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Terms Definitions
bourgeoisie
communist manifesto
rousseau
human freedom
montesquieu
separating power
dividing power
causes of french revolution
Causes of Fr. Revolution
balance of powers
international relations
Voltaire
(1694-1778) French philosopher. He believed that freedom of speech was the best weapon against bad government. He also spoke out against the corruption of the French government, and the intolerance of the Catholic Church.
simon bolivar
(1783-1830) Latin American revolutionary responsible for the ousting of Spain from much of South America during the 19th century. He is considered to be the most important figure in the fight for Latin American independence.
d-day
Military. the day, usually unspecified, set for the beginning of a planned attack.
junkers
1859–1935, German aircraft designer and builder.
scientific method
systematic approch to science
Revolution
A quick and dramatic change.
Creoles
In colonial Latin America, American born Spanish gentry, They owned most of the land but were treated like second class citizens, and were denied political rights.
giuseppe mazzini
(1805-1872), Nationalistic leader in Italy, who started a group called Young Italy in 1831. Young Italy was a nationalistic movement that wanted to end foreign control of Italy.
Boers
Dutch descended colonist living in South Africa. Also called Afrikaners.
fredrich engels
was a German social scientist
Galileo Galilei
punished for publishing heliocentric model
italian scientists
Social Contract
the voluntary agreement among individuals by which, according to any of various theories, as of Hobbes, Locke, or Rousseau, organized society is brought into being and invested with the right to secure mutual protection and welfare or to regulate the relations among its members
Bourgeosise
division of social class in france
Liberalism
is a doctrine stressing individual freedom and limited government.
utopian
A zealous but impractical reformer of human society.
laissez-faire
This was an economic philosophy begun by Adam Smith in his book, Wealth of Nations, that stated that business and the economy would run best with no interference from the government. This economic system dominated most of the Industrial Revolution.
maximilien robspierre
He studied at College of Louis-le-Grand in Paris and became a lawyer. His supporters called him "The Incorruptible." He was an influential member of the Committee of Public Safety and was instrumental in the period of the Revolution commonly known as the Reign of Terror that ended with his arrest and execution in 1794.
Benito Mussolini
(1883-1945) Italian leader. He founded the Italian Fascist Party, and sided with Hitler and Germany in World War II. In 1945 he was overthrown and assassinated by the Italian Resistance.
geocentric model
Having the earth as a center
Boer War
(1899-1902) War between Great Britain and the Boers in South Africa over control of rich mining country. Great Britain won and created the Union of South Africa comprised of all the South African colonies.
appeasement
The policy of pacifying an aggressive nation in the hopes of avoiding further conflict.
Gestapo
the German state secret police during the Nazi regime, organized in 1933 and notorious for its brutal methods and operations.
salons
meetings for discussion for the three estates.
horace mann
 is the largest national multiline insurance company serving America's
concordat
 
was a reflection of an agreement between Napoleon Bonaparte
Agrarian revolution
Until the 1960s historians believed that there had been an 18th-century revolutionin agriculture, similar to the revolution that occurred in industry.
Utopians
Of, relating to, describing or having the characteristics of a Utopia: a Utopian island; Utopian novels.
concordat
was a reflection of an agreement between Napoleon Bonaparte
joseph stalin
Ruthless and ambitious, Joseph Stalin grabbed control of the Soviet Union after the death of V.I. Lenin in 1924. As a member of the Bolshevik party, Stalin (his adopted name meaning "Man of Steel") had an active role in Russia's October Revolution in 1917. He maneuvered...
Nazism
The ideology and practice of the Nazis, especially the policy of racist nationalism, national expansion, and state control.
Vladimir Lenin
leader of Communist experiment in USSR. Read about the man who made theory into reality.
Jiang Jieshi
(1887-1975) Leader of the Guomindang, or Nationalist Party in China. Fought to keep China from becoming communist, and to resist the Japanese during World War II. He lost control of China in 1949, and fled to Taiwan where he setup a rival government. Also known as Chang Kai Shek.
meiji restoration
The restoration of the Emperor Meiji to power in Japan, overthrowing the Tokugawa Shogunate in 1868.
camillo di cavour
(1810-61) Prime Minister of Sardinia, a large Italian State. He formed alliances with other foreign powers to help end Austria's and Spain's control. Instrumental in the unification of Italy
dictatorship
A system of government in which a country is ruled by a single person with absolute power.
Nuremburg Trials
War crime trials held in Nuremburg after World War II to try the surviving Nazis concerning the Holocaust, aggressive war making, mistreatment of prisoners among other things.
Sepoy Mutiny
(1857-1859) A revolt by the hired Hindu and Muslim soldiers of the British East India Company. It began as a result of the rifle cartridges that were distributed to the Sepoys had to be bitten to remove a cover before being inserted into a gun. Rumors circulated among the Sepoys that this cover had been greased with beef and pork fat. This angered Muslim Sepoys who were not supposed to consume pork, and the Hindu Sepoys who were not supposed to eat beef. Thus, the Sepoys revolted against the British army, which eventually ended the conflict through use of force. This resulted in the British government officially taking control of India, making it a colony.
enlightened despot
A monarch who retains absolute control of their country while also enacting reform based on Enlightenment ideas.
urbanization
is the physical growth of urban areas into rural or natural land as a result of population in-migration
social darwinism
a theory that competition among all individuals, groups, nations or ideas drives social evolution in human societies.
Factories
a building or group of buildings with facilities for the manufacture of goods.
kulaks
was a category of rich peasants in later Russian Empire, Soviet Russia and early Soviet Union. The word "kulak", originally referred to independent farmers in Russia who owned larger farms and us...
domestic system
was a popular system of cloth production in Europe. It was also used in various other industries, including the manufacture of wrought iron
adam smith
A great little primer on Adam Smith'sphilosophy and thinking for students of Smith or basic ecomomics
proletariat
Term given to the working class people in society.
Ho Chi Minh
(1890-1969) Vietnamese leader who is responsible for ousting first the French, then the United States from his country. Supported by both communist China and the Soviet Union, he guided Vietnam through decades long warfare to emerge as a communist nation.
Friedrich Engels
proposed communism with karl Marx in The Communist Manifesto.
Leonid Brezhnev
(1906-1982) Leader of the Soviet Union from 1964 to 1982. During his control of the Soviet Union, relations with the West, as well as the Soviet economy, experienced a long period of stagnation.
Four Modernizations
An economic and social program that called for limited privatization of agriculture and industry, encouraged foreign investment and foreign trade, and resulted in a boost for the Chinese economy. Unlike the Great Leap Forward, the Four Modernizations was an economic success.
Five Year Plan
 Stalin's economic policy to rebuild the Soviet economy after World War II. Included massive industrialization and farm collectivization, where peasants lived collectively on government owned farms, often resulted in widespread famine as many peasants resisted this policy.
triple alliance
An alliance that was made up of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy during World War I.
Battle of Britain
The massive air war against Great Britain by the Nazi war machine in Germany. Nearly nightly bombings occurred between summer of 1940 and summer of 1941 before German withdrew. Great Britain fought alone during this year and never gave up.
thomas hobbes
theory that states the people form a social contract with government where they give up all rights for protection from other citizens.
louis XVI
first came to the throne, he entrusted the management of the finances of the kingdom to Turgot
National Assembly
in some countries, the name of a legislature or the lower house of a bicameral legislature
agarian revolutin
Nov 16, 2007 ... The revolution was promptly followed by a barrage of agrarian reform ....
Detente
A policy during the Cold War which was aimed at relaxing tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union. The policy calls for increase diplomatic and commercial activity.
spheres of influence
An area of one country under the control of another. In China, these areas guaranteed specific trading privileges to each imperialist nation within its respective sphere.
causes of scientific revolution
During the Middle Ages people like Thomas Aquinas, while not stressing observation, emphasized logic, clarification and articulation of concepts, providing a basis for scientific thinking
karl marx
is best known not as a philosopher but as a revolutionary communist, whose works inspired the foundation of many communist
Toussaint de L'Ouverture
Although there is a large body of visual materials depicting the Haitian revolution, there are no existing portraits drawn from life of Toussaint L'Ouverture, the hero of the revolution. The first known representations of Toussaint were included in a book by British admirer Marcus Rainsford, who published An Historical Account of the Black Empire in Hayti in 1805.
Open door Policy
A policy of the United States that stated China should be open to all nations that which to trade with them. This policy did not include the consent of the Chinese, and was another form of imperialism.
Napoleon's impact on Europe
The history of Europe after 1815 is very interesting but very complex. You have studied the French Revolution and Napoleon in your French history class and now you will examine the most important developments in the political history of Europe prior to 1914 outside France.
Realpolitik
realistic politics
Estates General
the States-General
jose san martin
freed argentina
nationalism
pride in ones country
voltarie
(1694-1778) French philosopher. He believed that freedom of speech was the best weapon against bad government. He also spoke out against the corruption of the French government, and the intolerance of the Catholic Church.
imperialism
Imperialism is empire building. Expansion occurs when one state is more powerful than are the obstacles to expansion.
Causes of WW1
Archduke Ferdinand's Assassination
giuseppe garibaldi
 (1807-1882?) Military leader whose Red Shirt army liberated most of southern Italy, before conquering the northern section. He was instrumental in the unification of Italy.
emilio aguinaldo
1869–1964, Filipino leader during the Spanish-American war: opposed to U.S. occupation.
 Guiseppe Mazzini
(1805-1872), Nationalistic leader in Italy, who started a group called Young Italy in 1831. Young Italy was a nationalistic movement that wanted to end foreign control of Italy.
totalitarianism
An ideology where all social, economic, and political powers are centered in the government completely.
socialism
social organization that advocates the vesting of the ownership and control of the means of production and distribution, of capital, land, etc., in the community as a whole.
Isaac Newton
English philosopher and mathematician, formulator of the law of gravitation.
junkers
 
one of Germany's great aviation pioneers, entered the aviation world later in life than many other people did. Born in 1859, he was 56 when he
allies
are individuals, groups or nations that have joined together in an association for mutual benefit or to achieve some common or purpose. Allies spelled with a capital "A", usually denotes the countries who fought together against the Central Powers in World War I or those...
NATO
North Atlantic Treaty Organization, an international defense alliance between the United States, Great Britain, and others formed in 1949 as a response to the spread of communism.
enlightened despots
 A monarch who retains absolute control of their country while also enacting reform based on Enlightenment ideas.
command economy
An economic system controlled by strong, centralized government, which usually focuses on industrial goods. With little attention paid to agriculture and consumer goods.
anti-Semitism
The hatred of people of Jewish descent
domino theory
The idea that countries bordering communist countries were in more danger of falling to communism unless the United States and other western nations worked to prevent it.
the enlightenment
known as the age of reason.
jacobins
a political club during the french revolution
capitalism
an economic system in which property is owned by private persons and operated for profit [1] and where investments, distribution, income
causes of world war one
nationalism and militarism
peninsulares
higher offices in the government of the americans
Fascism
A system of government that promotes extreme nationalism, repression, anticommunism, and is ruled by a dictator.
De-colonization
refers to the undoing of colonialism, the establishment of governance or authority through the creation of settlements by another country
natural rights
Concept of John Locke’s that states all people have the right to life, liberty, and property.
roosevelt corollary
A political policy of the United States by President Theodore Roosevelt that states only the United States could intervene in the affairs of South America.
entrepreneur
a person who organizes and manages any enterprise, esp. a business, usually with considerable initiative and risk.
alliance system
The alliance system was started by Bismarck, the German Chancellor from 1871 to 1890. After the Franco-Prussian War, Bismarck held that Germany
Monroe Doctrine
(1823) A political policy of the United States by President James Monroe that states the Western Hemisphere is closed to European interference.
containment
A cold war policy that called for containing communism to areas already under its influence. This policy was proposed by U.S. President Harry Truman.
ngo dinh diem
Vietnamese political leader who became president of South Vietnam in 1954. He was assassinated in a military coup d'état.
Nikita Khrushchev
(1894-1971) Leader of the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964. Khrushchev was critical of Stalin’s policies and attempted to reverse some of them. He is responsible for placing nuclear missiles in Cuba which resulted in the Cuban Missile Crisis.
Boris Yeltsin
(1931- ) President of Russia. He was elected before the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991. He served until 1999. Yeltsin was instrumental in keeping a cout d’etat from occurring which would have returned hard line communists to power in Russia.
central powers
This is the story of the Austro-Hungarian KuK Navy's contribution to the Central Powers' considerable effort in the region.
triple entente
This was finally achieved in the Anglo-Russian entente of 1907. That agreement created the international group opposing the Triple Alliance—France, Great Britain, and Russia had formed the Triple ...
Miguel Hidalgo
was a Mexican Roman Catholic priest and revolutionary rebel leader
unions
is an organisation of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals in key areas such as wages, hours
Axis Powers
Alliance of Germany, Italy, and Japan during World War II.
weimar republic
used by historians to signify the democratic and republican period of Germany from 1919 to 1933.
Estates (1st,2nd,3rd)
Class system in France before the French Revolution. There were three Estates, First Estate was Clergy, Second was Nobility, and Third was peasants, merchants, and townspeople.
Opium War
In the early 19th century, Great Britain began importing opium, processed from poppy plants grown in the Crown Colony of India, into China. Chinese officials attempted to ban the importation of the highly addictive opium, but ultimately failed. The British declared war on China in a series of conflicts called the Opium Wars. Superior British military technology allowed them to claim victory and subject the Chinese to a series of unequal treaties.
cause of ww1
The First World War is historically important for its causes and effects more so than specific events surrounding actual battles.  This page will deal with the long-range and more immediate causes of World War I, the technological advances created during the war, some aspects of WWI battles, and the far-reaching effects of the conflict on Europe and the rest of the world. 
atomic bomb
a bomb whose potency is derived from nuclear fission of atoms of fissionable material with the consequent conversion of part of their mass into energy.
scientific Revolution
a new way of thinking about the natural world
boxer rebellion
Account of the assualt and relief of Peking with a breakdown of the forces involved
Boris Yeltsin
 (1931- ) President of Russia. He was elected before the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991. He served until 1999. Yeltsin was instrumental in keeping a cout d’etat from occurring which would have returned hard line communists to power in Russia.
pearl harbor
a harbor near Honolulu, on S Oahu, in Hawaii: surprise attack by Japan on the U.S. naval base and other military installations December 7, 1941.
treaty of versallies
The Treaty of Versailles was the peace settlement signed after World War One had ended in 1918 and in the shadow of the Russian Revolution and other events in Russia. The treaty was signed at the vast ...
Estates ( 1st, 2nd, 3rd )
the registration of births, marriages and deaths; they collected the tithe (in France, called the "dîme", usually 10%
Armistice
A truce during wartime
Nepoleonic Code
Code for Napoleon
Heliocentric center
Sun centered universe
Bolívar, Simón
(1783-1830) Latin American revolutionary responsible for the ousting of Spain from much of South America during the 19th century. He is considered to be the most important figure in the fight for Latin American independence.
Berlin Conference
(1884-1885) During European Imperialism, various European leaders met in Berlin, Germany to discuss plans for dividing Africa peacefully. These leaders had little regard for African independence, and had no representation for native Africans. This began the process of imperializing Africa.
matthew perry
(1794-1858) Commodore. United States Navy officer who is responsible for opening Japan to trade and imperialism.
john locke
(1632-1704) English philosopher and political theorist. He wrote Two Treaties on Government which explained that all men have Natural Rights, which are Life, Liberty, and Property, and that the purpose of government was to protect these rights.
Winston Churchill
(1874-1965) British politician and Prime Minster of Great Britain from 1940 to 1945, and 1951 to 1955. He is regarded as the finest British leader of the 20th century and was instrumental in leading Britain to victory during World War II.
Napolenonic Code
 established under Napoleopn I. It was drafted rapidly by a commission of four eminent jurists and entered into force on March 21, 1804
bolsheviks
Articles by Avrich, Rosenberg, Koenker and other social historians on the Bolsheviks and the degeneration of the Russian revolution.
Corporation
an association of individuals, created by law or under authority of law, having a continuous existence independent of the existences of its members, and powers and liabilities distinct from those of its members
great purge
( Russian
: Большая чистка,
transliterated
Bolshaya chistka
) refers collectively to several related campaigns of
political repression
and
persecution
in the
Soviet Union
orchestrated by
Joseph Stalin
during the
1930s
, which removed all of his remaining opposition
Otto von Bismarck
(1815-1898) Appointed Prussian chancellor in 1862. he began a program of war to unify all the German states under the control of Prussia. His policy was known as Blüt und Eisen or Blood and Iron. He was the most powerful statesman in Europe as chancellor of the new German Empire from 1871 to 1890. He was known as the Iron Chancellor.
Adolf Hitler
(1889-1945) Austrian-born leader of Germany. He co-founded the Nazi Party in Germany, and gained control of the country as chancellor in 1933. Hitler started World War II with the invasion of Poland. He was responsible for the Holocaust.
capitalism
 
an economic system in which investment in and ownership of the means of production, distribution, and exchange of wealth is made and maintained chiefly by private individuals or corporations, esp. as contrasted to cooperatively or state-owned means of wealth.
partition
a division into or distribution in portions or shares.
Leauge of Nations
A multinational peace keeping organization which began as an idea of United States President Woodrow Wilson following the first World War. The Treaty of Versailles created a League with over 40 different countries joining. The United States was not one of them. The League of Nations was to be an international body that would settle future problems through negotiations instead of warfare. The member nations were to work cooperatively through economic and military means to enforce its decisions. However, since the United States did not join, the League never achieved its intentions. While the League did attempt to halt the aggressiveness of Hitler's Germany, their inherent weakness prevented them from stopping World War II.
Archduke Francis Ferdinand
(1863-1914) Archduke of Austria, nephew to the Emperor. He was assainated by Gavrilo Princip in Sarajevo, Bosnia in 1914. This resulted in the start of World War I.
Mao Zedong
(1893-1976) Leader of the Communist Party in China that overthrew Jiang Jieshi and the Nationalists. Established China as the People’s Republic of China and ruled from 1949 until 1976.
league of nations
League of Nations, former international organization, established by the peace treaties that ended World War I. ... League of Nations: Bibliography - Bibliography
causes of french revolutions
denial of rights
ecomomic debt
enligtenment ideas
impact of american and english revolution
conservatism
the disposition to preserve or restore what is established and traditional and to limit change.
pennisulares
higher offices in the goverment of americas
Cultural Diffusion
The spread of ideas throughout different countries during trade and war.
Congress of Vienna
 Meeting of European political leaders to reestablish former territorial borders after the end of the Napoleonic Wars and the fall of Napoleon. The Congress was held in Vienna from September 1814 to June 1815, and was dominated by Prince Metternich of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
mass producton
The manufacturing of products on a large scale, usually through the use of machines.
passive resistance
opposition to a government or to specific governmental laws by the use of noncooperation and other nonviolent methods, as economic boycotts and protest marches
Fourteen Points
An address given to the United States’ Congress by President Woodrow Wilson concerning the end of World War I and the treatment of all concerned with the war. The speech outlines the League of Nations and the ideas of self determination for different ethnic groups.
militarisim
belief of desire that a country should have a stronge military
Balance of Power
a distribution and opposition of forces among nations such that no single nation is strong enough to assert its will or dominate all the others
opium war
 
also known as the Anglo-Chinese Wars
, lasted from 1839 to 1842 and 1856 to 1860 respectively, the climax of a trade dispute between
China
and the
United Kingdom
. British smuggling
..
Yasir Arafat
(1929- ) President of the Palestine National Authority and Chairman of the Palestinian Liberation Organization. Considered by many to be a terrorist, he has in recent years been accepted as the legitimate authority to speak for the Palestinians. His goals is to create a homeland for the displaced Palestinians.
Heliocentric Model
Theory of the universe that states the sun is the center, and that the earth revolves around it.
limited monarchy
(1689) A Bill of Rights written after the Glorious Revolution of 1688 which placed William and Mary on the throne of England. The bill created a limited monarchy and established Parliament as the ruling body of the nation.
genocide
The killing of all the people from a ethnic group, religious group, or people from a specific nation.
gulags
A network of forced labor camps in the former Soviet Union.
boar war
a war in which Great Britain fought against the Transvaal and Orange Free State, 1899–1902.
treaty of versailles
was a peace treaty
that officially ended
World War I
between the
Allied and Associated Powers
and
Germany
. It was signed on
june 28
1919
, exactly 5 years after the
assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand
, one of the events that triggered the start
Truman Doctrine
A policy if the Truman presidency that called for supporting any nation resisting communism.
"Master Race"
is a concept in Nazi ideology, which holds that the Germanic and Nordic people
white mans burden
A poem by Rudyard Kipling written in 1899. It is also the name given to the idea that the culture of the native populations where European imperialism was occurring were inferior to western nations. Some interpreted Kipling’s poem to mean that it was the duty of imperializing nations to bring western culture and sensibility to the savage native populations that were encountered in far off lands.
battle of britian
Battle of Britain is the name given to the strategic effort by the Luftwaffe during the Second World War to gain air superiority over Fighter Command. The name derives from an 18 June 1940 speech in the House of Commons by Prime Minister Winston Churchill, "The Battle...
reign of terror
After the death of Louis XVI in 1793, the reign of terror began
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