gov Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Coercive Acts
No slavery (AM)
eric holder
atorny general
First Continental Congress
4th woman on justice
sonya sotomayor
3rd woman/1 hispanic
D.C representation for electoral colledge (AM)
No Quartering of Soldiers (AM)
settlement of differences by arbitration or by consent reached by mutual concession
eminent domain, due process, double jeapordy (AM)
monetary policy
selling bonds, affecting intrest rates
Reserve power for the states (AM)
Congress has recently decided that, unlike material published by means of the printing press, material on the internet is not protected by the first Amendment.
new federalism
federal/state relationship proposed by Reagan administration during the 1980s; hallmark is returning administrative powers to the state governments
French and Indian War
1756 - 1763
jamestown founded
first permanent englihs colony, 1607
legislative body composed of 2 chambers
congress cant get a pay raise (AM)
no excessive bail, cruel and unusually punishment (AM)
No illegal search and seizures, and requires warrants (AM)
The Sixth Amendment includes the right to counsel, the right to confront witnesses, and the right to a speedy and public trial.
Americans are more tolerant of free speech rights than are individuals in other industrialized democracies, including France, Spain, Great Britain, Ireland, Canada, and Israel.
seach warant
court authorization that allows police to search a specific area for a specific purpose.
Freedom of Assembly allows groups to demonstrate at any time, place, or in any manner they wish..
The two clauses of First Amendment protections for freedom of religion are the establishment clause and the free association clause.
the publication of statements known to be false that are malicious and tend to damage a person's reputation.
personal liberty
key characteristic of U.S. Democracy. Initially meaning freedom from governmental interference, today it includes demands for freedom to engage in a variety of practices free from governmental discrimination.
a person who generally believes the government should take an active role in the economy and in social programs but that the government should not dictate social behavior
Stamp Act, Followed by Stamp Act Congress
evolution theory
develop natural from early family, primitive family, leader = governor> clan > tribe, turn to agriculture and tie to land, state born
second meeting held in marland with more states in attendance to discuss trade weaknesses of articles of confederation, 1786(Sept.)
substantive due process
seeing if the law is constitutional
plea bargaining
a deal struck between prosecutor and defense attorney when a defendant pleads guilty to a lesser crime in exchange for a promise that he/she would not be prosecuted for a more serious crime.
Incorporation Doctrine
the legal concept under which the Supreme Court has nationalized.
Supreme Court
the final interpreter of the content and scope of American civil liberties.
The Virgina Plan
proposed a strong national government that could make and enforce laws, and collect taxes. The people would be governed by two governments - the state and national. A system such as this is known as a Federal system of government. Additionally, both houses of the legislature would feature proportional representation; basically, this means that the more people a state has, the more representatives it gets in the legislature. Clearly, larger states favored this plan.
state ruled over by a single person, as a king or queen
Gibbons v Ogden
1824, steamboat case established the principle that Congress has sole authority over interstate commerce
form of gov. which leader has absolute power and authority
procedural due process
accesed gets his rights to a lawyer
Brown v Mississippi
Cant force a confession by physical force (CC)
In 2006, Congress passed (the) _______ , which authorized military commissions to try alien unlawful enemy combatants and to deny access to the courts for any alien detained by the US government determined to be an enemy combatant.
Military Commissions Act
Probable Cause
when police have reason to believe a person should be arrested.
Dred Scott v Sandford
Supreme Court case that supported slavery by saying slaves are property not citizens. (1857)
constitutional convention
12 sattes meet to revise articles of confederation; states decide to write a new constitution, 1787
direct democracy
A form of democracy in which political power is exercised by the citizens without representatives acting of their behalf.
Unreasonable Searches and seizures
obtaining evidence in a haphazard or random manner, prohibited by the fourth amendment.
Regan's Contribution to Federalism
Regan and congress took steps to shrink the size of government in favor of programs administered by state governments. This was a shift in Federalism because before Federalists had favored a strong national government, while Regan focused on demphasizing national government.
What are the basic tenants of the Preamble
Personal Liberty
Popular Consent and majority rule
Popular Sovereignty
Civil Society
Religious faith and freedom
writing of articles of confederation
2nd continental congress writes the 1st government of the US, 1777
According to the Federal Communications Commision, what groups need a license?
fox news, cable network news, national public radio
What was the reformation?
The reformation was a period where the Radical Protestants split from the Church of England, it was provoked when the King forbade them from divorcing and remarrying.
It was the first step in leading to freedom from england.
In Schenk v. United States, Justice Holmes wrote in his ruling that government can limit free speech only if such speech provokes a ...
clear and present danger of substantive evils.
What are the basic principles of the constitution?
Separation of Powers
Checks and Balances
Federal System (Federalism)
Thomas Jefferson argued that the first amendment created a "wall of seperation" between...
church and state forbidding not just favoritsm but also any support for religion at all
What was the Divine Right of Kings?
Kings were ordained to rule (God's Will) from the 3rd century to the enlightenment.
Imagine that you are an administrator at a public University. The political science club and the christian fellowship have petitioned you for use of university facilities. According to Supreme Court decisions on the matter of religion and public schools,
must allow both groups the same use of facilities
Shay's rebellion
Art 6
Supremecy Clause
Boston Tea Party
fiscal policy
taxing the people
Overturns the 18 (AM)
criminal trial by jury (AM)
Defines citizenship, due process clause, equal pretection clause (AM)
Clarance Thomas
only Black on Justice
Lingering questions concerning the death penalty center on whether or not it violates the protection against cruel and unusual punishment.
shows the unenumerate rights retained by the people (AM)
Electing president and vice president (AM)
January 20 is election day (AM)
Unlawful search and seizure is prohibited by the Sixth Amendment.
Cooperative Federalism
Cooperation among federal, state, &local govts; "marble cake" federalism
the transfer of powers and responsibilities from the federal government to the states
government in which one person possesses unlimited power
Art 4
Full faith and credit clause (Art)
Prior Restraint
refers to government's censorship of material before it is prohibited.
A vast majority of Americans are opposed to abortion under all circumstances.
The right to privacy is specifically guaranteed in the Bill of Rights.
Advertising is considered a form of commercial speech and according to the decisions of the U.S Supreme Court is subject to greater restrictions on free speech than religious or political speech..
Why have some cities turned to professional managers?
Social Conservative
one who believes that traditional moral teachings should be supported and furthered by the government
french/indian war
conflict between england and france over control of ohio river valley; changes english policy of salutary neglect, 1754-63
The body of fundamental laws setting out the principles, structures, and processes of a government
Gereld Ford
President who never one an electoral vote
when an individual accused of a crime is compelled to be a witness against himself or herself in court
Establishment clause
congress shall not make a law respecting the establishment of religion
In deciding to incorporate parts of the Bill of Rights into state laws since 1925, the Supreme Court has relied on the due process clause of the
14th Amendment
a person who opposed a strong national government
National Government
power to declare war, maintain armed forces, regulate interstae and foreign trade, admit new states, establish post offices, set standard weights and measures, coin moeny, establish foreign policy and make all laws necesscary to carry out all of the delegated powers
indirect democracy
Form of democracy in which individuals are represented by appointed representatives.
mayflower compact
agreement signed by pilgrims to abide by and completely obey rules set by chosen council, 1620
popular sovereignty
basic principle of the American system of government which asserts that the people are the source of any and all governmental power, and government can exist only with the consent of the governed
limited government
basic principle of amer. gov. which states that gov. is restricted in what it may do, and each indiv. has rts. that government cannot take away
Engle v Vital
no public school can promote prayer (CC)
citizen for how many years to be in house/senate
Freedom of Religion is protected by
both a and b
In the case of Roe v. Wade, the Supreme Court outlawed any state laws to restrict a woman's right to an aportion at any point in her pregnancy.
The Great Compromise
set up a two-house congress (senate and house of representatives)
divine right theory
god create, royal birth "divine right" to rule, ppl obey ruler like God
what allows the federal government to monitor communications that begin or end in a foreign country without a warrant?
the protect America act
natural law
a rule or body of rules of conduct inherent in human nature and essential to or binding upon human society
The New Jersey Plan
Provided for a single legislature in which all the states were to have equal representation.
repeal stamp act, declatory act
parliament repeals stamp act buy issues law reiterating its right to tax colonies, 1766
No more then 2 terms or 10 years for a (AM)
The incororation doctrine involves...
application of the Bill of Rights to the States
Battles of Lexington and Concord
"shot heard round the world"; first battles of american revolution, 1775(april)
The Fifth Amendment protection against self-incrimination means that
police officers may use whatever force is necessary to protect themselves from harm in arrest situations.
What are the functions of Government
Establishing Justice - Creating a set of laws that allows individuals to abide by a common set of principles
Insuring Domestic Tranquility - Having a police force, army, etc. to respond to domestic threats and keep the peace.
Providing for the Common Defense - Provide defense for its citizens.
Promoting the General Welfare - Programs and other ways that the government makes the lives of its citizens better.
Securing the Blessing of Liberty - Protecting the rights of citizens to enjoy their freedoms and liberties and their ability to prosper.
the USA Patriot Act allows searches of private property to..
without probable cause and without without notification of the owner
Which of the following is NOT a free exercise issue?
teacher led prayers in public schools
what is also included in the Bill of Rights?
right to bear arms, quartering of soldiers, criminal court procedures, rights reserved to the states
government intervention in the workings of a business market to promote some socially desired goal
process that determines how many representatives a state should have
Ken Cuccinelli
______________ is Virginia's current Attorney General.
limits the debate by allowing each senator one hour for speaking on a bill
the practice of granting favors to reward party loyalty
Content neutral
government's rules must be ____, meaning that while the government can regulate assemblies on the basis of time, place, and manner, it cannot regulate assemblies on the basis of what may be expressed.
enabling act
a congresstional act directing the people of a USA territory to frame a proposed state constitution as a step towards admission into the Union
A(n) ____ is a formal complaint that the prosecutor lays before a grand jury
extend debate to prevent a bill from coming to a vote
Police powers
state powers to effect laws promoting health, safety, adn morals.
chp 6 
concurrent powers
those powers that both the national gov. abd the states possess and exercise
National Health Insurance
A plan under which the government provides basic health insurance to all citizens. In most such plans, the program is funded by taxes on wages or salaries.
Collective security
The principle of ____ works to keep international peace and order by uniting most world nations
Habeus Corpus
right of accused persons to be brought before a judge to hear the charges against them
Roe v. wade
1973 State laws against abortion were unconstitutional chp 6
Right of association
the right to gather with others to promote political, economic, and social causes
Seperation of Powers
idea that the powers of a government should be split between two or more strongly independent branches to prevent any one being too powerful
seniority system
a system in which the chair of a congressional committee is automatically given to the oldest member of the majority party serving on the committee
U.S. v. Va
1996 State may not finance an all male military school
chp 6 
bill of attainder
a law that allows a person to be punished without a trial
Four things that led to Civil rights change for Blacks
1. public opinoin was changing
2. Violent whites were more broadly broadcastedEugene ":Bull" Conner ordered attack dogs in 1963
3. President Kennedy was asassinated.
4. Elections landslided Johnson into victory along with other Democrats.
chp 6 
winner-takes-all representation
change in written words
against Constitution; Sam Adams, Jefferson, Webster
the events/scandal surrounding a break-in at the Democratic National Committee headquarters in 1972 and the subsequent coverup of White House involvement, leading to Nixon's resignation under the threat of impeachment
An association of Congress members created to advance a political ideology or a regional, ethnic, or economic interest.
an endorsement by voters. Presidents sometimes argue they have been given this to carry out policy proposals
when property's owner has reasonable expectation of privacy of items seized
joint committee
conduct oversight or research, but dont have legislative powers
a system of goverment in which religious leaders have absolute power
primary election
Statewide elections in which voters choose delegates to the national party conventions; normally all delegates are pledged to a specific candidate for the party's nomination
social contract
theory that by contract people surrender to the state the power needed to maintain order and the stat in turn agrees to protect citizens
totalitarian dictatorship
leader exercise authoritar power over every aspect of human affairs
dominant political unit in the world. characterized by population, territory, and govt.
25th Amendment
Which amendment provides there will always be a VP?
organizations that pools campaign contribution from group members donates those funds to candidates for political office
Closed rule
an order from the House Rules Committee that sets a time limit on debate; forbids a bill from being amended on the floor
a government by the people with free and frequent elections
political culture
overall set of values widely shared within a society
descriptive v substantive representation
descriptive - legislature should proportionally represent the population by outward characteristics; substantive - when legislatures advocate for a specific group, often in contrast to their background
Diplomatic Recognition
n, the formal acknowledgment of a foreign government as legitimate
fighting words
words that, "by their very utterance inflict injury or tend to incite an immediate breach of peace;" fighting words are not subject to the restrictions of the First Amendment
McCulloch vs Maryland case
Maryland (P) enacted a statute imposing a tax on all banks operating in Maryland not chartered by the state. The statute provided that all such banks were prohibited from issuing bank notes except upon stamped paper issued by the state. Maryland sued McCulloch for failing to pay the taxes due under the Maryland statute and McCulloch contested the constitutionality of that act. The state court found for Maryland and McCulloch appealed
Rosie the Riviter
An iconic female character from World War II, when women had to take over many of the jobs left by the men.
retrospective voting
a theory of voting in which voters essentially ask this simple question: what have you done for me lately?
Unitary Executive
When under attack. us giving power to pres (open power) but he gives it back after
What are BANs?
A governmental unit would issue bond anticipation notes (BANs) to provide funds to defray costs expected to be incurred before the related bonds are issued. Such notes are treated as long-term debt, even if due within one year, if (1) they are to be repaid with the proceeds of the bond issue, (2) all legal steps have been taken to refinance the notes, and (3) the intent is supported by an ability to refinance the short-term notes on a long-term basis.
Reserved or police powers
powers reserved to states by 10th amend, have to do with states right to legislate for the public health and welfare of its citizens
Federal system -
A form of government in which a written constitution provides for a division of powers between a central government and several regional governments. In the United States, the division of powers between the national government and the fifty states is established by the Constitution.
what best describes federal budgets under george w. bush?
lower taxes and increased spending
A system that gives each branch some oversight and control over the other branches is known as
checks and balances
oath of office
oath sworn by the President on the day he takes office
william pitt and edmund burke
allies of benjamin f, john adams, and George Washintgton
The Three-Fifths Compromise settled the debate over
ow slaves should be counted for the census
What is a "writ of habeas corpus"?
directed by a judge to some person who is detaining another, commanding him to bring the body of the person in his custody at a specified time to a specified place for a specified purpose
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