global Studies Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Christianity exercises an overwhelming global appeal which shows no sign of weakening.
T
Christianity became the world’s first universal religion
T
Protestants battled Catholics for mission supremacy starting in the 1500s
F
Strangely, the independent churches are experiencing little growth
F
Catholicism’s deepest roots in Latin America were the result of wise and persistent missionary policy
F
Ideology
(religion). subcomponent of culture. ex: ideas, beliefs, values, world views, political philosophies, ethical systems, etc. often beneath level of conscious thought. used to justify, rationalize, and legitimate practices. normalize things (which is why they are often subconscious. chaos (9/11) usually influences amount of person's religion.
The United States has significantly more children per woman and higher marriage rates than Europe
T
The world’s poor have largely missed out on the modern economic boom
F
1. People and countries with similar cultures are coming together and those with different cultures are coming together
t
Globalization is making the rich richer and the poor poorer
F
An economic alliance is essentially the same thing as a military alliance
F
Religion is the central defining characteristic of a civilization
T
For people seeking identity and reinventing ethnicity, enemies are essential
T
If Russia became Western then Orthodox civilizations would cease to exist
T
The “bamboo network” is another term for the Chinese secret police
F
Liberal Democracy
political pluralism, equality before the law, the right to petition, due process, civil liberties, human rights. outside government. are these present in iraq? whole point of invasion was democracy- more than voting. act of voting vs. what voting is for. toting individual rights, government's responsibility to each person.
Variants of imperialism
1. neo-imperialism: independent country suffers domination from foreign government which lacked colonial relationship with it (US in latin america, russia in eastern europe). 2. cultural imperialism: use of political/economic power to spread values of foreign culture at expense of native culture (american democracy in iraq)
Enlightenment Aspirations
1. overcome ignorance, intolerance, parochialism. 2. creation of new cosmopolitanism, ethic of worldliness. 3. construction of new kind of "worldly" self: the intellectual (experience-> ideas). which of these goals are still present today? how many shape lives around experience, progress, reason?
The acceptance of Western pop culture is a strong indication that globalization will be triumphant
F
Christianity has been in china as long as it has been in England
T
The one positive thing about foreign aid is that it produces more democatic govts
F
Govt intervention is the only force that can really make a difference in reducing poverty
F
Asia will be especially powerful in the future bc it is composed of one, large civilization
F
17. The absence of an Islamic core state is a major contributor to the pervasive internal and external conflicts which characterize Islam
T
The separation of church and state that typifies the West has existed in no other civilization
T
a “cleft” country is one where large groups belong to different civilizations
T
Christianity was wiped out in Arab countries by the ninth century A. D.
F
The Ethiopian church is distinctive bc of its hostility toward Judaism
F
Missionary activity has a very poor image in Western popular thought
F
Globalization is a story of human progress and promise
T
Over 90% of Africans Christians are in traditional, European denominations
T
Anglicans in the British Isles are massively outnumbered by Anglicans overseas
T
Competing Historiographies of Globalization
1. Postmodernist: technologies compress time and space. 1945. 2. Modernist: industrial capitalism. 1850's. 3. early modernist: formation of world capitalism system. 1500's. 4. ancient view (CLASS TAKES THIS VIEW). formation of African-Eurasian zone. 2000+ BCE.
Political Freedom Origins
1. India's Buddhist Sangha: alternative to hobbes Leviathan, political theory applied within religion. 2. Middle Eastern Sunni Islam: democratically chosen leaders, not based on legacy or blood. 3. real issue: not whether "democracy" and "freedom" championed before enlightenment but whether components of these ideas were operative. 4. recognition of cultural diversity!!!
G-Factors: Ecology
todays marmot was yesterday's rat. mongol troops provided means for flea-infested rats to cross the mediterranean. europe was free of bubonic plague until mongols brought rats/marmots and infected again. plague still exists in Mongolia.
During the years after the Cold War global politics began to be reconfigured along cultural lines
T
The west became dominant because of its superior ideas
F- tchnolgy
Turkey has the potential to take over as the Islamic core state
T
One of the great threats to the development world is an aging population
T
One key ingredient in making aid work is feedback
T
The source of much of the worlds misery is not globalization but poverty
T
Ppl who are in churches that forbid birth control are more likely to have large families
F
Africa is poor bcuz of disease and gerographical disadvantages
T
A Western democrat could carry on an intellectual debate with a Russian, Orthodox nationalist, but not a Marxist
F
Mercantilist to Entrenpreneurial Capitalism
1500-1875, exploitation of colonial natural resources. initial control of supplier and consumer markets largely influenced by governments. lots of state sponsored/chartered companies (dutch east india company, hudson bay). finance house investments.
International to Multinational Capitalism (1875-1970s)
rapid expansion of resource-based, market-seeking investments (BANKS & cliques of banks after WWI.) US domination of transnational development (US is richest country). expands as transnational power and TNC (transnational corporations)- coca cola, etc. originally didn't pay taxes.
Contemporary Interconnected Processes
1. Ecological: diseases spread over world (West Nile Virus). 2. Demographic: changes (chinese-> singapore, vietnamese to la, US demographics' "global braindrain"- only taking doctors, highly trained)3. Economic: transfer of dollar (60% owned outside US) 4. Military. 5. Criminal (illegal drugs- $4 billion, one of largest consumer bases in world, arms- $8 bil enterprise.) human traffiking has largest net profit, owning humans is cheaper than ever. example of transnational processes. 6. Ideological: Buddhism in Eurasia. 7. Role of Historical: witnessing all of the above's interconnections. shows GLOBAL AFFECTS AND EFFECTS through narratives.
What is Democracy?
Form of government and political philosophy. no agreed definition (attempts to make one is restricted from all sides). Liberal vs. Direct democracies- which came first? Direct (athens, greece 5th centure BCE. see slide!
Re-examining Eurasian Narratives: The Enlightenment Project
Definition: illuminate darkness, question authority along two poles: positively (to assimilate 17th century heritage, add to it), negatively (to attack christian orthodoxy/nonsense). trying to liberate criticism, marked europe's departure from roman catholocism. jump started technological revolution. sources, philosophes: mostly french, english, stormed metaphysics, popularized enlightenment.
Whose "imagined community" is it?
non-european nationalist imaginary. figure out who you are by figuring out who you are OPPOSED to. for many formerly colonized people, national identity equals Western conceit and form of imperialism. under organized homogenization, boundaries set by westerners (ex. afghanistan, taliban, nigeria. huge problems from grouping different people, groups, languages, religions together)
Giles Gunn, “Introduction”
Global Studies analyzes the growing interconnectedness of the world, while taking into account the perspective from which it is being analyzed as well as the categorization that has shaped it up to this point. Different perspectives include “hyperglobalists”, who believe that most human interaction revolves around the global marketplace, “transformationalists”, who say that global change is not just economic and nation-states are losing power, and “skeptics”, who believe that blocs of tradition and civilizations will come into conflict, and that first world countries are dominating third world countries. This reading also covers six issues with past analyses of the world: the separation of humanities and social sciences, thinking that things like traditions, periods, genres, etc. are stable ideas and ignoring the “butterfly effect”, seeing things such as cultures, identities, etc. as homogenous and easily discriminable, categorizing history by centuries or blocks of time, not acknowledging “place” as elastic, and finally not seeing the large role that imagination plays in social construction. This section has myriad parallels with Held’s own “Introduction”.
For the 400 years between 1500 and 900 intercivilizational consisted of subordination to the West
T
Conflicts between poor and rich countries will increase dramatically in the next few decades
F-poor countrys cant fight
The West is now close to becoming the universal civilization of the world
F
Historical Snapshot of Mongols
13th century: small country created the largest regional empire the world has ever seen
Scientific to Technological Evolution
technology is a scientific method. Early important contributions: mesopotamians, greeks (irrigation, pressing grapes for wine, chinese (gunpowder, paper), arabs, indians, eurasians (printing press)
Global Institution of Slavery
origins in every organized society (not demonizing eurasians- buddhists indifferent about it). not an invented, but evolved practice (developed over long period of time). slavery crucial aspect of recreating americas. legal aspect: slave is "extention of master's legal self", commodity for exchange.
Democratic Revolution: Japan 1889-1925
70 years after latin american. precursor: tokugawa isolation 1600-1853, had been for 250 years, ruled by lords using mercenaries to retain power. 1867- meiji restoration precipitated by arrival of Perry's "black ships" 1853. smaller lords and samurai revolt and restore emperor. restoration moves japan from feudal to modern nation in one generation. distinctive japanese social hierarchy that allows minority of enlightened leaders to modernize. shows turning fragmented parts/clans warring against each other to create one big empire. --> what provoked japanese out of isolation??? matthew perry's black ships!!! - shot at docks, forcing them to reckon with outside technologies, had to adapt to survive. had to sign free trade agreement.
Precursors of Early World Trade
1400 BCE: Egyptians;500 BCE Phoenicians; 300 BCE Greeks and Alexander; 110 BCE Shang Qian; 100 BCE Roman Empire. Mediterranean explored 2000 years before Eurasia. examine direction/developments of this region of the world.
Early Empires: Han
Began: 3rd c. BCE. River: Yangzi "Yellow River" bodyline between N an S China. Technology: Steelwork, census, seismograph, hydraulics. Language: Hanyu. controlled over 55 million people. writing existed before this. Hanyu: basis for Mandarin. Religion: Mandate of Heaven, Kung Fu Tzu, Lao Tzu, Buddhism/Daoism present in life and state.
Early Empires: Mayan
Began: 18th c. BCE. River: Unumacinta in Guatemala. 7th largest in world. Technology: the 'zero' (eurasian didn't find until centuries later), the telescope. Language: only known American writing system prior to Colombus. exceeded population capacity of area, so expanded and interacted. only known writing system pre-columbus.
Democratic Revolution in the Caribbean/Haiti
descendants of enslaved africans: Toussaint L'Ouverture leads revolt (1793). shares land w/ dom. republic. rebelled for natural rights following US, french. 250 years of slave revolts earlier. asked french to do good of promise: if all men created equal, us too. 1796 Toussaint Lt. Gov.; by 1801 constitution. made constitution pertain to them. Toussaint welcomes napoleon's french in 1802, they bring over disease, toussaint believed Haiti's econ future was tied to french, but was betrayed, imprisoned, and died by French. @ same time french withdrew, haiti received independence.
Stanley Fish, Liberalism
Muslims and Liberalists both retain a moral dimension that is exercised weakly and strongly. liberals: holding beliefs weakly, religion: holding beliefs strongly. but NOT mutually exclusive. can be a liberal muslim.
Selective Principles of History
1. conceptualization (up to 50 yrs ago, half of human race(women) ignored in history, exclusion) 2. causation:what is pushing history forward? greed? sex? 3. periodization: how is history organized? year 2007, 2552 thai calendar. 4. impacts: intended/unintended consequences? in terms of econ, enviro,etc. 5. trajectories: where are we going? influences on how historians write.
Simon Bolivar
one of two leaders who united a huge land mass.
Joseph Conrad on Imperialism
the "idea at the back" of imperialization is only a rationalization. the idea is unselfish to make its worshipper look good, seem admirable. imperialism is designed to flatter the imperialist.
Adam Smith's Wealth of Nations
individuals are "free agents", acting in own self-interest. will produce pubic good as if guided by "an invisible hand". part of economic liberalism.
Characteristics of Capitalism
1. people forced to sell labor (human capital), create a surplus of goods (more than needed for themselves), capitalists take advantage of that. 2. system leads to ceaseless accumulation and advance in production, further distance of worker from production. 3. Protestant Work Ethic: constant labor is a sign of personal salvation. why some countries prospered (hard-working) and others didnt. but in protestant work ethic, no longer judged by god- judged by peers/neighbors. so: is christianity linked to capitalism? maybe, but buddhism/islam have same traits.
Democratic Revolutions: The French (1789-1815)
influence of the enlightenment: human nature, society, authority. Produces the "declaration of rights of man and citizen" 1791 (born free and equal, rights to liberty, property, SECURITY, and RESISTANCE TO OPPRESSION, deserve freedom of thought, religion, due process, taxation by consent, separation of powers of govt) 4 years after USA. important: security not in ours- similar to ours nonetheless. no matter who you are, you have rights. fine line between individual rights, equality, and fraternity.
Global History: Anthrocentric Linkages
1. biases- focus on people. 2. anthrocentric notion of history is part of many traditions. 3. ancient migrations- trade, slaves, migrants. 4. dispersion of religions and practices, traditions. 5. transmissions micro-organisms/disease. 6. antiquity of interpenetration of peoples and cultures: better understand ourselves IN the world.
Review of Mongol G-Factors
1. United Eurasia and its fractious countries. 2. increased commerce and the spread of ideas. 3. military revolutionized warfare (end of chariots). 4. stabilization and spread of islam. 5. re-emergence of bubonic plague due to rats. 6. destabilization of economies due to currencies (russia and middle east). note: empires did not end with mongol- how they help with globalization, and links expansion of empires to more wars/warfare.
Problems with the Westphalian Model
1. systems are inherently unstable (any system is unstable at some point. while they are territorially bound, are always seeking to expand) 2. model doesn't acknowledge asymmetries of power (new forms of power emerge). 3. new forms of coercing legitimacy emerge (overlooks culture, ideology. new forms of politics emerge). 4. in 17th/18th centuries, other systems emerge.
Abstract condition for IR: motivation
competing with dutch (skilled) and indians (natural resources) in textile industry. england only had wool, so had to buy elsewhere. what to do? cannot reduce cost of resources- no access. so: must reduce cost of labor: weeding machines, looms, steam engines. all done through technology.
Early Empires: Early Roman
Began: 10th c. BCE. River: Tiber (Italy). Technology: Engineering, aquiducts, dams, bridges, concrete, cranes, indoor plumbing. Language: Latin. Religion: Polytheism- Christianity, Paul- Constantine, converted to christianity at 40, used roman roads protected by citizenship, advocated religion, spoke to diverse groups, opened path for use of christianity within state.
Poverty is caused by explotation by rich countries
F- low productivity per worker
Democratic Revolution, Terror, and Dictatorship
peasants got govt power, then it turned on them. when revolution actualized, can have traumatic consequences. reign of terror to create "republic of virtue". terror due to pressure of war and economic crisis. 70% of 40000 killed were peasants, laborers. destroys illution that democratic change is peaceful, easy. order restored by means of dictatorship, not by constitutional rule. Napoleon.
General Agreements of the Globalist Perspective
1. globalization is the widening, deepening, speeding up and growing impact of worldwide interconnectedness. 2. interconnectedness in all aspects of contemporary life: social, spiritual, political, cultural, military, criminal.
Asia's Tolerance continued: Emperor Akbar
reign 1556-1605 during Elizabeth I of england, who had almost no tolerance in comparison, advocated human rights esp. freedom of worship. Asian traditions reflect much theorizing about tolerance and freedom. meaning of tolerance? why work on tolerance when we could work on acceptance?
The Nature of Global Religions
1. reach out from basis and embrace/conquer other cultures/faiths. 2. many are missionary, wanting converts- spread as empires do. 3. link to military and cultural power. 4. ability to absorb indigenous faiths within their own borders. 5. occurred principally between 600 BCE and 700 CE !!!!! thousands of religions, important gestation period for hinduism, judaism, etc. this time especially fertile.
African Bodies as Global Commodity (Slavery Statistics)
Involved all five continents, UK and US have most at 6 Million, then Dutch West Indies, Portugal, Brazil, Brit.West and spanish empire.
Troubling Questions about Slavery
Why did so few religious reps not have objections? (Sepulveda: took years for church to go anti slavery), ridiculed anti-slavery people- slavery necessary to gain power to spread religion. How to explain diffusion of slavery into regions not organized agriculturally around plantations (new england, new york, french canada)? psychological influence on slaves on further construction of white identity (john adams complaining in 1765 that england treated americans like blacks).
Developmental Model Problems Mirrored on Maps
1. Why is Europe its own continent? (culturally separate, drew maps with power as continental status, mountains as geographical marker. ..but: why isn't south asia its own continent? india: different culture, himalayan mountains?) 2. Thomas Paine: why should a continent be ruled by an island? power in status- why not claim it? 3. Dutch Waldseemuller's mapping in 1507- Christopher vs. Vespucci: vespucci may have fabricated reaching S. America, naming after himself.
Motifs of Early Empire Expansion: Agriculture
1. Rome's "A Republic of Farmers" (753-31 BCE). 2. Agriculture communities provide wealth/taxes to state. 3. Rivers are key location: assist in irrigation, enable transportation/trade.
Nationalism as "imagined Political Communities" (Benedict Anderson)
1. invisible: no one knows who all belongs to the collective identity that they call their own, idea. 2. limited- limits cannot be fully represented, but we do have parameters. 3. sovereign- cannot all be part bc we have rights/privileges. 4. communal sense of solidarity: commradeship, despite different opinions, religions, etc. -> 9/11- nationalism attacked as well as sense of community.
Video: Millenium Series on Zheng He: Pearl Divers in China find Treasures
brought animals back from Africa (giraffes, impressive). reached Zanzibar in West, Mecca in North. huge ships powered by bamboo sails, 500 years ahead of west, technology used for titanic. measured location by sun/stars, understood diff. between true/magnetic north. calculated speed, chinese fishing nets still present. marked start and end of china's imperial exploration- outside world had nothing to offer china. records of zhang he burned, not recognized.
Motifs of Early Empire Expansion: the longue duree
no empire was built overnight. unifies previously divided groups (through fragmentation comes unification), corrects fractious political environment. struggle over man-power (usually displaced peasants. slavery: indispensable resource for the structure of Rome and China. "trans-saharan route"- huge slave trade. constant absence of female voice, but part of cultural/agricultural prodution), lack of acknowledgement for female involvement/participation. ex: ghana: created by capturing divided kingdoms. Language: trade made it necessary. one unifying language.
“Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen”
[1] The National Assembly of France sets forth the natural, inalienable, and sacred rights of all of their citizens, trying to resolve many of their government’s corruptions. [2] This includes the ideas that everyone is born free and with these rights, and restricts the power of the government revoke property, liberty, innocence, and free communication. It also grants citizens the power to express their opinions, including those about religion and public tax. [3] In lecture on April 28, Jerryson stressed the importance of the individual role in liberalism, which is reflected in most of these human rights and freedoms.
Wolf: Challenges to Viewing History Globally
1. if world is a totality of interconnected processes, then disassembling its totality falsifies reality (japanese saying american culture is liek the hamburger). 2. turns interconnected processes into static things, names. (ex: female mutilation- why? tradition!) 3. demographics, politics, etc. all change- names, thought of as static/fixed are always changing.
Principle components of the Enlightenment Project: Central Clusters of Ideas
1. Reason: turn not to faith but the mind. tools. 2. experience: the material on which reason works, material beneath corruptions, nature, the past. 3. Progress: critical use of reason to advance toward more humane conditions. benchmark for ideas, political theories.
Today more than half the worlds pop is mixed in extreme poverty
F- 1.5 out of 6 billion
Purposes of setting view of history of globalization
1. how people divide up globalization history. 2. WHEN you think it began helps define WHAT it is. 3. many ways of categorizing.
More than Catholics, Protestant missionaries were determined to destroy native culture
T
Sophisticated Westerners have assumed for some time that religion would inevitably die
T
Western Christianity is historically the single most important characteristic of Western civilization
T
economica developlment happens through the home grown efforts of enterpreneurs and social and political reformers
T
Africans and Asians embrace Christianity primarily bc it was to their economic advantage.
F
The US domination the Protestant missionary movement
T
Southern Christians have a strong sense of the supernatural
T
Churches grow bc they empower women
T
Roman Catholics has strongly resisted the new methods and strategies used by Protestants
F
most of todays developed countries recivevd external help at some time
T
Evangelical Christians have a lower birth rate than most other groups
F
Almost everyone whoever lived was wrechdly poor
T
The author argues that family formation is a cause, not a result, of how one views religion
T
Islam wins out over Christianity because it grows by both conversation and reproduction
T
Major civilization in human history have been closely associated with the worlds great religions
T
In the Islamic world national identities are not nearly as important as family and tribe
T
Nation-states
USA, about 195 globally recognized states around the world.
Modernization
founder; truman. view: developed vs. underdeveloped countries. divides countries, traditional vs. modern, dual- one or the other. due to a deficiency, have modern inequalities/problem-solving abilities. lack of modern spirit. unidirectional, same for all countries. Problems: too abstract- modern? not modern? no space for localized relativity. underdeveloped: external factors unimportant, all based on own country. restricts aid- hesitant to help b/c of "underdeveloped" status.
G-Factors: Religion
Spread of Manichaeism, Judaism, Christianity and Buddhism across continent. spread of ideas. picture of Mongolian Buddhism. Golden Horde's official religion was Buddhism until 1260, Il-Qan's until the end of the 13th century (but some were also Christian- spread of this as well.) (suspicion of Il-Qaan's blood- wrapped in rug then killed to protect others. killed sacred figure.)
"Triangular Trade"
W. Africa--> slaves to caribbean/America--> raw materials (sugar, rum,timber) --> Britain. manufactured goods to w. africa. promoted industrial revolution in britain, strengthened through slavery. massive enslavement of people across continents.
History
1. a construction based on evidence/human mind. takes form of a narrative. 2. often moral success story with developmental theme (ex. crusades). 3. see selective principles.
A civilization is almost identical to a government
F
A global effort is needed to eliminate extreme poverty
T
The great political ideologies of the modern world all have one thing in common—they are Western
T
At least two major civilizations have largely rejected modernization
F
18. Saudi Arabia was the original home of Islam and comes closer than any other nation to being the Islamic core state
F
In the near future Mandarin will replace English as the world’s common lang
F
The largest Christian group in Egypt is the Alexandrian Methodist church
F
Geographical location is at least as important as good governanc in reducing poverty
T
Sociologist often miss the real reason people join churches
T
After colonialism ended it took native African churches a generation to recover
F
Native prophets tend to reject the Bible and proclaim their own unique message.
F
In Latin America Protestants tend to have a much higher level of religious commitment than Roman Catholics
T
In largely secular Europe men and woman are about equally religious
F
Ulaanbaatar
rise of urbanization and technology. a city with modernized roads, japanese or korean buses and russian buildings (nice ones with opportunity/potential for growth). 1991- soviet union policies, association.
Pre-Modern Empires Video
5 civilizations: 1. Chinese: technology, inventions (earthquake detector, compass) 2. Arabian: trade, middlemen. 3. Indian: Hinduism, Buddhism. 4. Japanese: Literature, refinement. 5. Eurasian: pagans, christianity. Fragmented, broken Eurasians in comparison with others.
Taxonomy for Contemporary Nationalism
Religious Nationalism: contemporary attempt to link religion and the nation-state, efforts to make religion important, not say it is good/bad. Secular Nationalism (ala Hans Kohn)- the supreme loyalty of the individual is felt to be due to the nation-state: too secular? too hostile to religion? too global of an ambition? every nationalism had religion linked to it.
Copernicus
problem: speak of break of religion from people. science separate from religion. but: copernicus was part of roman catholic church, pope approved ideas.
See table on David Held's GLOBAL CAMPS.
Mongol Emperors
Three Great emperors (Qaan= emperor, Qan=king): 1. Chinggis Qaan. 2. Ogedei Qaan: expanded into Eastern Eurasia in 1241. Chinggis's son, died leading all troops to withdraw- if not, we may be speaking Mongolian now. 3. Qubilai Qaan.
Democratic Revolutions: Japan: what makes japan unique?
paradox: ideological conservatism/traditionalism produced radical institution transformation. 1889: introduce western-type constitution but not popular govt- elite w/ power realized they had to change/reinvent selves. Power of Diet (congress)- douglas McArthur- rewrote constitution. now: feel constitution was imposed on them. many changes in
The West is deteriorating and will, in the next few years, be over taken at least two civilizations that are more aggressive
F
6. Jesus Christ has a better chance of meeting the moral and social needs of urban migrants than Thomas Jefferson or Adam Smith
T
The population bomb has turned out to be a dud
T
In the history of Western Europe it appears that ppl stopped having children before they were secularized
T
Internationalist Perspective: Principles of the Westphalian Model
1. territorially bounded STATES. 2. states with authority over place (sovereignty, right to protect selves, status). 3. cross-border aggression handled by states. changed- affected everyone. 4. opens possibility of diplomacy- recognized power, authority, kings.
Parameters of an Empire
empire: political marker. most urbanized, innovative socio-political centers. comes from a land in the interim. world empire: multiplicity of societies unified under domination of a single government. ex: egyptians, mayans, aztecs, feudal Russia. unifies large networks of groups (soviet union). a system of government based on CONQUEST, exploitation of resources and people. use political justification to subjectify people, expand rule. lots of violence backing it up.
G-Factors: Economics
Il-Qan used paper money, sank the Middle Eastern economy into a depression: need confidence in currency for it to survive, had none, bad. Also: Qans of the Golden Horde used paper currency in Russia, starved their economy. also because of flow of silver and gold into Mongols.
Pierre Bayle 1647-1706
challenged, if not refuted all christian dogma not in accordance with reason, aka all catholic/christian orthodox. important scientific/technological advances.
Capitalism in General
(US, Sweden, Japan, Britain, France) Reflects ideological preference for private property over communal ownership. capitalist societies reflect mixture of public and private enterprise.
Scientific Revolution
(european white men- certain types of people) revolution: 360 degree turn (so not really revolution, more of an evolution). Western Eurasian Scientific paradigm shift in the 1500s- altered views of humanity, universe, and scientific methods (and development of the scientific method). why such drastic changes? mostly bc eurasia was behind rest of world. Geertz: ethos and world view (environmentalism, code of conduct). changed empirical view of inquiry, acquiring knowledge.
Churches grow bc they are a refuge in the midst of social change
T
One thing that will not work is paying parents ot put their kids in school
F
Modern prosperity is rooted in the deep, humanitarian impulses of Western societies
F- MASS PRODUCTIONS
In the post Cold War world the most important distinctions are economic
F-cultural
Spread of IR
early symbol of IR: railroad. brought new socio-economic features. globalization of IR features: 80% of all neckties in the world are in one town, 90% of all socks. do you know where your shirt is from? examples of globalization on our backs. once china met its quota, consumers looked to other places, then WTO took off quota rules- laissez faire!!!. capitalism (finance based) + industrialization = modernization. go from working class to bourgeoise.
precursor to capitalist mode: mercantilism (1400-1700)
mercantilism: system where governments regulate economic activity so exports exceed imports. impose tariffs, taxes. still happens today: gives financial aid to business to lower costs for local companies.
Eurasian Technological Developments
used to fix practical problems (start a car, sew button, etc. ) first surge in the wake of industrial revolution (1760s- steam, steel, prime movers instead of humans/animals). second surge started in 1870s onwards (steel, aluminum connected by glue, early airplanes. turbines, internal combustion engines, fiberoptic, hydropower). developmental process. idea, invention, innovation- why it is important, what does it change? rise of research/development institutions, inventions turned into professions, world pushed forward by inventions, advancement in technology.
The Third Qaan: Qubilai
Base of operations moved, Mongols controlled parts of Armenia, all of Anatolia, Mesopotamia, and Iran. Empire became so large, had to be sub-divided into states.
Idea of Revolution Naturalized/Normalized
old idea of revolution/breaking of continuity broken. new idea a radical upheaval- not so radical/unique. institutional change- not so much people/places. universal/continuous. generates enormous emotional appeal/fervor.
Treaty of Westphalia
1648!!! Eurasian wars. Drew a global architecture. established three political ideologies: 1. recognize king/emperor for each realm. 2. king determines religion. 3. power between states is balanced- if not balanced, war would rectify this or structure would prevent this.
Early Empires: Akkadian/Agade
Began: 24th c. BCE. River: Euphrates. Technology: postal service. Language: Lingua franca
Early Empires: Harappan
Began: 33rd c. BCE. River: Indus (Hindu term comes from Indus River, which comes from Sanskrit). Technology: Infrastructure, sewage system, monitoring horizons. Language: home to 40,000, near Mesopotamians. communication between them necessary.
Global Spread of French Revolutionary Ideas
Three great principles: liberty, equality, fraternity. helped produce revolutions in Milan, Netherlands, Naples, Spain, Switzerland, Germanics. Many times fought in name of liberty, but often resulted in dictatorship. many times, VIOLENCE as a way of spreading ideologies. napoleon most responsible for spread of ideas- nationalist movements protest napoleonic rule.
Global "Commondity": Enslaved Africans
Market of Sugar- Slavery. Cane native to SE Asia, S Iberia, Atlantic Islands. Enslaved Africans first used by Portuguese on Atlantic Islands 1450. why Africans to Americas? Africans didn't know land/friends, nowhere to run or hide. easily enslaved. mostly from w. africa. huge escalation in slave trade at this time.
Effects of this Course
1. greater interest in world affairs. 2. the ability to see from others' viewpoints (miliary- cannot fight unless you understand enemy's viewpoint). 3. assess events in a global context, understanding their transnational, economic, social, and political ramifications. 4. evaluate the impact of HISTORY, CULTURE, and IDEOLOGY in the process of globalization.
Portugal and the Role of Spices
Eurasians ignorant of spices pre-exploration, where Arabs/chinese had them. used for preservation as well as flavor, anti-cancer. India's Pepper, Sri Lanka's cinnamon, and Indonesia's nutmeg are most desired spices needed to trade. Spice trade via Chinese, Arabs, Gujaratis & Venetians 16th century. Europeans motivated in 1453 to find spice route. , Dutch captured Portuguese control of routes 16th/17th century. "Dutch East India Company"- company but entwined in state/cultural interests.
Greenfeld Taxonomy: Civic vs. Ethnic nationalism
Civis: subscribe to common creed/ideology (usa, legally). agree to our laws, history. race doesn't matter. problems: depends on influence of enlightenment. more than principles, gender,slaves usually excluded from citizenship and had to fight for it. does not solve all problems. Ethnic: not based upon shared rights. instead: shared CUSTOMS. (singapore, thailand, mother must be citizen for child to be automatic.) problems: ethnicity does not guarantee cohesion: iraq kurds and not kurds, idea of blood lineage for citizenship can breed authoritarianism- idea of ethnic majority/minority. spurs violence- find out who you are opposed to to see where you sit. idea of the "others"
Jose de San Martin
what to do with indigenous people? include them into concept of new citizenship, brought them into fight for revolution, augmented forces.
Democratic Revolutions: Latin America 1808-1826
precipitated by napoleon's invasion of spain & portugal. portugal and brazil relatively smooth because of fears of slave revolt. napoleon weakened mother countries. spain and its colonies are violent (jose de San Martin, Simon Bolivar). mexico frustrates social revolution & starts anti-revolution.
Re-Conceptualizing the Globe (Bender)
1. oceanic seafaring connects all the continents. 2. redefines local perspectives on oceanic space. 3. connecting the continents helps create shared history of the world's peoples. 4. re-discovery of the americas reinvents Eurasian world. "transcontinental history" made possible, and waterways in relation to one another. rediscovery of americas= rethinking of world perspective. revolutionized diets/food (gastronomic), potatoes from americas, chilis, tomatoes. all changed other cultures' foods.
Characteristics of Axford's "Strong Globalism"
1. multidimensional: can't JUST look at culture, or econ. must look at all aspects. meaning attached to new transnational boundaries, connections, interrelations. 2. complex: interplay between local and international. stretching of interpersonal relationships (what do people in india think of me? -did not have to do this 40 years ago. )3. contradictory4. unpredictable: different trajectories, velocities, cannot pin it down this way.
global effects of haitian revolution
first by former enslaved africans. ends napoleon's dream of american empire toussaint becomes symbol of liberator/hope. started a terror of slave revolts, rocking the americas. americas become restrictive- fear of what could be actualized.
Problems with Developmental Schemes
1. turns history into moral success story. 2. everything before moral developments treated as precursor. 3. not included? irrelevant (africa, latin america, central america and 100s of languages spoken there.
Four Conditions for IR birth
1. raw materials (nature). 2. colonialism (consumer base large). 3. labor: serfs set free, intense process of urbanization. 4. lots of money and capital to begin with because of slave trade. (manchester england: 24,000 to 240,000 in 75 years, now : China's intense urbanization. ABSTRACT CONDITION FOR IR: MOTIVATION: see slide.
Govt assistance has been shown to work in certain circumstances
T - marshall plan
The Global City
LA, SF, NYC. expansion of market bc of internationalization of commerce. transnational movement of capital and labor. increased importance of business services (FIRE- finance like hedge funds/banks, insurance, real estate). bifurcation of class structure and increased class segregation- bigger gaps between rich and poor.
Talal Asad & Danish Cartoons
world union of muslim scholars issue boycott, raction analogous to that during Liberal Project in Western Eurasia. eurasian enlightenment- criticism encouraged, released 12 cartoons of prophet muhammad. Muslim scholars said were insulting.Talal Asad- got no apology, world boycott of danish/norwegian products. even in different country, still common worldwide identity of muslim- boycotts/strikes even in secular countries. free speech cannot be curtailed as long as it doesn't "defame the state".
Democratic Revolutions: The American (1776-1791)
1st dem. rev., but there are precursors: iroquois confederacy- had impact on framers of our constitution. Key arguments: Paine (reasons for becoming free: absurdity of being ruled by an island) Jefferson (ala locke, legitimacy of resisting tyranny to protect our natural rights. changed property to happiness). Founded on negatives: reactions to what they have been seeing, new morality: no established social stratification, no primogeniture, no collusion of church and state, no monarchy, no entrenched privilege, no governmental abuse.
Nationalism Produces Ideological Practices
1. common history of nation. 2. define national character as historical, making them legendary, timeless. 3. new patterns of ritual/symbolism - flags, songs, pledge of allegiance (started during red scare), dates. 4. establish foundational myths that may become historical (doesn't necessarily mean false. just faith tied to it, like euros facing religious persecution and finding US). 5. promote ideas of common breeding.
Imperial Partition of Africa
in 1880s, few areas of continent ruled by Western Eurasians. by 1913, all but 4 of the 40 political units in Africa ruled by Western Eurasians. by 1930, 84.6% of world had lived under colonial rule. worst example: king leopold of belgium who in 20 years killed half the population of the congo. quest for resources/goods. huge globalism & effects.
Olaudah Equiano, “Kidnapped, Enslaved, and Sold Away, ca 1756m,” from The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano.
The author retells the story of his personal experience with slavery. He and his sister were kidnapped and separated before being taken across the continent, where Equiano learned many different languages and also survived an apparent attempted escape. He and his sister were then reunited for a few precious months under a generous master until he was shipped off again with rogue people to the coast and later on a cargo ship to his destination. The horrors of the ship were overwhelming, but Equiano was also amused by the “magical” tools of his captors. The narrative ends with Equiano on the selling block, like an animal no different from the rest. This is a more personal variation of Conniff and Davis’ article on slavery.
Eurasian Explorations to Colonial Empires
1. Colonialism: rule of people by foreign power (spread). 2. Purpose: capital, industry, reputation, military, idealogy/culture, econ. 3. Kinds of colonies: of trade (spread/collect goods of native people/harvesters), of occupation (US in Iraq), plantation (huge industry crops), of settlement (comes w/removal/displacement of native people).
Evolution of Empire Building: Informal Empires
Not interested in gaining permanent countries. end of formal empires/colonies, but not end of informal ones. "mini empires": israel, gaza strip, india, rise of peasant movements. US as an empire? wars declined because empires declined. are we in an Age of Empires? at soviet union collapse, what did we do with our armies? - US is pretty militaristic country. since 1990's, US has launched 4 wars/military involvements adjacent to middle east. religions are spread by empires- what is US empire spreading? capitalism, christianity, democracy.
Early World Trade and Colonism (Mercantilism)
Mercantilism: low bulk, high value merchandise. Mediteranean to China, Muslims middlemen. stimulated need for oceanic routes to asia, navigation/maps, naval gunnery, caravel combined square and triangular sails. 1. Early interregional exchange limited means of transportation. 2. longest overland trade routes controlled by Muslims. 3. Growth of Eurasian Seaboard Trade. 4. Early Eurasian Explorers (See Slide)
It is up to the UN to est order in the world
F
John P. Mckay, on the Ghana and Mali Empires in Africa
Africa’s beginnings are characterized by the development of highly sophisticated, extremely diverse civilizations, such as the early societies of the Bantu people and in Sudan where people began using agriculture as opposed to nomadic hunting. Its growth was shaped by the continent’s geography and weather, and boomed with the Trans-Saharan trade of widespread commodities such as gold and slaves. The identity of the continent still struggles with the melting pot of Egypt, however, and its connection with the rest of Africa as a whole. Wolf’s theory of communication and interconnectedness is reflected in the presence of trade in Africa, because trade facilitates shared feelings and symbols.
Nick Hewlett: Democracy: Liberal and Direct
[1] Democracy is normally seen as progressive in modernity, and by looking at its effect on current trends, liberal democracy in particular is an improvement on other forms of government. Nonetheless, it is not perfect, especially in participation and the power held by big businesses, politicians, and the media. [2] Many groups see other faults, especially Marxists and feminists. Also, note the distinction between the Athens-originated direct democracy where officials strictly rule their citizens, and the more current liberal democracy. [3] While the idea of democracy has no literal definition according to lecture, the effects of direct democracy were there from the beginning.
Religion as a Global Factor
1. What is religion? (social set of beliefs, moral standards, system of shared meanings). 2. Reductionist ( reduce down to core elements, what makes it tick) versus phenomenological (lose essence by breaking down, must describe by POV and interpret). 3. Parameters: could include only institutional forms (Durkheim), or social forms, individual interpretation, nationalism? following sports?
Religion: The Spread of Islam
New leader of Golden Horde in 1260 became Muslim. Il-Qan Ghazan became Muslim in 1295. resolved inner-mongol strike.
Where did this come from? Liberalism and John Locke
Locke: 1637-1704. most relevant in eurasia. rethought bases of liberal society. sources: modern science, christianity, english legal tradition. Aim: secure/protect liberty and property.
Richard Bulliet, “An Age of Empires: Rome and Han China, 753 B.C.E. - 330 C.E.”
Comparing the Roman and Han Empires shows that they continuously both controlled large amounts of land and people, the people adopted the rulers’ language, and high standards of living. Their differences can be linked to the long term effects of their failed central authorities- for example, China’s imperial structure allowed it to revive, while the Roman Empire has not. They also differ in the importance of the individual, with Rome opposing China’s larger social groups by providing more economic and social mobility to it individuals. Finally, the two differentiate in their political and religious ideology, with China’s emperors being sons of the divine, and Christianity and Buddhism being the respective religions of choice. Mckay analyzed a continent in similar ways in his paper, comparing the gain and loss of power in civilizations and people.
Marshall G.S. Hodgson, “In the Center of the Map”
Upon the discoveries of new land in the sixteenth century, China’s picture of the world was altered from the assumption that they were the center of the globe even during their strong empire was the wealthiest, most populous and cultivated and powerful in the world. However, once civilizations started to decline, Muslims, Christians and Hindus saw their religious centers as the center of the world, or based it on climate. Furthermore, different maps show different proportions, and the status of Europe as a “continent” is something to be debated. This is similar to Bulliet’s comparison of the Roman and Han empires, and their struggles with power and authority.
Birth of Global Trade: Flinn & Giraldez's Theory
global trade began in 1571!!!!! why was it global/what makes it global? -affects everyone around them, civilizations on 3 different continents affected (americas, eurasia & africa) in exchange of 1 commodity: silver (spain had it, china wanted it). 2 ports: seville & manilla. china: exchange of currency. spanish did not do mining: enslaved Africans, did in the Americas. --> creation/product of global trade.
Obstructions to Viewing a Global History
1. usually result of how you're taught history (school textbooks, western POV). 2. "Western" developmental history privileges Europe and US, places them in foreground, others in background. 3. identifies history with civilization, begins in "East" (iran, iraq, egypt), passes to greece, rome, then christian europe.
The Politics of Geography: Are Egypt's kingdoms and early empires part of Africa or not?
no, because of culture issues, skin color, race. exclusion of Egypt is only due to racism based on the mentality of people.
Clifford Geertz, “The Struggle for the Real”
What is our view of religion? We are not looking for the metaphysical heaven and hell, but for a perspective of the world that grounds one’s values in the reality of life. It is a question of justifying our ‘ethos’: the way we do things and like to see things done. Simply defining religion and the folklore that surrounds it is not enough for the ‘systems of significance’ that we strive to uphold. Juergensmeyer’s ways of analyzing global religion has multiple parallels to Geertz’s search for meaning.
1948
Israel founded
u-boats
a German submarine.
1922
Soviet Union is created
monotheism
belief in a single God
Fundamentalism
the adherence to traditional values
Allah
supreme god of Islamic faith
Hispanic/Latino
currently fastest growing group of immigrants in US
1991
Persian Gulf War (Saddam Hussein invades Kuwait 1990)
Colapse of France helped Japan achieve what?
indochina
King David
king who reunited the Israelites
Holocaust
organized mass slaughter of European Jews in WWII
African people who were specially trained to remember and recite a group's history were called...
Griots
culture
The system of shared beliefs, values, customs, behaviours, and artifacts that the members of society .
castes
the social classes into which the people of India are divided
Third Reich
What Hitler called his government; the Third Empire
West Bank
Area inhabited by Palestinians in Israeli-held land from the 6-Day War
Ramadan
annual time of fasting; celebrates the revealing of the Qu'ran to Muhammad
"Double-cropping"
growing two like/unlike crops on the same land within the same year
contraband
anything prohibited by law from being imported or exported.
The prophet who started the religion of Islam was...
Muhhamad
alien
foreign resident who is not a citizen of the country he / she is living in.
Angel Island
main center in San Francisco for processing immigration
Bedouin
a member of a nomadic tribe of Arabs
dromedary
one-humped camel of the hot deserts of northern Africa and southwestern Asia
Vichy
In southern France, the Nazis set up a puppet government here under Henri Petain
What is Nationalism?And what are the three ways to get it?
FREEDOM!INDEPENDENCE!A.)Take it-revolutionb.) be trained for it-MandateC.Be given it-Post WWII(1945)
Flagellants
people who wandered from town to town flogging each other with whips to beg the forgiveness of a God who they felt had sent the black plague to punish humans for their sinful ways
totalitarianism
absolute control by the state or a governing branch of a highly centralized institution.
customs and traditions
are rules we live our lives by
Department of Homeland Security
US protection of personal interests and from threats/terrorists
commercial fishing
catching fish for sale, often on large farms
Industrial Revolution
the huge social and economic change in Europe and the United States that was produced by the shift from hand tools to machines in the 18th and 19th centuries
What were some major extermination camps?
Auschwitz, Majdanek, Birkaneau, Treblinka, Sobibar
UN Resolution 242
calls for Israelis to leave occupied territories to avoid conflict after Six-Dy War; Arabs accept Israel's right to exist
"Town air brings freedom"
idea that towns brought more independence and power to the people
mandate
a command or authorization to act in a particular way on a public issue given by the electorate to its representative:
What did Western countries do in response to danger in Rwanda?
evacuate all their citizens
common market
a group of countries that acts as a single market, without trade barriers between member countries
Longbow
weapon as tall as a man used to shoot accurately from a distance; used by the English in the 100 Yrs War, esp the Battle of Crecy
What are the commonwealth of nations?
A voluntary assocation linking Great Britian and its former colonies on an equal basis
How did France demonstrate internal tension during the Reformation?
Growth of Calvinism creates opposition to the crown, who often persecuted Huguenots; Huguenot king Henry Navarre converts to Catholicism
led to decline of factory worker's rights
owners taking advantage of replaceable workers
"Paris is worth a mass"
Quote by Henry Navarre speaking of his conversion
Why did the Japanese emporer lose power after WWI?
The Allies wanted to reduce his power.
Who was Martin Luther and what did he find so disturbing about the Catholic church of his time?
German, Catholic monk; indulgences, salvation by works, pope is infallible, authority of church over law, economic power and wealth of church
What was the purpose of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty?
to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons to other nations
What was the significance of the Battle of Midway?
It was the turning point in the war in the Pacific.
1917
Russian Revolution
vittorio orlando
Italian statesman.
1939
World War II begins
Shi'a
supporters of Ali; economically underpriveledged, minority today, martyrdom, "We have been wronged"
belligerents
warlike; given to waging war.
Belgians
group of Europeans that originally controlled Rwanda
3100 BCE
civilization arises along Huang He
Benito Mussolini
"Il Duce" dictator of Italy
Waddis
unde3rground river beds or streams that have dried up over time
militarism
a strong military spirit or policy.
This civilization florished on the Yucatan peninsula, its economy was based on farming, and its main food source was maize. Who am I?
Mayans
flashpoint of genocide
Rwandan president's plan shot down
segregation
the separation of one group from another, such as race
Where were the postwar talks with Roosebelt, Churchill, and Stalin held?
Yalta
"Jacquerie"
popular revolt in late medieval Europe by peasants that took place in northern France in the summer of 1358, during the 100 Years War; against high taxes
woodrow wilson
28th president of the U.S. 1913–21: Nobel peace prize 1919.
Equator
a line that divides the earth into two.[north and south]
immigrant
someone who moves from one country to another country to live.
melting pot
term that explains that the foundation of US is immigration
subsistence farming
farming carried out mainly to provide food for the farm families, with little surplus for sale to others
Francisco Franco
Led the Nationalists in the Spanish Civil War
Who were the heroes of the Cultural Revolution?
peasants
Niccolo Macchiavelli
writer of The Prince who criticized human nature and whose major concerns were the Inquisition, maintenance, and expansion of political power as the means to restore and maintain order in his time
Johannes Gutenberg
of Mainz; contributed to the invention of the printing press; first book was _______'s Bible
reparations
the making of amends for wrong or injury done:
arts and literature
things that a culture creates to entertain themselves
migrant workers
a person who moves regularly in order to find work, especially in harvesting crops
Why did Britain and France declare war on Germany?
Germany invaded Poland.
Other than Columbus' voyage, what occurred in 1492 to spur overseas discovery?
"Reconquista"- reconquest of Muslims; moors driven out of Spain; purifying Spain as Catholic; many Muslims became merchants
berlin wall
a guarded concrete wall, 28 mi. (45 km), with minefields and controlled checkpoints, erected across Berlin by East Germany in 1961 and dismantled in 1989.
information technology (IT)
the use of technology to move and process information
No-fly zones
areas in N and S Iraq where Hussein's planes can't fly legally; result of Gulf War; Kurd and Marsh Arab lands
What is Neocolonialism?what are the 3Ways ?
control economy, or the workplace controls them.a.)make loans of capital to former colonies.b.) Leave cashcrops behindc.)build mines,harbors, roads, railroads, canals,or oil wells.
What are the 4 major geographical zones of the M.E. and N. Africa? What are they like?
Northern Highlands (Taurus, Elburz Mtns, Iranian Plain, Anatolian Plain, Pastoralists, seismic activity)
Arabian Peninsula (Hajaz to West, Rub al Khali in South, "Reg" and "Erg" deserts, sparsely populated, exceptional zones, oases, waddis, <10 in rain yearly)
Central (Egypt, Jordan, Israel, Lebanon, Syria, Iran, exceptional zones, Nile, Tigris-Euphrates, Denuded, Levant, Mediterranean Climate)
North Africa (Arab Maghreb Union, UMA, Moors, Atlas Mtns, Humid, hot desert, people packed at coastline)
"one king, one church, one law"
A quote believed by absolutist leaders of Europe
When and why was a US spending program for education and technology created?
After the Soviets launched Sputnik, to keep up with them.
What triggered the growth of towns and cities in the Middle Ages? What structures/activities/qualities resulted from their growth?
revival of trade, settling near castles/monasteries, towns tied w/ surroundings for resources, unique laws, council of elected patricians, dirtied with waste and pollution, well water used, some independent women, industry increased
How did the changing art of the Renaissance reflect changes in people's thinking?
religion to humans and secular world, more advanced techniques = learning and discovery, especially of humans
Who are the Four Tigers of Asia and why are they named so?
South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Singapore; all had impressive economic growth.
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