Glycolysis Flashcards

Terms Definitions
control points
PKF
Glycolysis Happens in...
Cytoplasm
net gains
2 pyruvate2 ATP2NADH2H+2H2O
pyruvate kinase control
inhibited by ATP
hexokinase control
inhibited by product g6p
PFK control
inhibited by high ATP allostericallyAMP reverses inhibitioninhibited by low pH
All of Cell Respiration Produces __?__ ATPS.
36
Reactants of Photosynthesis are the SAME as the __?__ of Cell Respiration.
Products
futile cycles
between f6p and f1,6bprapidly increase flux through pathway but consume ATP
2 Types of Fermantation...
Lactic Acid and Alcoholic
PFK what kind of enzyme
allosteric= effectors/inhibitors bind allosterically
PRODUCTS of Cell Respiration are...
Energy, Water and Carbon
REACTANTS of Cell Respiration are...
Sugar and 2 Oxygens
GLUT 4
muscle and fat - more GLUT4 receptors when insulin / exercise highinsulin DEP, GLUT4 trapped in vessicles
Glycolysis Produces...
2 ATP, 2 Pyruvic Acids and 2 NADH
D-glyceraldehyde
phosphoenolpyruvate -->
pyruvate
Hexokinase
glucose -> glucose-6-phosphate
exergonic
release of energy
cytochromes
iron-containing carriers, An iron-containing protein that is a component of electron transport chains in the mitochondria and chloroplasts of eukaryotic cells and the plasma membranes of prokaryotic cells
reaction 6
-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase
-oxidation: aldehyde group oxidized to carboxylic acid
*key reaction for ATP synthesis
-1,3-bisphosphoglycerate is key "high energy" intermediate in glycolysis
-hydrolysis of 1,3-BPG is very favorable: delta G= -11.8 kcal/mol
3-Phosphoglycerate Kinase
1,3-bisphosphoglycerate -> 3-phosphoglycerate
Phosphoglycerate Mutase
3-phosphoglycerate --> 2-phosphoglycerate; reversible
oxidation
GLYCOLYSIS
4 stages of glycolysis:
3) two atoms of hydrogen are removed for each 3-carbon sugar, NAD+ is a metabolite that accepts the hydrogens (it is reduced)
2.
Enzyme Hexokinase interacts with glucose. ATP is converted to ADP
Phosphoglycerate kinase
1,3 Bisphosphoglycerate -> 3-Phosphoglycerate. MAKES ATP. reversible.
number of intermediates in glycolysis
9
ethyl alcohol
under anaerobic conditions, pyruvic acid is converted into this. Called alcohol fermentation.
3.
Turned into Glucose 6 phosphate (g6p)
Phosphoglucose Isomerase (PGI)
Glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) --> Fructose-6-phosphate (F6P)
Glycolysis step 2: Glucose6P to Fructose6P
Is step 9 of glycolysis reversibe?
Yes.
Aldolase
Fructose-1,6-BP --> DHAP + GAP; reversible
triose phosphate dehydrogenase
two 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate + 2NADH (6, two phosphates attached to sugar, 2NAD+ form 2NADH + 2H+)
Step 8 mechanism 3 Phosphoglycerate - 2 Phosphoglycerate
What type of transport mechanism allows glucose to enter cells?
Facilitated transport
the last step of glycolysis is inhibited by
ATP
citric acid
a six-carbon compound formed in the Krebs cycle
how many NADH's are produced from one molecule of glucose?
2
What is the secondary regulating enzyme of glycolysis?
Pyruvate kinase (PK)
second law of thermodynamics
energy transfer leads to less organization. That means the universe tends towards disorder (entropy)
Stage one: Set-Up
Glucose is phosphorylated to G6P by hexokinase using ATP.
G6P goes to F6P with phosphoglucose isomerase.
F6P plus ATP with Phosphofructokinase forms F 1,6 bisphosphate.
Describe step 7 of glycolysis.
1,3 bisphosphoglycerate and ADP engage in SUBSTRATE LEVEL PHOSPHORYLATION to yield 3 phosphoglycerate and ATP, in the presence of phosphoglycerate kinase.
enzymes used in transfer of a phosphoryl group from ATP to glucose
hexokinase and glucokinase
positive regulation of glycolysis: during exercise
low energy charge: AMP>ATP.
This stimulates PFK because it becomes dephosphorylated.
Fructose 1,6 BP (product of PFK) causes feedforward stimulation of pyruvate kinase
Describe step 6 of glycolysis.
Each glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate is OXIDIZED to 1,3 bisphosphoglycerate with the help of GAPDH. NADH + H+ is generated from this reaction.
in aerobic organisms, pyruvate
forms acetyl COA and goes to citric acid cycle
what are the specific steps of ATP synthesis?
phosphoglycerate kinase and pyruvate kinase
Is step 10 of glycolysis reversible?
NOOOOOOOOOO Biatch! Step 1,3, and 10 are NONREVERSIBLE.
Is the third step of glycolysis reversible?
No. It is irreversible b/c NEGATIVE delta G standard.
What are the net end energy molecules from glycolysis?
1 Glucose will yield:2 ATP2 NADH 2 H+2 Pyruvate
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