american history test Flashcards

Terms Definitions
bill sunday
holder of property
Cortez conquers Aztecs
New York Morning Journal
the right to vote
Internment Camp
relocation camps for Japanese-Americans during WWII
to stop communism from spreading
Sixth event
Treaty of Paris- 1783
Bill of rights
First ten amendments
_________ City was a famous cowtown.
During the Reconstruction era, the southern black codes
A) guaranteed freedment full political and civil rights.
B) re-established slavery.
C) desegregated southern society.
D) restructed freedmen's economic opportunities and civil rights.
Millard Fillmore
1850-1853, Whig, issue = slavery
grew stronger.
After the Spanish-American War, opposition to imperialism
Spain's drive to expel the Moors
washington attacked penn
lost battle of germantown
Predominantly poor and ignorant whites who sought to profit from Republican rule; and hordes of uneducatedfreedmen, who were ready prey for Republican Manipulators.
Eugene Debs
socialist who helped the workers oraginze against Pullman and other railroad companies
Navigation Acts
regulated trade between England and its colonies
Massachusetts Bay
-Established in 1629
-Major city is Boston
-Settlers are Educated
giles corey
Elderly inhabitant of Salem. He challenges the court in an attempt to defend his wife who has been convicted of witchcraft. He is pressed to death as a result.
Upton SinClair and other writers; name given by Teddy Roosevelt
Henry Clay
Senator who persuaded Congress to accept the Missouri Compromise, which admitted Maine into the Union as a free state, and Missouri as a slave state
dumbbell tenement
crowded buildings 7-8 stories high, sunless, smelly, minimal ventilation
found in slums
George Wallace
1919-1998. Four time governor of Alabama. Most famous for his pro-segregation attitude and as a symbol for states' rights.
Article VII
constitution would take effect after its ratified by 9 of 13 states
To Make the world safe for democracy
What made him rich: John Jacob Astor
Dawes Plan
agreement with France, Britain, and Germany by which American banks would make loans to the Germans that would enable them to meet their reparations payments.
Black Codes
1865-southern whites use this to undermine black independence and give them control over former slaves; ensured them to have workers for their crops.
bark stripped from the trunks of certain treees
In 1890 the richest __% of Americans held 75% of the wealth
Thaddeus Stevens
the Radical Republican leader in House of Representatives
Code Talkers
American Navajos who served in the marines during WW II; they translated important military messages into a coded version of the Navajo language
Calvin Coolidge
VP for Harding. Became president when Harding died. Tried to clean up scandals. Business prospered and people's wealth increased. Called silent Cal. Biggest cheapskate ever as a president.
Operation Desert Storm (The Gulf War)
*American leaders
*new weapons
*Saddam's strategy
*How war fought before 2/23 and AFTER 2/23
*casualties on both sides
*end results
wilberforce university
the oldest or first college for african americans
End of reconstruction
crippled by inefficiency; racism in north and south; army too small to control violence; government hampered by a federal system that divided power; most republicans were pro-republican not pro-black; loss of republican power in south
Seward, William
(1801-1872) New York politician who as U.S. Senator in 1850s took a strong anti-slavery position and as Secretary of State under Lincoln and Johnson advocated an American empire based on commercial expansion and could be credited with laying the foundation for the "Large Policy" and the New Manifest Destiny of the late 19th century because he took action to expand U.S. influence and reduce the influence of non-American powers in the western hemisphere.
William Jennings Bryan
Democratic congressman who won the party's nomination, promising to help small farmers by doing away with gold and using only silver and greenbacks for currency.
is the desire of one nation to exercise political or economic control over smaller or weaker nations and caused tensions in Europe as nations completed for colonies in all parts of the world
A. Philip Randolph
president of Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters; leading African-American labor leader
Winfield Scott
was a United States Army general, diplomat, and presidential candidate. Known as "Old Fuss and Feathers" and the "Grand Old Man of the Army", he served on active duty as a general longer than any other man in American history and most historians rate him the ablest American commander of his time. Over the course of his fifty-year career, he commanded forces in the War of 1812, the Mexican-American War, the Black Hawk War, the Second Seminole War, and, briefly, the American Civil War, conceiving the Union strategy known as the Anaconda Plan that would be used to defeat the Confederacy
Korean War
North Korea invades South Korea, US later gets involved
Thomas Hutchinson
The Boston merchant who served as lieutenant governor of Massachusetts and later governor of Massachusetts; his efforts to enforce the Stamp Act prompted a mob to destroy his house.
What wasn't there until Wilson took office?
Income Tax
Battle of yorktown
Last major battle of the Revolutionary War. Cornwallis and his troops were trapped in the Chesapeake Bay by the French fleet. He was sandwiched between the French navy and the American army. He surrendered October 19, 1781.
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
provides government insurance for bank deposits up to a certain amount
a plan to end the Vietnam war that involved turning over the fighting to the South Vietnamese while U.S. troops gradually pulled out
Truman doctrine
warned the world that the USA would aid countries wanting to resist communism=containment
What is a cord or string with knots, used for counting or keeping records?
the shutting of a plant by an employer for the purpose of forcing workers to meet his terms
Neutrality Acts of 1935-37
During isolationist time after WWI, Laws passed to keep US out of foreign conflicts
A person who makes a long journey for religious reasons
What Stamp Act taxed
Taxed all diplomas, contracts, wills, playing cards, and even published materials such as newspapers
Fordthink ford first. 0_o
1974-1977 Republican took over when nixon resignedeconomy suckedpardoned nixonwar lost
What limits the power of the government to protect the people?
Bill of Rights
Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI)
Special division of the justice department.
William Penn
A Quaker, set up a colony and promised freedom of religion, self- government and reasonably priced land. was successful.
Cross of Gold
What was the title of the speech William Jennings Bryan gave to the Democratic Convention in 1896?
Kansas-Nebraska Act
This Act set up Kansas and Nebraska as states. Each state would use popular sovereignty to decide what to do about slavery. People who were proslavery and antislavery moved to Kansas, but some antislavery settlers were against the Act. This began guerrilla warfare...
1854 law that divided the Nebraska Territory into Kansas and Nebraska giving each territory the right to decide whether or not to allow slavery
in the war what advantages did the north have?
manpower, industry, railroads
Who is known as the "Father of the Constitution?"
James Madison
Glass-Steagall Banking Act of 1933
Law that started the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation to protect individuals' bank accounts
Treaty of Ghent
1814 (JM) , treaty that ended the war of 1812
What marked the beginning of the Great Depression and what was the date?
Black Tuesday
October 29, 1929
Reasons for Lee to Invade North
I. Good for publicity.II. Maryland might joinIII. Army could live off of Maryland crops.
Define machine gun.
it needed 4-6 men to work, had to be on a flat surface, 90 percent of people who were killed in the war were killed by the machine gun.
.Explain: D-Day Who, When, Where, Why
June 6th 1944, Normandy, U.S. against Germans; a surprise attack to prevent Hitler from invading France
gilford court house and camedon
name the battles that were won in the south by the british
who apposed the action to the whisky rebellion.
jefferson, he thought it was foolish!
What were the goals of the radical Republicans?
total restructuring of the South to provide economic and political equality to Blacks
Punish the South for the war
Presidential Reconstruction - void seccession and take oath of loyalty, abolish slavery, and pass 13 th Amendment, pardoned Southerns who took oath
against alcohol
ban on trade
John D. Rockefeller
became Pres. after Diaz
Daniel Shay's rebellion united the colonies in recognizing a need for a strong national government
After WWII, House Un-American Activities Committee- accused people of being communists and "blacklisted" them.
was ended by nixon resigning
17th Amendment
Direct election of Senators
Taxes on imports or exports
An _________ is not a citizen.
Ultimately, John Brown's raid on Harpers Ferry, Virginia,
A) caused southern congressmen to propose tighter restrictions on all Northerners wishing to enter the South.
B) influenced dozens of slave uprisings.
C) motivated the federal government to remove
Brady Bill
(WJC) 1993; handgun violence prevention act; legislation that established a five-day waiting period for handgun purchases
The Plessy v. Ferguson phrase is:
Great Awakening
Evangelical movement that swept through colonies in the 1700s
Urban Sprawl
cities spread in all directions
14th Amendment
Equal Protection of the Laws
phD revolution
importance of social reform; seeing the professions like sociology and psychology proving the need for improvement in the US
Boston Massacre
inncedent in which the colonists slowly snuck on the British and the Bristish soilders fired shots, killing 5 colonists
Mayflower Compact
-Establishes origins of town meetings & direct democracy
the trade route that traded slaves, goods from England, and goods from America
william big bill haywood
leader of the IWW
popular sovereignty
This principle of government states that political power rests with the people. This power is expressed by voting and free participation in government.
Hull Houses
founded by Jane Adams
offered services for immigrants and women
center of women's activism and social reform
Jim Crow segregation
the legalized segregation barring african americans from public and social interaction with whites
House of Burgesses
colonial assembly of elected representatives established by the Virginia Company
how many germans did york kill?
132 troupes
Which occupation made him rich: James Buchanan Duke
Welfare Capitalism
system in which companies enable employees to buy stock, participate in profit sharing and receive benefits
Wade-Davis Bill
in 1864 congress approach to reconstruction, they disliked Lincolns plan and called for 50% or majority of each state, Lincoln pocket veto's this bill and it dies
an area that is completely surrounded by another region
Vertical Consolidation
Gaining control of the many different businesses that make up phases of a product's development
Lincoln-Douglas Debates
Lincoln is new good humor republican and won debate
James Meredith
Civil rights activist who entered the University of Mississippi after being denied admission because of his race. His entrance led to violent riots on the school's campus.
united nations
What did the League of Nations eventually lead to?
invasion of kuwait August 1990
it takes a day
monroe doctrine
a declaration in 1823, that stated that the US would oppose any foreign power to control any nation in the western hemisphere
Emancipation Proclamation
Lincoln wants to preserve union but despised slavery; prohibits slavery in in territories and DC; Lincoln thinks land captured is state but COngress thinks it is territory
ethnic enclaves:
Groups of immigrant ethnic groups who lived together within working class neighborhoods of American cities.
15th Amendment
amendment that forbid states to deny any male the right to vote based on race, color, or previous condition of servitude
cannons, machine gun, rifles, poison gas, armored tank, airplane
six new weapons
Albert Fall
a close friend of various oil executives
John C. Freemont
a republican candidate for president in 1856; fought for Carolinas independence ; opposed spread of slavery
Chiang Kai-Shek
fighting for control of China; Chinese Nationalists
Jay's Treaty
The treaty with Britain that addressed such issues as British refusal to evacuate forts in the Northwest and the seizure of American ships; the treaty was very unpopular but did avoid war with Britain.
What amendment banned alcohol?
The 18th Amendment in 1918
Battle of Antietam
fought in Maryland first battle on Northern soil, bloodies single day battle
National Labor Relations Act
guaranteed workers the right to organize unions without interference from employers and to bargain collectively
Francisco Franco
Fascist dictator of Spain; he led the nationalists to victory in the Spanish Civil War in the 1930s and controlled the Spanish government for nearly 40 years.
Salt treaties
name for series of treaties between US and USSR regarding nuclear weapons--limiting strategic arms
Prince Henry
4. Who was the Portuguese prince who encouraged exploration and helped develop the caravel (a kind of ship) in the early 1400s?
Hard Money
A large # of greenbacks were issued durnign cicil war court declares this unconstitutional
Began to remove them from circulation
creditors supported this type of money, wanted inflation to decrease.
March on Washington
In August 1963, civil rights leaders organized a massive rally in Washington to urge passage of President Kennedy's civil rights bill. The high point came when MLK Jr., gave his "I Have a Dream" speech to more than 200,000 marchers in front of the Lincoln Memorial.
manifest destiny
Many people believed that the U.S. was destined to secure territory from "sea to sea," from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean.
Townshend Act
Act that placed import duties on such goods as glass, paint, paper and tea and was named after Charles Townshend who suggested it to Parliament
Ernest Hemingway
Joined the red cross and became an ambluance driver. Was injured and decided to become a writer
First Detroit Riot
Happened at Belle Isle between a couple white ana black guys.
What was the agreement to have a bicameral legislature called?
Great Compromise
Poison Gas
Germans were the first to use it in 1915.
Puritans v Pilgrims
Puritans came to America to practice a simpler form of religion, but not separate from the Church of England; Pilgrims were separatists who wanted to separate themselves from the Church of England.
Dawes Severalty Act
1870. An act that switched control of Indian lands to individuals instead of tribes. Was meant as a measure to assimilate the Indians.
Battle of Fredericksburg
..., The Union, led by Major General Ambrose Burnside, was defeated and lost 12,000 men. General Robert E. Lee, Commander of the Army of Northern Virginia, was the Confederate general who led in the defeat.
What was the North's policy towards the slaves?
looked at as controband
Who were the Hessian mercenaries?
Professional soldiers from a German state hired to fight for Britain.
Works Progress Administration
agency that was part of the New Deal, that provided the unemployed with jobs in construction, garment making, teaching, art work, and other fields
United States Embassy at Teheran, Iran
(JEC) Mohammed Reza Pahlavi became Iran "shah" and ayatollah khomeini didn't like this, shah wanted "white revolution", and shah exiled Khomeini, who later directed Islamic Republic, and kept hostages, Carter tried to help, he froze all Iranian assets in US, and also sent USS Nimitz in Gulf of Oman where 8 were killed, 2 events (1) Iran became victim of Iraq (2) 30 after RR became president, he talked tough on Carter's policy and 52 hostages were sent free.
The Tennessee Valley Authority
Which New Deal program put the federal government for the first time in the business of selling electricity in competition with private companies?
Siege of Vicksburg
Key to Union victory in the West. Led by Union General Ulysses S. Grant. Starve the troops out, Confederates surrender at the point of mutiny.
What would they do sometimes so they could send supplies over?
They would Ration there food.
When Johnny comes marching home again
popular song of the american civil war
Why was the Monroe Doctrine estabalished?
TO make sure that our hemisphere would be protected.
John C. Calhoun was a planter from South Carolina, was one of the War Hawks who had called for ___
War with Great Britain in 1812.
How did Arnold lift seige of Fort Stanwix?
Made St. Leger's indian allies believe that Arnold was coming with a large force, so indians and St. Leger retreated.
civilian soldiers
Who wrote "Walden"?
Ft. Sumter
Civil War
Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee, college kids participate in Civil Rights, stage sit-ins and such
.Explain: Montgomery bus boycott
someone who favors extreme change
Joseph Smith
founded the Mormon Church
Patriots not onl backed England's actions, they also aided the British army by giving them food and money.
where most industry was located
The Glass-Steagall Act created the _____.
Moderation in or abstinence from alcohol
Corrupt Bargain
Jackson's opponents called the election of Adams with the help of Clay this
Half Moon
The ship Henry Hudson sailed
The idea that people are interdependent.
the branch of anthropology that studies prehistoric people and their cultures
Reason over religion in the 1700s
Federal System
The government system that gives certain powers to the federal government.
Affirmative Action
Laws from 60's-Present. Birthed from 15 amendment
a write record of a spoken event
Gettysburg Address
A two-minute speech by President Lincoln that expressed what the war had come to mean
when the people petition for and present a bill by themselves not through the legislature
branch of democrats who didn't want the government to interfere with Civil Rights
to accuse a public official of wrongdoing in office
Spanish mission in San Antonio, Texas, that was the site of a famous battle of the Texas Revolution in 1836
Poor scots who were made into settleers and sent to ireland. they found that the irish lands sucked and that it was expensive there so they left for the new world. They were considered crude and bothersome but good at fighting indians (in penn.)
What year did the international slave trade end?
Deficit Spending
spending more money than the government receives in revenue
A third party effort (the People's Party) launched in 1890 by a coalition of farmer organizations, reformers, and labor unions and dedicated to curbing corporate power and increasing the voice of the masses in politics.
What is the Legislative Branch's responsibility related to the law?
makes the laws
36-30 line
this was repealed, Kansas and Nebraska were above the line therefore free but disregarded for popular sovereignty
service sector
The sector of the economy that provides services--such as health care, banking, and education--contrast to the sector that produces goods.
Common Sense
Jan 1776, if you want independence then say it, the wake up call, first US bestseller
Upton Sinclair
muckraker who shocked the nation when he published The Jungle, a novel that revealed gruesome details about the meat packing industry in Chicago. The book was fiction but based on the things Sinclair had seen.
Separation of Powers
3 different branches checks and balances
Homestead Act
1862. Permitted settlers to buy plots of 160 acres for a small fee if they occupied the land they purchased for five years and improve it [440].
Tweed Ring
Head of Machine in NYC
aquired >200 MIllion
Thomas Nast & NYTimes outed in 1871
S.J. Tilden was prosecuter
was the day that Eisenhower was going to take back France
Who believed that individuals must fight the pressure to conform?
Henry David Thoreau
william lloyd garrison
American abholitionist who wrote the Liberator
Usually refers to someone of a mixed racial background (African-European child)
Aztec Culture
A early culture of people whose religion placed great emphasis on omens and prophecies. Priests would sacrifice humans by removing beating hearts of humans.
Second Continental Congress
They organized the continental Army, called on the colonies to send troops, selected George Washington to lead the army, and appointed the comittee to draft the Declaration of Independence
Lee tries to invade North again. Tries to take Big and Little Round Top. Lee leads Pickett's charge in the middle of the Union line, believing it to be weaker there. They are picked apart by Union artillery.
Total War
Union strategy to attack not just enemy troops, but anything that helped the enemy: buildings, crops and rail lines
Interest Groups
a group of people who share common interests for political action
Judiciary Act of 1801
creates more judicial posts, creates more seats on supreme court, expands federal judicial system
Red Stick Confederacy
Alliance of Creek Indian groups east of the Mississippi allied with Tecumseh to resist white expansion.
end results of Operation
*we don't find Saddam
*Bush was enormously popular
*hatred for US grows in Middle East (Osama)
*Kuwait freed
Bouweries are...
Dutch farms built outside the walls of a city
control weaker nations.
Imperialism is the practice of strong nations attempting to
The XYZ Affair
France objected to Jay's Treaty and started attacking American ships in the West Indies. French foreign minister, Talleyrand, blackmailed/bribed the American diplomats.
The Lend-Lease Act
This authorized military aid to those fighting Germany and Japan.
stock market crash
Marked and end to prosperity of 1920s
Major Stephen Long
explored the great plains and called it the Great America Desert.
Stono Rebellion
a 1739 uprising of slaves in S. Carolina, leading to the tightening of already harsh slave laws
sanford b dole
U.S. politician and jurist in Hawaii: president of Republic of Hawaii 1894–98; first territorial governor 1900–03.
Francis Scott Key
on board a British ship negotiating a release on night of 13 September; hopes flag is still flying "by the dawn's early light"
second generation immigration
born in US, but from foreign born families
Engle vs Vitale
banned use of offical prayer in NY schools
Lewis and Clark
Sent on an expedition by Jefferson to gather information on the United States' new land and map a route to the Pacific. They kept very careful maps and records of this new land acquired from the Louisiana Purchase.
pequot war 1637
indians burned to death in a massacre at mystic river
Boss Tweed
Tammany Hall was run by him. He stole millions of dollars from NYC.
Confederate States of America
the name adopted by the 11 Southern states that seceded from the Union during the Civil War
machine guns, Mustard gas, tanks, U-Boats, and planes.
what new military technologies were used in WWI?
The Wannsee Conference
in 1942 Nazi Leaders met to make plans for exterminating Europe's Jews more quickly and efficiently at
This is a war or Battle that is Wone at great cost
Pyrric Victory
What restrictions did women experience during the 1840s?
couldn't vote, or own property if married; controlled by men
How was Schuyler able to delay Burgoyne?
Destroyed bridges and diverted creeks that were on Burgoyne's path.
The special interests of industry and agriculture were too strong
Ultimately, why did tariff reform in the United States during the 1880's and 1890's fail?
war between England and spain happens=delay back to roanoke for 3 years, when he returns no one is there and the word CROATOAN is carved on a tree
in 1587, raleigh sent a 2nd group to Roanoke, leader John White had to return to Eng. for more does it end?
Why was the US interested in events in Puerto Rico?
The US was interested because they were in need of many things from Puerto Rico, a canal
great joy
Dred Scott decision
Woodrow Wilson
-WWI President
Great society
war on poverty
payments for war damage
n-compulsion by force or threat
Monopolies manipulation
Stock Watering,
vert & horiz intergration
The Nazi-Soviet nonaggression pact contained a secret deal between Germany and the Soviet Union to divide
Virginia substituded tobacco for gold. The spread of tobacco farming produced a dispersed society with few towns and little social unity. It inspired a get-rich-quick attitude and a frenzied scramble for land and labor.
group of people against the Constitution
(Spainish) founded San Diego in 1769
most notorious confederate prison camp in the confederate states (run by confederates not for confederates)
Gerald Ford
president 1974-77, Nixon's Vice president, only person not voted into the White House, appointed vice president by Nixon: became president after Nixon resigned
The treaty ending the Russo-Japanese War was negotiated in ___.
did not want the new constitution
Vine Deloria, Jr
-Native American activist
-Book: Custer died for your sins (1969)
a group of Florida Native Americans who fought the US government
Espionage Act
act stating any individual questioned for treason or giving any information out about the war or national policies is up for trial, jailing, deportation in some cases
WWI ace fighter pilot against red baron.
John Rockefeller
Established the Standard Oil Company, the greatest, wisest, and meanest monopoly known in history.
Immigration Act
(LBJ) 1965, law discontinued quota based on national origin
a federal program of health insurance for persons 65 years of age and older
a strong fence or defensive work consisting of pointed wooden stakes set firmly and closely together in the groud; used for defense of frontier forts
What were "scalawags"?
Southern Republicans- small farmers, no interest in slavery but instead other things
Grant a land to a vassal
Answer: fief
expulsion of an undesirable alien from a country.
Andrew Johnson
lincoln's successor, had task of overseeing the restoration of Union
demorcratic senate from TN
only southern congressman to remain when state seceded
not a good choice, only meant to be Lincoln's tool
Meat Inspection Act
made labeling meat products a must
Model-T Ford
automobile that led to cars becoming the backbone of american society from 1920s through 1970s
Tet Offensive
a massive surprise attack by the Vietcong on South Vietnamese towns and cities early in 1968
spoils system
system of giving political jobs to loyal supporters or their families
o Andes Mountains of South America is Inca's homes
o Find a lot of gold; very wealthy, advanced
o Francisco Pizarro conquered
Harpers Ferry
(JB), 1859 John Brown's scheme to invade the South with armed slaves, backed by sponsoring, northern abolitionists; seized the federal arsenal; Brown and remnants were caught by Robert E. Lee and the US Marines; Brown was hanged
What was "the gadget?"
Codename for the atomic bomb
Treaty of Paris
Ended the revolutionary war. America was in control of itself. it also gained Mississippi and the Great Lakes.
Munich Agreement
Chamberlain flew to Munich to attend summit with France, Italy, and Germany; discussed future of Czechoslovakia; led to transfer of all Sudenten territories to Germany in return of Hitler promising respect sovereignty of remainder of Czechoslovakia. Hitler did not follow the agreement.
the royal charter of political rights given to rebellious English barons by King John in 1215
Iron Curtain
Border of Soviet Eastern Europe and Democratic Western Europe during Cold War
Jose Vasconcelos
was a mexican writer, philosopher and politician. he is one of the most influential personalities in the development of modern mexico. is often referred to as the father of indigenismo.
people who want to abolish all forms of government -- often anarchists were often recent immigrants to the United States from Europe. This led many Americans to label recent European immigrants as dangerous revolutionaries.
Jefferson Davis
American statesman and leader of the Confederacy during the Civil War, serving as its president. Captured on May 10, 1865, he was charged with treason (not tried) and stripped of his eligibility to run for public office.
President who said "speak softly and carry a big stick"
Theodore Roosevelt
horizontal consolidation
bringing together many firms in the same business
Mark Twain
a novelist and humorist the inspired a host of other young authors when he declared his independence of literature and all that bosh
Adolph Hitler
a soldier who joined the Nazi party that soon became the leader of the Nazi party and published his book.
Arthur St Clair
Beaten by Little Turtle; worst defeat ever by Indians
Fundamental Orders Of Connecticut
-white men of 21 could vote and own property.
-did not apply to women.
Benedict Arnold
one of the worst traitors of american history. almost got canada for us. should've received credit for victory at saratoga. tried to give westpoint to the british.
Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty:
Treaty of 1903 between the U.S. and Panama allowing the U.S. to build and operate an inter-oceanic canal and lease a zone ten miles wide around the canal. The US then built the Panama Canal between 1904 and 1914, and it made Panama a protectorate of the US.
Christopher Columbus
An Italian man who, when he was rejected by Portugal, asked Spain for help traveling east and had his wish granted by Ferdinand and Isabella.
Cornelius Vanderbilt
a railroad owner who built a railway connecting Chicago and New York. He popularized the use of steel rails in his railroad, which made railroads safer and more economical.
Scopes Trial
court case in 1925 in which biology teacher John Scopes broke Tennessee law by teaching Darwinism in a public school; arguments between defense attorney Clarence Darrow and prosecution William Jennings Bryan on teaching evolution made trial one of most publicized in decade; Scopes was convicted, but the verdict was later overturned
Alger Hiss
Charged with being a Soviet spy and was part of a very controversial case which eventually convicted him for jail time
purple heart
a medal awarded for wounds received in action against an enemy or as a direct result of an act of the enemy.
Ethel and Julius Rosenberg
they denied charges against them and pleaded the 5th Amendment
civil rights acts
all persons born in u.s. were now citizens, without regard to race, color, or previous condition
The Boston Tea Party
A 1773 protest against British taxes in which Boston colonists disguised as Mohawks dumped valuable tea into Boston Harbor.
opposition to the war
came from Federalists located in the Northeast/New England
Ordinances of Discovery
began in 1570 new spanish laws that banned the most brutal military conquests
Works Progress Administration (WPA)
employed people to carry out public work projects
Indentured Servant
a person who sold his or her labor in exchange for passage to America.
Gen. Israel Putnam
led a group of American men up to Bunker Hill; in charge of an attachment of men; had men lined up across several lines to make the English think that he had many men to avoid English attack (which was the cause of America's victory, because this scared the British)
a decentralized agrarian republic
In sharp contrast to Hamilton who saw the future greatness of the United States in commerce and manufacturing, Jefferson advocated
What does Castro begin to do shortly after taking over?
televising executions of political opponents; changes the point of view of many US citizens
The establishment of the president's cabinet.
Give one example of interpretation of the constitution in establishing the new government.
What was the putting out system?
ex: clothingYou take each step and pay someone to do in their own house. (cotton to spin, thread to weave, cloth to cut, ect..)
What James Otis said about the Townshend Acts and how he thought Locke would've seen the Townshend Acts
He said the Townshend Acts were completely unfair and writs of assistance were illegal. He thought Locke would've seen the Townshend Acts as wrong b/c they went against his beliefs of natural rights.
How did a cowboy perform a longdrive?
round up the longhorns and drove them to Missouri (most did not survive); other trails rose up
States north of 36 30' N latitude would be free states
What was a provision of the Missouri Compromise of 1820?
overwheming victory
Jail Time
one year
growth of cities
when did jamestown start
Cornwallis surrendered to Washington
Last major battle of the revolutionary war
movementto increase farmers poltical power and work for legislation in there interest, econmic crisis that drove farmers to embrace mov.
John Adams
well known Massachusetts lawyer
Home Rule
A system for changes.
Descendents of Spanish and Mexican conquerors; Spanish speaking inhabitants of California they were culture of Mexico carried to California.
the planned management of natural resources involving the protection of some wilderness areas and the development for the common good
black is beautiful
helped promote black pride
Edward Everett
speaker at Gettysburg; 2.5 hours
explorer that conquered the Inca civilization
washington mall
lincoln memorial, washington mouments, capital
Torrijos-Carter Treaty
-Panama Canal Treaty
-Gave the Panama Canal back to Panama because the Panamanians were getting upset.
- Carter favored it so it was seen as an act to get him out of office (because people didn't like it)
Supreme Court
ruled by Chief Justice John Marshall
John Adams and Thomas Jefferson die.
J.Q. Adams
Crowded slum houses in urban areas, which housed mostly immigrants.
a formal government between two powers to work together towards a common goal
Texas Becomes State*
(JP) 1845, before his inauguration
What did bank holidays do?
prevent bank runs
The Nazis' attempt to kill all European Jews is known as the
Christopher Colombus's voyage
-First settled in Lisbon, Portugal
-Asked Monarchs for money
-King John II says NO
-Asked Ferdinand and Isabella - YES
Susan B. Anthony
____________ was arrested in Rochester, New York, on November 28, 1872 for illegally voting
an unincorporated business owned by a single person who is responsible for its liabilities and entitled to its profits
Marquis de Lafayette
Commander at Valley ForgeWashington's bestfriendBegged the Fr. for reinforcements
Warehouse Act
the farmers were allowed to store their crops for a rate in private warehouses
Harlem Renaissance
a period in the 1920s when African-American achievements in art and music and literature flourished
Trade unions
A labor union, especially one limited in membership to people in the same trade
Gadsden Purchase
Strip of land in present-day Arizona and New Mexico that was acquired by the U.S. in 1853 for $10 million.
anthony wayne
he going to stop the british in virginia.
Clinton's party
VP - Gore, SS - Christopher, Albright
Permanent Security Council Members
UK, US, Russia, France, China
What do you call paper that the government gives you that represents money they owe you.
369th Infantry
African American unit that won the French decoration, Croix de Guerre, for Gallantry.
a colonial region that ran along the Appalachian Mountains.
Henry L. Stimson
An American statesman, lawyer, and soldier, and a member of the Republican Part. He served as Secretary of War on two occasions. One from 1911 to 1913, and one from 1940 to 1945. He also served as a diplomat to Nicaragua and as Governor-General of the Philippines. He also articulated the Stimson Doctrine when Secretary of state from 1929 to 1933.
The first atomic bomb by the americans on what country
Robert E. Lee
Military officer; best known for commanding the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia in the Civil War. In early 1861, Lincoln invited Lee to take command of the entire Union Army. Lee declined because his home state of Virginia was seceding from the Union. Became a postwar icon of the South's "lost cause."
War Industries Board
Focused industries on war goods instead of consumer goods; prevented waste.
Three territories Germany promised Mexico in the Zimmerman Note if mexico started a war with the US
Texas New mexico Arizona
being of or having to do with the northern United States and those loyal to the Union during the Civil War
Joseph Stalin
"man of steel" that took control of the Soviet Union that focused on creating a model communist state
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
gave government protection to settlers on western lands
One thing a person could do in 1900 but not in 1865 was?
A. ride on a train
B play a phonograph
C sew a dress
D read at night
Daniel Webster
a nationalist from New Hampshire and a Warhawk in Congress in 1816 and was a strong spokesman for New England. He was involved in the Webster-Haynes debate over states' rights. He served as Secretary of State under the Tyler administration. In 1836 he ran for the Presidency as a member of the Whig party, losing to Martin Van Buren. He was America's greatest orator.
U.S.S. Maine
Ship that explodes off the coast of Cuba in Havana harbor and helps contribute to the start of the Spanish-American War
Secession -Election of Lincoln
south believe they lost their political voice, Jefferson Davis elected president
gold standard
a monetary system in which the basic unit of currency is defined in terms of a set amount of gold.
Sherman Antitrust Act
1890 - First federal action against monopolies, it was signed into law by Harrison and was extensively used by Theodore Roosevelt for trust-busting. However, it was initially misused against labor unions
Giovanni da Verrazzano
Italian sailor who sailed for the French with hopes of finding an all-water route to Asia
Attack on Pearl Harbor
Started war between Italy, Japan, Germany, and the U.S.
Townshend Acts
acts of the British Parliament in 1767 that placed duties on tea, paper, lead, paint, etc., imported into the American colonies
Civilian Conservation Corps
young men between 17 and 24 from families on relief who worked to help their families
By the end of the 1800s how did most Americans view industrialists?
A they admired them for trying to help consumers
B They respected their success at driving out the competition
C they did not trust them
D They believed that they had worker interest at heart.
Clean Air Act of 1965
set emission standards for factories to reduce air pollution
generation association of nations
wilsons final and most important point in his plan was the creation of
Immigration Restriction Act
this took the number of immigrants in the US in 1890 and only 2% could now come in
Rosie the Riveter
encouraged women to go to work while the men were at war
Effects of War of 1812
Foreign respect for the US and national pride, less Native American resistance, and increased in American manufacturing
Russia withdrew from the war.
After Vladimir Lenin seized control of Russia in 1917,
The British impressment of American seamen and the seizure of cargoes impelled Madison to give in to the pressure from Congress to declare war
What caused the War of 1812?
Who's idea was Bay of Pigs?
Ike's but JFK uses it; big mistake
Pragmatism - Charles S. Peire started it.
Concepts would be fairly understood only in terms of practical effects. Once the mind accepted the truth of evolution, logic required that is accept the impermanece even scientific laws.
Who took over after Lincoln was assasinated?
President Johnson and he followed exactly as Lincoln would have done.
What was the Emancipation Proclamation and where was it applied?
"all states in rebellion are free" & only to states in rebellion
new higher labor costs forced farmers to grow cash crops rather than food crops.
After the war, the South imported much of its food because
How did the Convention of 1818 affect the boundaries of the United States?
It drew a border between the United States and Canada extending to the Rocky Mountains
Founded by Swedes
form of loan
author, inventor, President eventually
Lake Erie
Battle of 1812
George Washington
Commander of continental army
(American Expeditionary Force) first American Soldiers in Europe; small number of infantry troops, but boosted Allied morale
Created ARU (American Railway Union)
efficient corrupt
Major belief of Progressives, governments should be more _____________ and less__________
armistice of WW1
November 11,1918 at 11:00am
horatio Gates
he fails to capture Camden
Settlement House
Community center that provides services to the poor like a place to stay
T/F African Americans immigrated from the rural south to northern cities during WWI
How did Hefferson reduced the influence of the federal government?
Horace Greeley
United States journalist with political ambitions (1811-1872)
When was the bomb created?
summer 1945
Amelia Earhart
made many successful flights but disappeared on the last flight when attempting to fly around the world
Declaration of Independence
a statement declaring independence committee by Jefferson
French joined with Native Americans to attack English in the year ____
refuse to ratify the treaty of Versailles. Completely against the treaty
St. Augustine
The 1st Permanent European settlement in the U.S. Primarily to keep away hugeunots.
Quarantine Speech
FDR's call to isolate aggressors through economic embargoes
process by which an immigrant can become a citizen, must be 18, take a test, and swear an oath of allegiance
Niagara Movement
An attempt at political organization among black activists in the early 1900s. W. E. B. DuBois drafted a "statement of principles" which declared that African Americans should fight for their rights rather than accept abuse and separation.
Most slaves come from eastern Africa. T/F
materials needed for fighting a war
"Evil Empire"
Reagan's term for the Soviet Union
White Surpremacy
belief and promotion that whites are superior to people with other racial backgrounds.
one of the strongest union towns in the united states in 1919
The slave states of the Upper South were not as quick to secede from the Union after Lincoln's election because
A) the U.S. army had already assembled on the north bank of the Potomac River as a persuasive deterrent to secession.
B) they generally believe
Contraband Rule
A term in international law that refers to a belligerent's right to prevent an enemy from receiving goods of value in waging war and to seize and condemn any cargo shipped by a neutral nation to a warring power, usually on the high seas.
James K. Polk*
1845-1849, Democrat, first dark horse, Manifest Destiny, issue - Texas and slavery, talked about "four forty or fight", Liberty Party - James G. Birney (abolition of slavery) Buren and Clay agree for not annexing Texas
Tariff of Abominations
highly disliked by southerners, S. Carolina threat to nullify, states pass resolution opposing the tarriff
The Virginia Plan
Madison arrived in Philadelphia with draft for new framework of government. Edmund Randolph (Virginia govenor) presented the proposal. This was the foundation for the constitution of the USA
Fidel Castro
Cuban communist leader who overthrew a dictator in 1959 and established a Marxist socialist state in Cuba (born in 1927)
Attack 3
Supposed to hit fuel dump and stations
North Dakota
As hundreds of thousands traveled west in the late nineteenth century, which state became the most multicultural state in the Union?
John Jay
The chief justice of the Supreme Court,
Black Panthers
A militant organization formed by Huey Newton and Bobby Seale
George C. Marshall
Military leader under Roosevelt and developer of the Marshall Plan
Who influenced the French to help the colonies during the American Revolution?
Nat Turner's Rebellion
Violent slave rebellion lead by a slave named Nat Turner
Freedom Riders
one of the civil rights activists who rode buses through the South in early 1960s to challenge segregation
Why did nativists dislike immigrants?
Nativists felt that immigration threatened the future of American born citizens. They also claimed immigrants of taking jobs from "real" Americans and were angry that immigrants would work for lower wages. And also accused them of bringing crime and disease to American cities.
John Wilkes Booth
Assassin who kills Lincoln in Ford's Theatre
Albert Sidney Johnston
general for south, in the west, abandoned nashville, died at shiloh
walking city
The type of city common before the Civil War which is limited in size and shape by the necessity of walking to work and which is unzoned so that businesses, residences, and classes are mixed.
Comstock lode
June 1859 in Nevada. Ores worth $4,000 a ton of Gold.
Coercive intolerable acts
1774, reaction tea party, port Boston closed, MA assembly suspended, British officials tried in Eng, quartering act intensified
bays of pig invasion
failed invasion of cubans invading cuba
Mercantile Systems
The process of making money off of colonies by imposing various taxes and navigation acts, these systems caused friction and led to many problems between other countries and even in ones own empire
Joel Chandler Harris
one of the most popular Southern writers
underground railroad
network of escape routes out of the south
Bartolome de Las Casas
fought for the better treatment of Native Americans. He was a Catholic Priest
Time Zones
CF Dowd proposed 24 time zones one for each hour of the day
Nicholas Biddle
head of the Second Bank of the United States; in response to President Andrew Jackson's attacks on the bank, Biddle curtailed the bank's loans and exchanged its paper currency for gold and silver; He was hoping to provoke an economic crisis to prove the bank's importance; in response, state banks began printing paper without restraint and lent it to speculators, causing a binge in speculating and an enormous increase in debt
states' rights doctrine
the belief that the power of the states should be greater than the power of the federal government
Persian Gulf War
a war fought between a coalition led by the United States and Iraq to free Kuwait from Iraqi invaders
GI bill of rights
Law Passed in 1944 to help returning veterans buy homes and pay for higher education
received France's highest medal for distinguished service.
The United States 369th Infantry Regiment, made up of African Americans,
Why is MLK attacked and arrested?
leads march on the most segregated city in the US
Cash and Carry (1939)
We will sell you weapons as long as you come to the US, pay in cash, and transport them yourself (hoping that this will help the economy)
What was the purpose of the Stamp Act?
tax on all printed documents
brown vs. the board of education of topeka, kansas
supreme court case that determined that separate schools for african americans were unconstitutional
the Allied invasion of Europe at Normandy
D-Day was the code name for which World War II event?
William McKinley won the election of 1896 because:
he had the support of the East and Midwest
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