acres of land.
Candidates for election of 1860?
Lincoln- RepublicanJohn Breckinridge- Southern DemocratDouglas- Northern DemocratBell- Constitutional Union
peace without victory
wilsonwanted the groups to state their purpose/war aims-- they said no peace w/o victory
majority rule
the idea that the greatest number of poeple in a society can make policies for everyone
Glass-Steagall Act
Releases $750 million in gold in order to back the dollar; want to prevent inflation and show that our money is worth something
submarine warfare
The United States decided to enter the war in response to Germany's return to unrestricted
Allies
in World War I the alliance of Great Britain and France and Russia and all the other nations that became allied with them in opposing the Central Powers
Hiram Revels
first african american to serve in the US Congress
Olive Branch Petition
In response to Bunker Hill, King George III said that the colonies were in rebellion with Britain. King Georgen III bought Hessians and sent then to kill the colonists. Some hessians however, stayed in America and became citizens.
Vicksburg Campaign
General Grant leads a campaign to the south at Vicksburg and cripples their forces.
New Freedom
This is the policy of US President Woodrow Wilson which promoted antitrust modification, tariff revision, and reform in banking and currency matters
antiwar movement
the group of people who were opposed to the war and they led protest marches
5
protects you if you are accused of a crime
Revival of Women's Rights
-Women victimized ideals they were best suited to be wife and mother.-Women were underutilized recourse-Feminism revived in 1970's-1972 Equal Rights Amandment passed in congress, but fell 3 states short.
Bernard M. Baruch-
Leader of the War Industries Board. Under this board, productivity increased by 20%.
creation of Confederacy
done by 7 states that left the Union
Joseph G. Cannon
Speaker of the House and appointed all committees and decided which bills they handled.
Oliver Hazard Perry
wins naval battles on great lakes "we have met enemy, he's our"
Radical Republicans
These were a small group of people in 1865 who supported black suffrage. They were led by Senator Charles Sumner and Congressman Thaddeus Stevens. They supported the abolition of slavery and a demanding reconstruction policy during the war and after.
Indian Removal Act
law that called for the government to negotiate treaties requireing Native Americans to relocate west
sig of compromise of 1850?
held union together for another decade- north got stronger
What happens to China during the Cold War?
China falls to Communism
lead the new settlement of NM
what did juan de onate do?
The Line of Demarcation
The line that split the world in Half
What helped A. Jackson win the Presidency of 1828
The battle of New Orleans
What issues was Andrew Jackson confronted with?
Indian removal and battles about the national bank.
What did Martin Luther King, Jr. do?
Fought for civil rights
Worked for equality for all Americans
What eventually happened to thriving boomtowns?
the rise of mining spurned the growth of railroad; (Denver); farmers and ranchers followed miners and eventaully the territory became a state
What branches out from the Free Speech Movement?
more movements. even though they are short lived
John Marshall, Chief of Justice for Maryland argued that _____??
he argued that Maryland had no right to tax the Bank bcause it was a federal instution. (Because the Constitution and the fed. govn't received authority dirctly from the people)
c
phonograph
haridng
teapot dome
Indict
to formally accuse
Initiative and Referendum
Drawbacks for Explorers
-disease
-death
SENATE
elected every 6 years
germs
transfered during the Columbian Exchange
Barbados
Island sugar plantation off Carolina/huge profit/overworked
mestizos
spanish and native american descent
where was archduke ferdinand killed?
bosnia
imperialism
dominance, conquering out of your sphere of influence, taking over other countries
Serbia
Independent nation located on Bulkan peninsula that wanted to get rid of Austria. Trained the assassins. After Ferdinands death, Austria blames Serbia and make demands. Serbia cooperates until they make the demand to investigate the Serbian government. Serbians wont comply to that. Austria declares war on Serbia on July 28, 1914.
federal court system
set up supreme court
20th
Commencement of Terms, Session of Congress, Death or Disqualification of President Elect
What was the Hessian's motivation during the American Revolution?
Money.
Muskogean
the 3rd largest language group. included the tribes in the southernmost region of the eastern seaboard
Edward Bellamy
Wrote about Utopian societies, 1887-2000, as though the man had awakened in the future. The socialist society he called Nationalists.
what do boycotts begin?
mainstream civil rights movement
When does the stock market crash?
October 29,1929
Legislative
The _____ Branch of government makes the laws.
Vicksburg
in Vicksburg, Mississippi is one of the only two Confederate holdouts preventing the Union
Stephen A. Douglas
wanted transcontinental railroad so bad that he was willing to risk breaking up the Union
Mexican War
..., War between Mexicans and Americans over the annexation of Texas
Council-Manger form of city government
Dayton, Ohio, flood
Thomas Jefferson
1743-1826. Third President of United States. Main author of the Declaration of Independence. Promoted ideals of republicanism in the United States.
Predestination
The belief, headed by John Calvin, that God has already chosen if we were going to heaven or not. People tried to act good though, hoping for a hint of whether they'd go to heaven or not.
Vietcong
Group of communist rebels in South Vietnam
Andrew Johnson
Vice president who became president after Lincoln was assassinated.
impressments
policy of forcing people into military or public service
Charles Sumner
Sumner is an abolitionist who blames crime on supporters of slavery, speech, crossed line of protocol (cannot attack senator by names)
Treaty of Versailles
Included a war-guilt clause, forcing Germany alone to accept blame for the war
convoy
The purpose of the ________ system was to transport troops safely across the Atlantic
Northwest passage
water route through or around north america
Emancipation Proclamation
an executive order issued by Abraham Lincoln on January 1, 1863, freeing the slaves in all regions behind Confederate lines
Hoovervilles
camps built outside of major cities by people who had lost their homes during the great depression called hoovervilles because the people blamed pre. hoover foe their situition
Coureurs
"Runners" - men of France trapping for fur and $$
Sawbuck equality
History of Slavery in Carolina Black "cowboys" One Master working alongside one slave "Sawbuck equality" - master & slave on each side of saw having to work together Still master-slave relation, but better physical treatment
Francis Marion
Considered one of the fathers of modern guerrilla warfare.
Iron Curtin
divided Europe into two separate areas from the end of World War II to 1992
Continental Army
The official army of the colonies, created by second continental congress and led by George Washington
Import Taxes
taxes on items imported from other countries
Flapper
woman of the 1920s portrayed as young and sexually aggressive, with bobbed hair, rouged cheeks, and short skirts; loved to dance to jazz music, smoke cigarettes in public, and drink bootlegged liquor; defied morals of earlier generations
Executive Order 9981
first official policy to end segregation by U.S government
In 1619 the first African slaves were brought to ________ to work as slaves
Jamestown
Eminent Domain
Power of a government to take private property for public use; the U.S. Constitution gives national and state governments this power and requires them to provide just compensation for property so taken.
Tenant Farming
system of farming in which a person rents land to farm from a planter
Open Door Policy
U.S policy where we asked European powers to allow = access to the Chinese consumer
Charles Evans Hughes
a. A presidential candidate of 1916, was a very cold hearted, intellectual type
What kind of jobs did women hold during war time?
Factory workers
private black colleges.
In the late 1800s, African Americans were most likely to go to college at
What techniques were used by labor unions to win workers rights?
Strikes and Bargaining
Enola Gay
The B-29 Bomber that dropped the only two nukes ever used in the context of a war (Hiroshima and Nagasaki)
Enclosure movement.
Evict large number of farmers to raise sheep.
Paul Revere
The person who was sent to alarm Lexington that the that the British were coming.
Northern Democrats
Led by S. A. Douglas. Want Popular Sovereignty to decide slavery.
since alot of food had been produced, americans were encouraged to do what?
eat less
New York
When FDR made his comeback in 1928 he was elected Governor of what state?
external and internal taxes
Impression encouraged by the Lord of the Treasury, the Marquis of Rockingham, that a distinction was being made between "external" taxes on trade as opposed to "internal" taxes within the colonies.
Articles of the Confederation
gov adopted by the 2nd Continental Congress with many weaknesses
Republican - Thomas Jefferson
Said to be atheist, deist, Christians guillotine b/c supported French Revolution, fathered children with slave
blockade
cut off any area by means of troops or warships to stop supplies or people from coming in or going out
Seven Days Battles
1862- Series of Civil War battles in which the confederate army successfully forced the Union army to retreat from Southeastern Virginia
What is the AFL?
The American federation of labor - a federation of separate craft unions
13, 14, and 15th Amendments
The Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution officially abolished and continues to prohibit slavery, and with limited exceptions, such as those convicted of a crime, prohibits involuntary servitude.
The Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution (the Reconstruction Amendments), first intended to secure rights for former slaves. It requires the states to provide equal protection under the law to all persons (not only to citizens) within their jurisdictions.
The Fifteenth Amendment provides doesn't prevent someone on voting based on that citizen's race, color, or previous condition of servitude (i.e. slavery).
what was the french revolution about and how did the americans feel about it.
people overruled monarchy: chopped off heads, very bloody. usa was thrilled that they had influinced the world.
awarding loans and land grants to private companies to build the railroad
The government contributed to the building of the transcontinental railroad by_
what did the the Dred Scott decision mean?
meant the constitution protected slavery
How does Stalin feel about BARBAROSSA?
no idea that the attack is coming; after the attack happens, he goes into hiding.
1933 he is in what position?
He is in total power. He is the President and Prime Minister!
easy to build, sturdy, safe, cheap
why was the log cabin a symbol of this time period?
ENTHRALLED
FASCINATED
bicameral
2 houses
jim crow
segregation (1890)
 
 
 
 
Copperheads
-anti-war northern Democrats
 
-election of 1864 (Lincoln v McClellan)
Axis Powers
Germany, Italy, Japan
James A. Garfield
independent presidential candidate
Chicago
city grew over night; industrialization; industrial center; meat packing industry; Hull House
First Sec. of State
Thomas Jefferson
assimilation (assimilate)
process of blending into society
loyalist vs. patriot arguments
talk about them
When is VJ day?
August 15, 1945
Amendment 16
The constitutional amendment adopted in 1913 that permitted Congress to levy an income tax.
separatists
protestants, hwo during the 1600 wanted to leave Anglican chruch in order to found the Ciromn chruch
Slavery
Lincoln recieved attention during the Lincoln- Douglas debates for his views on
Ho Chi Minh
leader of North Vietnam
Union advantages
more people, better industry and transportation, leader
Progressives
anti-monopoly & better life for the common man
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Where did the Continental Congress first meet?
A.D. 600-1300
Beginning of Medieval education. Began with the conversion of Constantine
Women's Suffrage
(WW) , National American Woman Suffrage Association formed in 1910 carries cause of women's suffrage to victory, granted suffrage in the 19th amendment, women also began to replace men in industries during the war
Initiative
voters can put bills before the legislature
Settlement Movement
Jane Addams established this movement; began in Britain because people believed just giving money to the poor would not solve the problems.
Palisade
A strong fence or defensive work consisting of pointing wooden stakes set firmly and closely together in the ground. Used for defense of frontier forts.
know-nothing party
political party of 1850's thatwas anti-Catholic and anti-immigrant
Charter
a written grant of rights and privileges by a ruler or government to a community, class of people, or organization
mayflower compact
this document established the first bases in the new world for written rights
Harriet Tubman
United States abolitionist born a slave on a plantation in Maryland and became a famous conductor on the Underground Railroad leading other slaves to freedom in the North (1820-1913)
Ferdinant Magellan
Spanish explorer
First to sail around globe in 1519
Died in Phillipines, but his ship made it so he got credit
Steerage
large open area beneath the ships deck where immigrants would travel
Nonimportation Agreements
Agreements not to import goods from Great Britain. They were designed to put pressure on the British economy and force the repeal of unpopular parliamentary acts.
Truman Doctrine
a U.S. policy providing economic and military aid to free nations threatened by internal or external opponents
Taiwan
The Chinese forces had to retreat to this place bec. of the communist take over. (island located off the SEcoast of china)
XYZ affair
dealt with the French minister of finance demanding a bribe and a loan for France from the US before he would meet with the US negotiators
National Housing Act #2
(FDR) 1937 , 1937-Wagner=Sponser. Rasied $500mill for urban slum clearance & public housing projects
Colonial Times
The time period between 1607 and 1776
Spoils system
the system of employing and promoting civil servants who are friends and supporters of the group in power
What was the most popular feminist cause during the Progressive Era in American History?
Women's sufferage
Charles A. Lindbergh
so-called Flyin' Fool who electrified the world by the first solo west-to-east conquest of the Atlantic from New York to Paris on his single-engined plane, the Spirit of St. Louis
Utah Beach
Code name for the westernmost landing point in the Normandy invasion
Characteristic of the southern middle class?
not many slaves
English Evangelist who delivered sermons that were very emotional and theatrical. usually began his sermons by chastising his listeners as sinners ("Half animals, half devils!") and finishing on a positive note, leaving those in attendance with the hope t
Who was George Whitefield?
How did Southerners get their food?
they raised crops
Promise not to sink more merchant ships without warning
Sussex Pledge
image
a picture in the reader's mind created by words
Erie Canal
opened in 1825 and connected th Hudson River to Buffalo, New York
Writs of Assistance
law giving soldiers the right to search people ships and houses without a warrant.
____ of slaves were free, _____ were not
10%, 90%
the american cause in the south was kept alive by...?
guerrilla troops
Boston tea party
a 1773 protest in which colonists dressed as Indians dumped British tea into Boston Harbor
Archipelago
a group of many islands in a large body of water
armistice day
on the eleventh hour on the eleventh day, in the election month germany agreed to a cease fire or armistice that ended WWI
Which labor group listed these three goals: end child labor, equal pay, and shorter workday?
Knights of Labor
Treaties of Velasco
ended the war between Mexico and Texas; after this was signed Mexico continued to insist that Texas was a part of Mexico
Federalist Papers
a series of 85 essays written by Hamilton, Madison, and Jay (using the name "publius") published in NY newspapers and used to convice readers to adopt the new constitution
Espionage & Sedition Act
Prohibited speaking out against the government during war.
Jay's Treaty
the 1794 talks for England and the U.S. which began limited trade relations, England gave up its forts and a commission was set up for border disputes
Albert Einstein
one of the refugees the U.S. took in who was claimed to be the smartest man in the world
martin luther king jr
civil rights movement leader who was very well known for speaches and letter in birmingham jail
Battle of Tippecanoe
War against the Indians and the pale faces. the small shawnees (Indians) went up against Harrisons army and lost. This battle made Harrison a national hero.
Cherokee Removal-Trail Of Tears
-court cases to fight removal.
-new treaty with some of the Cherokee.
-$5 million, 17,000 did not accept the treaty.
-General Scott was sent in to remove all Cherokee (7,000 US Troops).
-some Cherokee went to NC.
-1,000s died on trail or once they reached reservation.
strict requirements and limited authority
weaknesses of the articles of confederation
Georgia (1779) Charleston SC (1780)
Captured by British after loosing Battle at Sartoga
According to the Declaration of Independence, what was the fundamental purpose of government?
Protect natural rights of citizens, and also protect life, liberty, and property.
Teapot Dome Scandal; California; Wyoming
____- Sec. of Interior, Albert B. Fall, under Harding gave iol-drilling rights to provate companies in Elk Hills, ____ and Teapot Dome, ____. Fall in return got a bribe of $300,000.
Overseas Exploration and Conquest
The expansion of Europe began with the Viking voyages across the Atlantic in the Nineth and Tenth centuries. Political centralization in Spain, France, and England helps explain European expansion. Portugal led the way, establishing direct European trade in India. Muslims did not relinquish control of Indian Ocean trade without a fight
sherman anti trust act
act that tried to put an end to trusts, proved weak once in the courts
What was the spark which ignited World War I
Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand
What was the "great race"?
-Germany can now send all of it's troops to Eastern Europe-The US is going to send it's troops to Eastern Europe-It was a matter of who will get there first
List 3 factores that led Americans to call for war w/ Spain?
sensational stories in the yellow press, explosion aboard the Maine, sympath for Cuban Freedom Movement
What did the AAA do? The Sec?
Split land into 4 pieces, buying one piece. Securities and Exchange commission regulated investors in stock market
medicine and science, in the culture and glamor of its cities, and in the enjoyment of a wide variety of food, cloths, and other goods
At the time of the crusades, how was the Middle East superior to the Europe?
Anti-slavery
Against slavery
1863
Vicksburg and Gettysburg
John Bell
Tennessee, constitutional union
Jackie Robinson
black baseball star
oil leaders
rockefeller and harkness
Inca
Largest Empire in the america's
KDKA
first commercial broadcasting station established in Pittsburgh
Virginia Plan
presented at the Constitutional Convention by Edmund Randolph written mostly by James Madison which offered a new federal constitution that would give sovereignty to the central government by dividing the national government into three branches; executive, judicial, and legislative. The legislature would be a bicameral legislature where representatives would be choosen on the basis of state populations- delegates form smaller states did not like it because they thought it gave too much power to the larger states.
Why was NATO formed?
for mutual defense
Horatio Alger
well-known, "Rags to Riches" author
mission
Comprise a series of religious outposts established to spread the Christian doctrine among the local Native Americans.
13th Amendment
A constitutional amendment, ratified in 1865, that abolished slavery in the United States. Southern states had to acknowledge and ratify the amendment before they were readmitted to the Union.
Pennsylvania Dutch
German immigrants in Pennsylvania during the early 1700s and they have made up about one third of the population.
Oregon Trail
trail from Missouri to Oregon.
Samuel "Golden Rule" Jones
Progressive mayor of Toledo
kamikaze
during WWII, a Japanese suicide pilot whose mission was to crash into his target
Tecumseh
Shawnee Chief who was a briliant speaker and military leader
Island Hopping
the American navy attacked islands held by the Japanese in the Pacific Ocean. The capture of each successive island from the Japanese brought the American navy closer to an invasion of Japan.
Rutherford B. Hayes
Republican candidate for president. won election
Who was the leader of Jamestown
John Smith
vertical integration
Practice where a single entity controls the entire process of a product, from the raw materials to distribution
Southern Colonies
nondiverse colonies who relied on cotton and agriculture. It took many people to run a farm, so large families were not unheard of and deaths were common due to poor nutrition and lack of medical care.
Banking Crisis
The first thing that Roosevelt attended to as president was the
Roanoke
First English settlement of New World; settled in 1584 in North Carolina but was a failure with the entire population failing
Jefferson Davis
an American statesman and politician who served as President of the Confederate States of America for its entire history from 1861 to 1865
midnight judges
Adams appointed judges as Jefferson took office to keep him in line
they were federalists
Who starred in the first "talkie"?
Al Jolson
Thomas Cole
Founder of the Hudson River school, famous for his landscape paintings
Joseph Stalin,Winston Churchill,FDR
What men were the allied leaders?
enlightenment
a movement in the 18th century that advocated the use of reason in the reappraisal of accepted ideas and social institutions
Dartmouth College Case
1819 (JMon), contract, Daniel Webster, Jurisdictional dispute between the college's president and board of trustees led to a Supreme Court ruling favoring the educational freedom of private institutions (which is what colleges are considered to be)
America First Committee
organized in 1940 to promote isolationism
John Calhoun
was a senator for South Carolina; introduced the bill for the second national bank to Congress and led the minority of southerners who voted for the Tariff of 1816; later he chose to oppose tariffs
William Howe
British general who took Phila. but missed capturing Hudson Valley
What was the system of binding laborers into slavery to work off a debt to the employer?
Debt peonage
Philadelphia
quickly grew into the largest and most important city in Pennsylvania
Protestant Reformation
began in 1517, when Martin Luther openly challenged some of the basic practices and beliefs of the Roman Catholic Church
bryan-chamorro treaty
treaty in 1914 in which nicaragua received $3 million in return for granting the u.s. exclusive rights to a canal route.
Ulysses S. Grant
Union General during Civil war, followed Andrew Johnson into Presidency, doing little for the Reconstruction process due to his lack of real political knowledge.
reconstruction
the process by which the states that had seceded were reorganized as part of the Union after the Civil War which took place 1865?77
constitutional union party
political party formed in 1860 by group of northerners and southerners who supported union
Women Question
the debate on how women would be integrated into society
Triple Entente (allies)
Britain, France, Russia, and later the U.S.
Wabash v. Illinois
(GC), can't have state boards to regulate interstate railroads, weakening Grangers
Political Bosses
those who ran and led the political machines
invasion of italy
Allied Powers decided to invade the island of Sicily to gain access to the Italian mainland. Used the strategy of "island hopping"
Transcontinental Railroads
a railroad line that would cross the whole country
What is an area of land that sticks out into a lake or ocean?
peninsula
1763
The first treaty of Paris is signed to mark the end of the French and Indian war. The proclamation line is established.
Duke of York
James II
Points a cannon at New Amsterdam and takes it
Calls it New York
American Colonization Society
group that supported a plan to send freed slaves to Monrovia, Africa
National Bank Act
set up a system of federally chartered banks, set requirements for loan, and provided for banks to be inspected
Aftermath of the Vietnam War
(RN), 1973, when Nixon replaced American forces in Vietnam with South Vietnam, withdrawal caused hostilities between North and South in which as a result, all of Vietnam became Socialist Republic of Vietnam. (1976)
American Federation of Labor:
Federation of craft unions founded in 1881 by Samuel Gompers which broke with the Knights of Labor in 1886 and which organized skilled workers only and avoided political reforms while emphasizing immediate, realizable "bread and butter" goals such as higher wages, shorter hours, and better working conditions.
The Democratic party headquarters
When they were arrested, the burglars at the Watergate apartment complex were breaking into ___________?
Daughter of Liberty
A women group that was against buying the British cloth and spinning their own rough cloth.
alabama claims
a ship built by the british and given to the south during the civil war
National Labor Relations Act
Gave labor unions the right to have collective barganing through repensentation of their own choice.
Who was Charles Cornwallis?
One of leading British generals in the Revolution
Students for a Democratic Society
College kids who wanted to avoid war
What were the major objections that British colonists in North American have with Emglish rule?
There was to texation without representation.
Why was the triangle shirtwaist company fire a landmark in Progressive history?
Women's clubs were motivated to change from leisure activities to reform organizations
Federal Council of the Churches of Christ in America
In 1908, 27 Protestant churches formed this council that called for legislation in several issues like no child labor and 1 day of rest per week
it helped make religion in the colonies more democratic
what effect did the great awakening have on religious life in the colonies
What was the main function of a cow town during the cattle boom?
their location linked cattle trails with eastern markets
What is the purpose of the system of checks and balances?
To make sure no branch of government becomes too powerful.
17 Terms
...
North Advantages
Population
Industry
Railroads
Naval Power
swelled
to grow in bulk
Samuel Morse
Telegraph and morse code
joseph pulitzer
Hungarian-American newspaper publisher of the St. Louis Post Dispatch and the New York World. Pulitzer introduced the techniques of "new journalism" to the newspapers he acquired in the 1880s and became a leading national figure in the Democratic party. He crusaded against big business and corruption. In the 1890s the fierce competition between his World and William R. Hearst's New York Journal introduced yellow journalism and opened the way to mass circulation newspapers that depended on advertising revenue and appealed to the reader with multiple forms of news, entertainment and advertising.
Cyrus McCormick
United States inventor and manufacturer of a mechanical harvester (1809-1884)
treaty
the treaty of versailes officially ended world war 1 and redrew eurepean boundaries. congress never approved the treaty.
General Lee
SOUTH
Commanded army of Northern Virginia and the 2nd battle of Bull Run, repulsed Union advances at Fredericksburg and Grant's assaults in Wilderness Campaign, surrendered to Grant at Appomattox Courthouse
Dixiecrats
Southern democrats - formed states rights
double standard
set of principles granting greater sexual freedom to men that to women---required women to observe stricter standards of behavior than men did
Frederick Douglass
United States abolitionist who escaped from slavery and became an influential writer and lecturer in the North (1817-1895)
Treaty of Portsmouth
-1905
-Roosevelt said to share resources of Manchuria
William loyd garrison
important abolitionist leader who founded abolitionist newspaper, the Liberator; cofounded the New England Antislavery Society
black panthers
blacks right organization that urged violence and direct confrontation with the police
James Buchanan
-James Buchanan was a northern democrat.
-James Buchanan was believed to be in a romantic relationship with William R. King, an Alabama senator and vice president for Franklin Pierce.
-Buchanan’s cabinet was comprised mostly of radical Southern democrats.
US that Buchanan inherited was fractured, especially over the issues of slavery.
slavery interlaced with issues of states rights in the form of squatter sovereignty
Buchanan didn't want to adopt an official policy on slavery because he didn't want to alienate North or South
Buchanan big fan of squatter sovereignty from the beginning of his presidency, even in his inaugural speech
Believed it would keep peace longer than a court-ordered ruling because it would please more people
Economy also huge factor in polarizing differences between North and South during Buchanan's presidency
Ferdinand Magellan
(1480-1521) Led the first expedition of ships to circumnavigate(circle) the world. He confirmed that the world was round.
Freedom summer
a campaign in the United States launched in June 1964 to attempt to register as many African American voters as possible in Mississippi, which up to that time had almost totally excluded black voters. The project was organized by the Council of Federated Organizations (COFO), a coalition of four established civil rights organizations: the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) and the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), with SNCC playing the lead role.
James VI
takes over throne, 13 colonies, king of Scotland also
john adams was a member of what party
Federalist
Eisenhower's Farewell Address
Warns of connection between businesses and military; fear of military becoming too powerful
Federalists Papers
A series of papers explaining and favoring the Constitution
This line was the boundary between Pennsylvania and Maryland
Mason-dixon line
"Prior Restraint"
Prior restraint was a form of censorship that violated the constitution. If News papers published bad/offensive things about the government, then they would be punished after publication, not before
flatboat
boat with a flat bottom used for transporting heavy loads on inland waterways.
Berlin Airlift
Bypass Soviet blockade to allied zones of Germany
John C Fremont
ommissioned by the Senate (especially Benton) to document and survey the west. His descriptions were to make the West look as nice as possible. His famous stories (e.g. Pathfinder) glorified the West and all the abundance of land and possible wealth
March on Washington
In August 1963, civil rights leaders organized a massive rally in Washington to urge passage of President Kennedy's civil rights bill. The high point came when MLK Jr., gave his "I Have a Dream" speech to more than 200,000 marchers in front of the Lincoln Memorial.
James K. Polk
"Dark Horse", Mexican War & Cession, 54-40 or fight
NW ordinance
Process by which the NW would be governed
George Dewey
was an admiral of the United States Navy. He is best known for his victory at the Battle of Manila Bay during the Spanish-American War.
18. China
18. Page 53 main eading talks about what Country's voyages and exploration?
Timothy McVeigh
US army veteran whois known as the Oklahoma City bomber killing 168 people
The Gilded Age
To coat with gold; coined by Mark Twain
Grant's Administration
He has few good people in his cabinet. and he will lead a lot of scandals. the two scandals he turns to is the credit mobilier and the whiskey ring.
he is a 2 term president and he won the election of 1872.
homestead act
gave free land in the west to those who settled and developed it
A) Confronted with starving Japanese
B) Patience prolonged Chinese deaths
Alternatives to Bombs (Problems to each)
Blockade:
Why were standard time zones created?
-railroad operators were worried about keeping schedules and avoiding wrecks since every town had its own local time
-created Nov 18 1883
What was the importance of Joseph Pulitzer?
Yellow journalist created Pulitzer prizes
Who was Alfred Thayer Mahan?
Wrote The Influence of Sea Power Among History (stong navy=strong nation)
Reasons why the colonies wanted direct representation
-Stamp Act seen by the colonies as:
-pinch their pocketbooks;
-taken away basic liberties;
-asked, why army is needed, the French were defeated;
-could real reason be to keep the colonies in line?
-Colonist cried "No taxation without representation"
-in truth, they didn't want direct representation:
-would been outvoted anyway,
-would not have an argument,
However the Seaport and Tidewater towns that were against the "Stamp Act" had denied full representation for their "backyard pioneers"
-the colonies also want Parliament to make distinction between Legislation and Taxation:
-could make rules, but not be able to tax; the colonies have to consent (another fact aiding the American Revolution),
-deny Parliament altogether;
-taxes levied by Parliament seen by the colonies as Robbery.
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