American History first semester exam Flashcards

Terms Definitions
14th Amendment
Women's Suffrage
Axis powers
Germany, Italy, Japan
slavery
main workforce on plantations
Corporation formed by seperate
companies
Loyalist
Person who supported the king
Who killed archduke Ferdinand?
Gavrillo Princep
populism
the political doctrine that supports the rights and powers of the common people in their struggle with the privileged elite
Election of 1932
Herbert Hoover/republican ("prosperity around the corner") vs. Franklin D. Roosevelt/democrat (3 R's- "relief, recovery, reform)= Roosevelt
Prohibition
18th Amendment; banned the making, using and selling of alcohol; brought about organized crim, racketeering, and gangsters; bootleggers and speakeasies
started the Montgomery bus Boycott
Rosa Parks
referendum
voters can vote on a bill
As Germany weakened, the _____________ sought the unconditional surrender of Germany.
Allies
Muckrakers
Journalists who attempted to find corruption or wrongdoing in industries and expose it to the public
Monopoly
exclusive control or possession of something
trusts
Firms or corporations that combine for the purpose of reducing competition and controlling prices (establishing a monopoly). There are anti-trust laws to prevent these monopolies.
John Wilkes Booth
the assassin of Abraham Lincoln
Progressives
reformers who worked to stop unfair practices by businesses and improve the way grovernment works
Mercantilism
Economic system England imposed on the colonies
17th Amendment
direct election of Senators; the people get to elect their Senators
how were women politically active in the 1800's?
?
16th Amendment
income tax to increase government revenue
What Started WWI?
assassination of Arch-duke Franz Ferdinand
The German government promised that their ________________________ would warn ships before attacking.
U Boats
Radical Republicans
Political party that favored harsh punishment of Southern states after civil war
Fourteen Points
wilson's plan for world peace following world war I
John D. Rockefeller made his millions in
oil
14 points
Woodrow Wilson's peace plan, set out before war ended, helped bring it to and end because it helped Germans look forward to peace and be willing to surrender, was easy on the germans punishment for war. Points included: poeple all over the world are to determine their own fate, (self-determination)no colonial powers grabbing nations, free trade, no secret pacts, freedom of the seas, arms reduction, creation of world orginization/League of Nations.
Bull-Moose Party
Progressive party that was named after Roosevelt's boast that he was "as strong as a bull moose".
harlem Renaissance
a period in the 1920s when African-American achievements in art and music and literature flourished
Quartering Act
Required the colonists to provide room and board for British soldiers living in the colonies
Eliminate the consumption of alcohol
Temperance socioties worked to
Civil Rights Act 1964
Outlawed Discrimination based on gender, race, ethnicity, religion, or national origin
Shay's Rebellion
farmers protested over high taxes and headed to Springfield to an arsenal, a militia sent out by the state stopped it and killed 4 farmers
Monroe Doctrine
US foreign policy that declared the western hemisphere off limits to Europe
Square Deal
TR's domestic program aimed at helping the middle class, protected businesses from extreme demands of organized labor attacked the wealthy
The 1920s was a major decade of ________________.
Growth
National Grange
the first farmers organization was a network of local organizations which offered farmers education, fellowship & support
Texas Longhorn
Hardy breed of cattle raised by ranchers throughout western Texas.
In the late 1800s collective bargaining was a technique used to
win worker's rights
Common citzens have the most civic participation under which type of government?
Repersenitive Democracy
Gifford Pinchot
head of the US Forest Service under President Roosevelt - believed that the wilderness areas could be scientifically managed to yield public enjoyment while allowing private development
The New Deal
FDR's strategy to end the depression by trying many different employment projects to put out-of-work americans to work in government organized groups
Boston Tea Party
Members of the Sons of Liberty disguise themselves and dump 342 chests of tea off the tea ships into the Boston Harbor
Unrest among Massachusetts farmers over taxes
Shay's rebellion grew out of
Montgomery boycott was a protest on....
... segregation on buses
time zones
made by railroads who wanted to keep schedule across the U.S., Dowd
Who was Allen Pinkerton?
Had agents ( private investigators) who started riots and strikes
The new morals and manners of the 20s were reflected in women's ___________.
Fashions
Civil Rights Act
This secured the rights of freedmen., it gave citizenship to African- Americans
John Pershing
US general who chased Villa over 300 miles into Mexico but didn't capture him
To regain the power people had lost to the interests, progressives advocated all except
socialism
immigration quotas
The US put a quota on how many immigrants were allowed into the country over a certain period of time. This was so that the balance between immigrants and natives was at a constant level. The quota system was abolished in 1965 through the Immigration and nationality act of 1965.
Freedman's Bureau
a federal agency set up to help former slaves after the Civil War
confederate attack on Fort Sumter
The civil war began with the
william "big bill" haywood
part of the IWW(industrial workers of the world), wobbly, communist
Admiral Alfred Thayer Mahan
Published "The Influence of Sea Power upon History"
Tenure of Office Act
required the Senate to approve the removal of any gov't official, including Staton, whose appointment had required the Senate's consent.
The Kellogg-briand pact
outlawed war as a solution to rivalry and conflict
What is global interdependance?
Countries need to rely on other nations for many of their goods/supplies
An increase in birth rate
The great increase in the United States population during the period before 1830 was mostly a result of
What was the Panama Canal?
linked the Atlantic and the Pacific Oceans
the us declared war on germany when
u boats sank us boats
using federal troops to control the workers
the government responded to the Pullman strike by
Spanish in New World
came to the new world for riches not like the English who wanted colonies
The white south viewed the Freedmen's Bureau as:
a meddlesome federal agency that threatened to upset white racial dominance
Andrew Carnegie gained control of a large percentage of the steel industry by doing all of the following except...
Cutting the quality of his products
slaves could move up in socioty and out of slavery
Slavery in Africa differed from slavery as it developed in the americas in that
What was an underlying cause of WWI?
The web of alliances European nations created for their defense.
The new immigrants who came to the US after 1880
were culturally different from previous immigrants
they did not trust them
by the end of the 1800s how did most americans view industrialists?
The immediate crisis that prompted the announcement of the Truman Doctrine was:
related to the threat of a communist takeover in Greece and Turkey
All of the following stimulated U.S. imprerialism except...
a need for a new source of cheap labor
Armistice
A temporary peace, halt in fighting.
Andrew Carnegie
United States industrialist and philanthropist who endowed education and public libraries and research trusts (1835-1919)
britian's greatest rival in North America was
france
Alvin York
WWI American Hero, killed 25 machine-gunners and captured 132 German soldiers when his soldiers took cover; won Congressional Medal of Freedom
Vittorio Orlando
Prime minister of Italy, in WWI.
William Randolph Hearst
United States newspaper publisher whose introduction of large headlines and sensational reporting changed American journalism (1863-1951)
Florence Kelly
helped persuade to prohibit child labor and limit number of hours women were forced to work, founded national child labor committe
Harriet Tubman
United States abolitionist born a slave on a plantation in Maryland and became a famous conductor on the Underground Railroad leading other slaves to freedom in the North (1820-1913)
these people are of mixed spanish indian ancestry
mestizo
the _____ people struck Jamestown in 1622 and killed more than 340 colonists
powhatan
the colony of james town prospered because there was a high demand for
tobacco
the ___ were the first native americans with whom christopher Columbus came into contact with
Taino
Susan B. Anthony
social reformer who campaigned for womens rights, the temperance, and was an abolitionist, helped form the National Woman Suffrage Assosiation
Woodrow Wilson
28th president of the United States, known for World War I leadership, created Federal Reserve, Federal Trade Commission, Clayton Antitrust Act, progressive income tax, lower tariffs, women's suffrage (reluctantly), Treaty of Versailles, sought 14 points post-war plan, League of Nations (but failed to win U.S. ratification), won Nobel Peace Prize
Conscientious Objector
Person who refuses to enter the military or bear arms due to moral or religious reasons.
The war might have involved only the nations of Austria-Hungary and Serbia if it were not for the?
Alliences.
Louis Sullivan
United States architect known for his steel framed skyscrapers and for coining the phrase 'form follows function' (1856-1924)
What was responsible for ending the era of wide-open western frontier?
The railroads.
Who founded settlement houses?
Charles Stover and Stanton Coit
George Eastman
United States inventor of a dry-plate process of developing photographic film and of flexible film (his firm introduced roll film) and of the box camera and of a process for color photography (1854-1932)
_______ was the leader of the Aztecs at the time of the spanish conquest in the early 1500's
Montezuma
What was the name of the main processing station in San Franscisco?
Angel Island
Ida B. Wells
the lynching of blacks outraged her, an african american journalist. in her newspaper, free speech, wells urged african americans to protest the lynchings. she called for a boycott of segregated street cars and white owned stores. she spoke out despite threats to her life.
What place in New York was clacified as a political machine?
Tammany Hall
these two cultures built huge mounds, some of which took the form of effigies- the representation of animals- that can only bye seen clearly from aerial view
adena and mississippian
He named the territory alond the eastern shores of North America Virginia in honor of Queen Elizabeth- the virgin queen
sir walter raleigh
Who were the exodusters?
African Americans who moved from the post-reconstruction south to Kansas.
Who said these words, "you furnish the pictures and I'll furnish the war."
William Randolph Hearst
What promoted U.S. imperialism?
Global competion / desire for lilitary strength / Thirst for new markets.
he was noted for having pronounce the dictum that "he that will not work shall not eat"
Captain John Smith
it can be said that the _________ played a vital role in helping the spanish to conquer the inhabitants of the New world
spread of disease
What does the term "Americanization" mean?
To assimilate people of wide-ranging cultures into the dominate culture.
The Treaty of Versailles
A peace treaty signed at Versailles at the end of WW1 that involved 32 countries including Canada.
Nathaniel Bacon led a rebellion of
fronteir farmers against the virginia government
Which is the best word to describe Lincoln's original plan for the Reconstruction?
A lenient Reconstruction policy, Lincoln announced his Proclamation of Amnesty and reconstruction. The government all Confederates-except high ranking officials
What was a requirement of the Pendleton Civil Service Acts?
That federal jobs got appointed through a merit system, based on a candidates performance on an examination.
the present day sates of __________ make up the four corners of the southwest
Utah, colorodo, New mexico and arizona
What action earned Theodore Roosevelt the 1906 Nobel Peace Prize?
For helping end the Russo-Japan war by arranging the Treaty of Portsmouth.
What was an important effect of the Emancipation Proclamation?
The Emancipation Proclamation did not free slaves immediately, though it gave the war a moral propose. It turned the struggle into a fight to free slaves.
the ruler of the _____ was______
dominion of new england and sir edmund andros
As a result of militarism, after WWI, Germany's punishment's was?
Germany had to take responsibility for WWI.
measures known as the _____ we passed to _________
navigation acts and tighten control of colonial trade
One of the most compelling why the United States entered the war was?
The Zimmerman note, and the sinking of United States boats.
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