Global Regents Review - Egan Flashcards

Terms Definitions
liberalism
enligtened despot
absolutism
Peninsulares
Spanish Born
montesquieu
seperating powers
dividing powers
revolution
Quick and dramatic change
balance of power
international ralations
napoleonic code
french civil code
propaganda
information, ideas, or rumors deliberately spread widely to help or harm a person, group, movement, institution, nation, etc.
vladimir lenin
(1870-1924) Russian revolutionary leader and political theorist. He was the first leader of the new communist government of Soviet Russia. Later, he was also the first leader of the Soviet Union, which was composed of most of the republics of the former Russian Empire.
Adam Smith
(1723-1790) British philosopher, writer, and economist. His book, The Wealth of Nations, describes his theory on free trade, otherwise known as laissez-faire economics.
natural rights
life, liberty, and property.
Realpolitik
political realism or practical politics, esp. policy based on power rather than on ideals.
kaiser
Family Foundation website provides in-depth information on key health policy issues including Medicaid, Medicare, prescription drugs
creoles
Spanish born in latin america.
capital
Money that is used for investment
Deng Xiaoping
(1904-1997) Chinese Communist leader. Ruled from 1978 until 1997.
NATO
North Atlantic Treaty Organization, an international defense alliance between the United States, Great Britain, and others formed in 1949 as a response to the spread of communism.
facism
Fascism is an authoritarian political ideology (generally tied to a mass movement) that considers the individual subordinate to the interests of the state, party or society as a whole. Fascists seek to forge a type of national unity, usually based on (but not limited to) ethnic, cultural, racial...
sepoy mutney
harshly crushed by the british
The enligtenmant
an intellectual movement. enligtenment thinkers tried to apply reason and the scientific method to laws that shaped human actions
John Locke
1886–1954, U.S. educator and author
voltaire
fought for the tolerrance, reason, religious belief and freedom of speech
causes of french revolution
denial rights
economic depts
enlightment ideas
impact of the american and english revolution
Boers
 Dutch descended colonist living in South Africa. Also called Afrikaners
Ayatollah Khomeini
(1900?-1989) Islamic religious leader who led a fundamentalist revolution in Iran in 1979. Ruled until 1989.
D-Day
Participants describe the planning and execution of the Normandy invasion during World War II, and the battle for the French beaches.
Baron de Montesquieu
(1689-1755) Enlightenment thinker from France who wrote a book called, The Spirit of the Laws in 1748. In his book, Montesquieu describes what he considers to be the best government. He states that government should divide itself according to its powers, creating a Judicial, Legislative, and Executive branch. Montesquieu explained that under this system each branch would Check and Balance the others, which would help protect the people's liberty.
nationalism
Pride in one’s country or culture, often excessive in nature.
mailitarism
Political policy that is dominated by the military and the competitive buildup of arms.
estates general
 The legislative body of France. Composed of representatives from the three estates which are Clergy in the First Estate, Nobles in the Second Estate, and peasants in the Third Estate. Each Estate is entitled to one vote on legislative matters. The Estates General was never as strong as the British Parliament of the American Congress
blitzkrieg
German word meaning lightning war. It was a German army tactic during World War II which called for quick moving, hard hitting drives into enemy territory.
Bolsheviks
Early name of communists during the Russian Revolution of 1917.
third reich
Germany during the Nazi regime 1933–45.
mein kampf
the autobiography (1925–27) of Adolf Hitler, setting forth his political philosophy and his plan for German conquest
Vietcong
The name of the Vietnamese communist who fought against South Vietnam and the United States during the Vietnam War.
estates
Class system in France before the French Revolution. There were three Estates, First Estate was Clergy, Second was Nobility, and Third was peasants, merchants, and townspeople.
joseph stalin
Permanently scarred from a childhood bout with smallpox and having a mildly deformed arm, Stalin always felt unfairly treated by life, and thus developed a strong, romanticized desire for greatness ...
dictatorship
Nazi Germany under the leadership of Hitler soon became a dictatorship. A dictatorship requires one person and one party to be in control of a nation and a climate of fear - this was provided by ...
laissez faire
capitalism was the economic system before the Progressive Era [2] and the Keynesian revolution. [3] It is generally understood to be a ...en.wikipedia.org
toussaint de l'oouverture
located in haiti
100,000 revoly
1st black colony to be independent
Guiseppe Mazzini
was an Italian patriot, philosopher and politician. His efforts helped bring about the modern Italian state in place of the several separate states, many dominated by foreign powers
perestroika
 A policy of Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev to revitalize the Soviet economy by opening it up to more free enterprise.
Appeasement
 
The policy of pacifying an aggressive nation in the hopes of avoiding further conflict.
Emilio Aguinaldo
Emilio Aguinaldo headed the Philippine revolutionary government that, in May and June 1898, defeated Spanish forces in Manila and other parts of Luzon and the Visayas. On June 12, 1898, he proclaimed Independence from the window of his house in Cavite El Viejo town (now Kawit), south of Manila.
Giuseppe Garibaldi
an Italian military and political leader.
Imperialism
The complete control of a weaker nation’s social, economic, and political life by a stronger nation.
bourgeoisie
Term given to the middle class people in society.
proletariat
the class of wage earners, esp. those who earn their living by manual labor or who are dependent for support on daily or casual employment; the working class.
louis xvl
1754-1793) King of France between 1774 and 1792. He was overthrown during the French Revolution and later beheaded.
central powers
(in World War I) Germany and Austria-Hungary, often with their allies Turkey and Bulgaria, as opposed to the Allies.
Opium War
In the early 19th century, Great Britain began importing opium, processed from poppy plants grown in the Crown Colony of India, into China. Chinese officials attempted to ban the importation of the highly addictive opium, but ultimately failed. The British declared war on China in a series of conflicts called the Opium Wars. Superior British military technology allowed them to claim victory and subject the Chinese to a series of unequal treaties.
Leonid Brezhnev
(1906-1982) Leader of the Soviet Union from 1964 to 1982. During his control of the Soviet Union, relations with the West, as well as the Soviet economy, experienced a long period of stagnation.
Roosevelt Corollary
A political policy of the United States by President Theodore Roosevelt that states only the United States could intervene in the affairs of South America.
intifada
a revolt begun in December 1987 by Palestinian Arabs to protest Israel's occupation of the West Bank and Gaza Strip.
38th Parallel
Line of latitude which divided North and South Korea.
causes of the scientific revolution
Denial of rights
Economic Debt
Enligtenment ideas
impact of the french and english revolutions
toussant de L'Ouverture
located in haiti.
100.000 revoly
1st black colony to be independant
spheres of influence
A territorial area over which political or economic influence is wielded by one nation.
Socialism
A political system where the means of production are controlled by the workers and all things are shared evenly. Socialist policies provide for government funding of many basic needs such as food, shelter, and medical care.
The Great Depression
(1929-1939) The dramatic decline in the world’s economy due to the United State’s stock market crash of 1929, the overproduction of goods from World War I, and decline in the need for raw materials from non industrialized nations. Results in millions of people losing their jobs as banks and businesses closed around the world. Many people were reduced to homelessness, and had to rely on government sponsored soup kitchens to eat. World trade also declined as many countries imposed protective tariffs in an attempt to restore their economies.
Gestapo
was the official secret police of Nazi Germany
Iron Curtain
A term popularized by British Prime Minister Winston Churchill to describe the Soviet Union’s policy of isolation during the Cold War. The Iron Curtain isolated Eastern Europe from the rest of the world. Its most poignant symbol was the Berlin Wall.
Kulaks
were a class enemy of the poorer peasants
Balfour Declaration
A promise made by British Prime Minister Balfour to create a homeland for the Jewish people.
Passive Resistance
campaign of Mohandas Gandhi where many Indians protested the British tax on salt by marching to the sea to make their own salt.
Nikita Khrushchev
(1894-1971) Leader of the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964. Khrushchev was critical of Stalin’s policies and attempted to reverse some of them. He is responsible for placing nuclear missiles in Cuba which resulted in the Cuban Missile Crisis.
total war
a war in which every available weapon is used and the nation's full financial resources are devoted
reign of terror
A group of communist guerillas in Cambodia during the late 20th century, led by Pol Pot, that gained control of Cambodia after the withdrawal of American troops from the Vietnam War. The initiated a reign of terror, killing over a million people to remove all western influence from the country. This gross violation of human rights ended when Vietnam invaded and occupied the country in 1979. In the 1990s, the United Nations negotiated a peace settlement, and began the democratic process in Cambodia.
Triple Alliance
An alliance that was made up of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy during World War I.
unions
The act of uniting or the state of being united.
détente
A policy during the Cold War which was aimed at relaxing tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union. The policy calls for increase diplomatic and commercial activity.
weimar republic
It was partly because of fear of Bavarian instability that Preuss wrote into the Weimar Constitution the now famous Article 48, which gave the president of the republic the right to govern by decree...
fourteen points
were listed in a speech and delivered by the president
fredrich engels
November 28, 1820 – August 5, 1895) was a German social scientist
Cultural Diffusion
The spreads of goods and ideas between cultures
Benito Mussolini
  was an Italian politician who led the National Fascist Party and is credited with being one of the key figures in the creation of Fascism
Industrial Revolution
In the second half of the 19th century, it was the fundamental change in the way goods were produced through the use of machines, capital, and the centralization of work forces in factories. It completely altered the social, economic, and political structure of most of Europe, Japan, and the United States.
esates 1st 2nd 3rd
Class system in France before the French Revolution. There were three Estates, First Estate was Clergy, Second was Nobility, and Third was peasants, merchants, and townspeople.
White Man's Burden
 A poem by Rudyard Kipling written in 1899. It is also the name given to the idea that the culture of the native populations where European imperialism was occurring were inferior to western nations. Some interpreted Kipling’s poem to mean that it was the duty of imperializing nations to bring western culture and sensibility to the savage native populations that were encountered in far off lands.
pearl harbor
 was abed with a cold that early that Sunday afternoon, at the northside Chicago apartment where our family lived, when word spread via broadcast radio that the Japanese had attacked the great ...
causes of world war one
were complex and included many factors, including the conflicts and antagonisms of the four decades leading up to the war. The immediate origins of the war lay in the decisions taken by statesmen and generals during the July crisis of 1914
, the spark
Camillo di Cavour
was a leading figure in the movement toward Italian unification.
"white mans burden"
is a poem by the English poet Rudyard Kipling
. It was originally published in the popular
magazine
McClure's
in 1899, with the subtitle
The United States and the Philippine Islands
. "The White Man's Burden" was written in regard to the
U.S. conquest
utopians
belief
Rousseau
French painter
Causes of WWI
armistic
effective end of war
Geocentric Model
Earth centered universe
Horace Mann
American education reformer
junkers
1859–1935, German aircraft designer and builder.
Simon Bolivar
1783–1830, Venezuelan statesman: leader of revolt of South American colonies against Spanish rule.
corporation
an association of individuals, created by law or under authority of law, having a continuous existence independent of the existences of its members, and powers and liabilities distinct from those of its members.
gulags
 An association of merchants or craftspeople in medieval Europe, formed to make regulations and set standards for a particular trade or craft.
scientific method
Uses observation and experimentation to explain theories on the workings of the universe
limited monarchy
limiting of the kings power.
Thomas Hobbes
1588–1679, English philosopher and author
estate generals
 
made up of three estates
The Enlightment
an intellectual movement, enlightment thinkers tried to apply reason and scientific method to laws
that shaped human action
louis xvi
 (1754-1793) King of France between 1774 and 1792. He was overthrown during the French Revolution and later beheaded.
conservatism
the disposition to preserve or restore what is established and traditional and to limit change.
great purge
The widespread arrests and executions of over a million people by Josef Stalin between 1936 and 1938. Stalin was attempting to eliminate all opposition to his rule of the Soviet Union.
Allies
the powers of the Triple Entente (Great Britain, France, Russia), with the nations allied with them (Belgium, Serbia, Japan, Italy, etc., not including the United States), or, loosely, with all the nations (including the United States) allied or associated with them as opposed to the Central Powers.
Fascism
 A system of government that promotes extreme nationalism, repression, anticommunism, and is ruled by a dictator.
congress of vienna
in africa
an international conference that was called in order to remake Europe after the downfall of Napoleon
Natural rights
 
a political theory that individuals have basic rights given to them by nature or God that no individual or government can deny
league of nations
was an international organization
founded as a result of the
Treaty of Versailles
in 1919–1920. The League's goals included
disarmament
, preventing
war
through
collective security
, settling disputes between
countries
through
negotiation
,
diplomacy
and improving
capitalism
is an economic system in which property is owned by private persons and operated for profit [1] and where investments, distribution, income
Social contract
agreement between peple and their government
Anti-Semitism
The hatred of people of Jewish descent.
Militarism
 
Political policy that is dominated by the military and the competitive buildup of arms.
Causes of Fr. Revolution
Denial of rights,Economic Debt,Enlightenment ideas
mass production
the production or manufacture of goods in large quantities, esp. by machinery.
factories
a building or group of buildings with facilities for the manufacture of goods.
monroe doctrine
(1823) A political policy of the United States by President James Monroe that states the Western Hemisphere is closed to European interference
Khmer Rouge
A group of communist guerillas in Cambodia during the late 20th century, led by Pol Pot, that gained control of Cambodia after the withdrawal of American troops from the Vietnam War. The initiated a reign of terror, killing over a million people to remove all western influence from the country. This gross violation of human rights ended when Vietnam invaded and occupied the country in 1979. In the 1990s, the United Nations negotiated a peace settlement, and began the democratic process in Cambodia.
entrepreneur
a person who organizes and manages any enterprise, esp. a business, usually with considerable initiative and risk.
Four Modernizations
An economic and social program that called for limited privatization of agriculture and industry, encouraged foreign investment and foreign trade, and resulted in a boost for the Chinese economy. Unlike the Great Leap Forward, the Four Modernizations was an economic success.
final solution
the Nazi program of annihilating the Jews of Europe during the Third Reich.
urbanizaton
The movement of people to urban areas in search of work
Great Leap Forward
The economic program designed to increase farm and industrial output though the creation of communes. Communes are similar to Soviet collectives in that groups of people live and work together on government owned farms and in government owned industry
command economy
An economywhere supply and price are regulated by the government rather than market forces. Government planners decide which goods and services are...
The Enlightenment
a philosophical movement of the 18th century, characterized by belief in the power of human reason and by innovations in political, religious, and educational doctrine
archduke francis ferdinand
A Bosnian Serb, Gavrilo Princip, assassinated Archduke Francis Ferdinand of Austria and his wife Sofia in Sarajevo on June 28, 1914, setting off a chain of events that would culminate in a world war
factors of production
 are the resources employed to produce goods and services. Here the quantity of output is ...
Salt Treaty
the first series of Strategic Arms Limitation Talks, extended from November 1969 to May 1972. During that period the United States and the Soviet Union negotiated the first agreements to place limits and restraints on some of their central and most important armaments
Nuremberg Trials
War crime trials held in Nuremburg after World War II to try the surviving Nazis concerning the Holocaust, aggressive war making, mistreatment of prisoners among other things.
salons
an assembly of guests in such a room, esp. an assembly, common during the 17th and 18th centuries, consisting of the leaders in society, art, politics, etc.
Cuban Missile Crisis
(1961) Crises that developed as a result of Cuban dictator Fidel Castro’s decision to allow the Soviet Union to base nuclear missiles in Cuba. Upon discovery, the United States confronted the Soviet Union and demanded the missiles be removed. For nearly two weeks, nuclear war was imminent. Fortunately, diplomacy succeeded and crisis was averted.
Truman Doctrine
A policy if the Truman presidency that called for supporting any nation resisting communism.
Toussaint de L`Ouvertune
100,000 revolt, the first black colony to be independent
maximillion robespierre
born at arras and admitted avicate in 1781
meiji restoration
also known as the Meiji Ishin
,
Revolution
, or
Renewal
, was a chain of events that led to enormous changes in
Japan
's political and social structure. It occurred in the later half of the 19th century, a period that spans both the late
Edo period
Mikhail Gorbachev
(1931- ), leader of the Soviet Union from 1985 to 1991. His policies of Perestroika and Glasnost, which aimed at revitalizing the Soviet Union contributed to the downfall of communism.
Dictatorships
  A system of government in which a country is ruled by a single person with absolute power.
treaty of versalilles
Treaty ending World War I. It was extremely unfair to Germany, forcing them to accept all of the blame for the war. It is a major cause of World War II.
Scramble For Africa
Term given for the rapid invasion of Africa by the various European powers. This began imperialism in Africa.
otto von bismarck
was raised to the rank of Fürst (Prince) von Bismarck.
Treaty of Versailles(1919)
Treaty ending World War I. It was extremely unfair to Germany, forcing them to accept all of the blame for the war. It is a major cause of World War II.
Estates 1st, 2nd, 3rd
1st estate - clergy / church officials 2nd estate - titled nobility
3rd estate - poor workers and rural peasants
maximilien robespierre
was born at Arras, May 6, 1758. He was admitted avocat in 1781, and was elected to the Estates General in 1789 by
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