gov final Flashcards

Terms Definitions
our government
Boston Massacre
truman doctrine
contained communism
Declaration of Independence
absence of government
Timithy Geitner
Secretary of Treasury
Establishes womens suffrage (AM)
civilian trial by jury (AM)
Gov can tax income (AM)
(written) Articles of Confederation, ratified in 1781
Ree v Wade
deals with abortion (CC)
Freedom of Speech, Religion, Press, Assembly, and Petition (AM)
Civil Liberties
Individual legal and constitutional protections against government.
supporters of the constitution during the debate over its ratification; favored a strong national government
the institution through which a society makes and enforces its public policies
Art 5
How to amend the constitution (Art)
lobyist, beliefs, party, constituents
4 factors for senators
It is unconstitutional to burn the American flag.
Freedom of conscience (the right to believe) is absolute.
Local Government
the administration of the civic affairs of a city, town, or district, e.g. city council, mayors, local police
a political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them
intolerable acts
british laws punishing massachusetts u ntil restitution is made, 1774(Spring)
democracy: a political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them
No denial of suffrage from race, or color (AM)
Scherick V U.S
arrested for handing out fliers (CC)
exclusionary rule
evidence cannot be introduced into a trial if not constitutionally obtained.
The Supreme Court has ruled that high school newspapers are a public forum and cannot be regulated in "any reasonable manner" by school officials.
form of government in which a few people have the power
Dual federalism
the belief that having separate and equally powerful levels of government is the best arrangement
Necessary and proper clause
Constitutional clause that gives congress the power to make all laws "necessary and proper" for executing its powers
constitution ratified
final ratification by a majority of the states creates the 2nd government of the USA
Plessy v Fergusun
seprate but equal, legal to segregate (CC)
The Bill of Rights allows a group to hold a spontaneous demonstration anytime, anywhere, and anyway it chooses
In Texas v. Johnson..
defined flag burning as symbolic speech protected by the First Amendment.
State Constitutions
the structure of a state gov't - establishes: the branches and outline the powers and method of election; types of local gov't, define their powers and duties, regulate the way state gov'ts can raise and spend money; agencies, boards and commissions that have power in areas that affect how citizens' live directly
albany plan of union
ben franklin's proposed annual meeting of colonies to discuss power of self-government, 1754
Miranda v Arizona
all suspects must be made aware of their rights (CC)
In the case of ________, the Supreme Court ruled that requiring an organization to turn over its membership lists was an unconstitutional restriction on freedom of association.
NAACP v. Alabama
full faith and credit clause
Clause in the Constitution (Article IV, Section 1) requiring each state to recognize the civil judgments rendered by the courts of the other states and to accept their public records and acts as valid
boston tea party
sam adams and son of liberty in protest of tea act dispose of tea in boston harbor, 1773
Court decisions concerning the freedom of expression of so-called "symbolic speech"..
have clearly defined symbolic speech, but have decided that some forms are protected while others are not.
declaration of rights and grievances
9 colonies petition king with reasons for opposition to new trade policies, 1765 (Oct)
In 2000, in United States v. Playboy Entertainment Group, the Supreme Court ruled that
government regulation of sexually explicit material on cable stations must be narrowly tailored to promote the government's interest in protecting children.
What are some the characteristics of American political culture?
Personal liberty,
Equality in the political process.
Popular Consent (Govt draws its powers from the people
Majority rule - new policies generally should only be pursed if the majority agrees.
Ultimate authority rests with the people.
According to the ruling of the Supreme Court, what right does the government have regarding the regulation of religion?
it can prohibit religious practices, but not religious beliefs
What are Hobbes and Locke known for?
Hobbes and Locke are known for their Social contract theory of government.
Locke believed that all men were created equal by their god given right, and this required that all men and women give their consent to be governed.
Hobbes believed that government was necessary in order to preserve order, because life without government would be "solitary, poor, nasty, brutish and short"
what measures can the judicial system take in order to garantee the right to fair trial?
it can only attempt to keep the jury away from media influence
country at war
government authority shared by national and state governments
Amendment that protects from unreasonable search/seizure
the belief that government should leave people free to do as they please and exercise their natural rights to the maximum extent possible
party realignment
gradually shifting of party coalitions, can occur as parties change platforms
Incremental Model
Portrays public policy decision-making as a political process characterized by bargaining and compromise among self-interested decision makers. Concerned with solving problems at hand rather than achieving lofty goals.
political economic system baded on public ownership of the means of production, dictatoriship, authroitarism...
Interstate relations
States must recognize every other state's public acts, records and judicial proceedings; extend to every other state's citizens the priviledges and immunities of its own citizens; agree to return persons fleeing from justice
another term for the right to vote
The belief the government must manage the economy by spending more money when in a recession and cutting spending when there is inflation
committee system
The division of the legislative workload among several congressional bodies assigned specific issues.
forcing the president to leave the presidency removing the president from office
The process of a government or political jurisdiction withdrawing from a political system or alliance.
in ____ primaries, voters can vote in either party without disclosing their party affiliation
Supply-Side Economics
a form of fiscal policy that emphasizes "supply". An example would be a tax cut for business.
A person whose work is to manage relations between nations
legislative branch
passes all federal laws and budgets, declares war, approves treaties, establishes lower federal courts and number of judges
Which of the following House committees is responsible for setting the agenda for the legislation coming to the floor?
A) Rules Committee
crossover voting
participation in the primary of a party with which the voter is not affiliated
line-item veto
an executive's ability to block a particular provision in a bill passed by the legislature
Great Compromise
the agreement by which Congress would have two houses, the Senate (where each state gets equal representation-two senators) and the House of Representatives (where representation is based on population).
11 - Human rights
-states will undertake costly actions to protect the human rights of those outside of their borders
example ---------->

Human rights - rights possessed by all individuals by virtue of being human, regardless of their status as citizens of particular states or members of a group or organization.
11 - Human rights
apartheid - trans-national advocacy networks (TAN) worked closely with South African opposition groups to bring international pressure against the apartheid regime of the White-dominated government. They were systematically denying the the political, economic, social, and cultural right of more than three-quarters of the country’s population.
Party Caucus
A meeting of the members of a political party to decide questions of policy
Housing and Urban Development
Responsible for Housing and urban programs
Gender Gap
a term that refers to the regular pattern by which women are more likely to support Democratic candidates. Women tend to be significantly less conservative than men and are more likely to support spending on social services and to oppose higher levels of military spending
The document which granted land to the colonists was a_____and the document which created a goveremnt was a_____
charter, compact
Fairness doctrine
Rule in effect from 1949 to 1985 requiring broadcasters to cover events adequately and to present contrasting views on important public issues.
Who took control of the American militia gathered around Boston, and declared George Washington general and commander-in-chief?
2nd Continental Congress
arrest warrant
an order signed by a judge naming the individual to be arrested for a specific crime
president of the senate
vice president of the united states, votes for ties
Executive Office of the President
the president's executive aides and their staffs; the extended White House executive establishment
What is political culture?
Political culture is "a manner or way of (political) life;" set of widely held and communicated diverse beliefs and values Americans have formed about government and politics
Democrats regained control of Congress in 2006.
What's the main reason President George W. Bush was so ineffective during his second term in office?
Powers of the President (Greatest 2 least)
Veto(refuse to signa bill), Appointment(pple N2 his cabnet congress approval), Removel(pple no congress approval), Pardon(exonerate-2 forgive)
9 - turn toward globalization
● Due to debt of developing nations, all developing nations turned to Export Oriented Industrialization because the could export more rapidly in order to pay of debts.
● Because of their dependence on rich nations, rich nations in IMF and the World Bank pushed these developing nations to change their economic policies. Because of this, many LDC's became interests in globalization.
9 - turn toward globalization
nations such as india and china have really profited from this.

some downsides:
-can cause currency crisis in developing nations
-causes unequal distribution of wealth in newly developing nations
the popular votes is not necessarily the winner
what is a defect of the electoral college system?
the people represented
taxation should be fair
Federal Election Campaign Act; establishes contribution limits, matching funds/General campaign election fund, disclosure requirements; , limited money given by individuals interest groups and political parties
restricted rule
provision that governs consideration of a bill and that specifies and limits the kinds of amendments that may be made on the floor of the House
Group of people who make laws
a characterization of elecetions by political scientists meaning that they are almost universally accepted as a fair and free method of selecting political leaders
Media: Polls?
1. Wording
2. Interpret
3. MOE
4. Subset: smaller groups means higher MOE
ability to carry out actions independent of internal/external actors. Most nation states ahve high levels. ex. US-high low-Iraq
the group of presidential advisers who head the executive departments
the president's refusal to spend money Congress has voted to fund a program
investing in early primary races to help with media coverage, fundraising in later races
majority rule
a fundamental principle of traditional democratic theory; choosing among alternatives requires that the majority's desire be respected
natural rights
assumed rights that all humans have
A gradual reduction in the dominance of one political party without another party supplanting it.
public policy process in order..
agenda buildingpolicy formulationpolicy adoptionpolicy implementationpolicy evaluation
political withdrawal
fewer citizens feel involved enough in their community to be interested in voting
Popular vote
The votes by Citizens in a presidential election
someone who favors a lot of government involvement for issues like women's rights, elderly, and minorities
controllable spending
Specific items in budget (decide how much spent)
test case
practice by which a group deliberately brings a case to court in order to secure a judicial ruling on a constitutional issue
comparable worth
the issue raised when women who traditionally hold female jobs are paid less than men for working at jobs requiring comparable skill
(in an election with more than 2 options) the number of votes for the candidate or party receiving the greatest number (but less that half of the votes) competing interest groups
Federalist #39
James Madison, 1788, tries to describe the government as proposed by the Constitution as neither wholly federal nor national.

Central Idea: Congress → limited by Enumerated Powers. Residual sovereignty of States > National Gov’t

Keep in mind the connotation of “federal” in his writing (federal -> states power; national -> central government)

Wants to sway public opinion toward the Federalist’s position.

Redefines “republic”; To be a republic, there are three implications:

(1) Power to govern is derived, directly or indirectly, from the consent of “the great body of the people”

(2) Elected representatives are administrators of the people

(3) Terms of representatives are limited by good behavior.

Consent is given directly and indirectly. Directly: when people elect representatives. Indirectly: when state legislatures elect senators.
parties that are out of power act as this to keep a close eye on the actions of the party in power for a blunder to use against them in the next election
Bottom Up
success came from the bottom up, all the above
cabinet departments, regulatory agencies, government corporations, independent executive agencies
The 4 different types of bureaucracies
purpose of government
1) to provide order with minimal violence. 2) turn people wishes to reality. 3) To provide for the collective good.
public policies
everything a govt decides to do. ex: taxes, defense, education
From what part of society did the delegates of the Constitutional Convention come from?
elite aristocracy
modified one party system
where one party regularly wins most elections
Senior Executive Service
An elite cadre of about 9,000 federal government managers, established by the Civil Service Reform Act of 1978, who are mostly career officials but include some political appointees who do not require Senate confirmation.
Informal Amendment
a change in the meaning, but not the wording, of the Constitution, e.g., through a court decisions such as Brown v. Board.
Chimel v. California (1969)
1. Issue: Local police searched house without warrant
2. Cout ruled that officers MUST have a warrant, and could only search in "plain view" and in "immediate area"
Political Action Committee (PAC)
any SIG that donates money directly to candidates must form a committee in the SIG that is fed regulated
What are political machines? How did they add to the strength of local political parties?
• They are political organizations controlled by a small number of people and run for partisan ends; controlled party nominations for public office and rewarded supporters with govt jobs and contracts
• Good things:
o Provided many services for new immigrants- took care of people who vote for them
o Provided jobs for low skilled workers and women and minorities
8 - Bretton Woods Monetary System
-(1945-1973 came right after gold standard) This
was a type of compromise between fixed and floating
-Other currencies were fixed to the dollar but were permitted to adjust their exchange rates.
8 - Bretton Woods Monetary System
-system of fixed but adjustable rates (ADJUSTABLE PEG)
required gov’t to keep currency values fixed for relatively long periods but permitted them to alter them if and when gov’t found it desirable to do so.

Meant that the US dollar’s value could not change-it was fixed at $35 per ounce of gold.
qualifications to be elected for HOR
HOR- must be at least 25 yrs. old; must be a US citizen for at least 7 yrs. and reside in the state at which they are representing.
appeal to
technology skill
use of computers
symbolic representation
assuming legislator will represent/favor his own ethnic group or gender. rather than the whole population
politicizing the nomination process through an organized public campaign that portrays the nominee as a dangerous extremist
indicates which party the Supreme Court justices support and by how
large a margin
mechanism requiring sixty senators to vote to cut off debate
Implied Powers
Powers inferred from other powers
Issues in which international and domestic concerns are mixed
25th Amendment #2
1.vice presidnet,2.speaker of house,3.president pro tempore,cabinet(15),4.Sec of state,5.Sec of war defence,6.Sec of treasury,7.Atty general
straw poll
unscientific surveys used to gauge public opinion on a variety of issues and policies
Amendment 4
Protection from illegal searches & seizures
motor voter
National Voter Registration Act of 1993, required state governments to make the voter registration process easier by providing uniform registration services through drivers' license registration centers, disability centers, schools, libraries, and mail-in registration. Mandate making it easier to vote
selection bias
sample is unrepresentative; ex. "Dewey defeats Truman" 1948, polling ended early, late deciders supported Truman
categorical grants
federal programs that provide funds for specific programs such as flood assistance
An absolute ruler who governs without restrictions.
Article which creates the Amendment process
Article 5
Party Machines
a type of political party organization that relies heavily on material inducements to win votes and to govern
elastic clause
The final paragraph of Article I, section 8 of the Constitution, which authorizes Congress to pass all laws "necessary and proper" to carry out the enumerated powers"
Federal Communication Commission
the federal agency charged with regulating telecommunications including radio and tv broadcasting.
Police power
the ability of the government to protect its citizens and maintain social order
a proposed law that will be debated and voted on by a legislative body
Developed Nation
nations that are only beginning to develop industrially
Primary versus Caucus
In primaries, people don't debate before voting. In caucuses, people debate issues before voting
______- a person's ability to read or write
costs of voting
Time (to vote, research), information cost, gas to vote... cost of resource information...
Ex post facto
can't punish someone for a crime unless it was a crime when committed
a question or case decided in a court of law
Governor Charlie Crist
Who is the current governor of Florida?
cloture rule
rule 22 of the senate, providing for the end of debate on a bill three-fifths of the members agree. the purpose is typically to terminate a filibuster and to force a vote on a bill
New Jersey Plan points
one-house legislature with one vote for each state, congress w/ability to reaise revenure and supreme court w/members appointed for life
What did the Executive Reorganizational Act of 1939 do for the President?
granted him new administrative powers
Cooperative federalism:*
a system of (g) in which powers and policy assignments are shared between states and the national (g). They may also share costs, administration, and even blame for programs that work poorly.
White House Staff
a group of offices in the executive branch that provides the president with political advice, promotes the president's program with legislators and interest groups, and handles the president's public relations
Difficulties in local government: councils of government (regional planning commissions)
Divide the state into multiple counties. Supposed to coordinate between the county, city, and special purpose districts. These are non binding decisions, fairly weak at how much they can do.
Type of Interest Group: Professional Groups
Interest groups that represent a profession, set a standard (ie. American Medical Association)
reserve (or police) powers
powers reserved to the states by the Tenth Amendment that lie at the foundation of a state's right to legislate for the public health and welfare of its citizens
reasons why parties were weakened by the progressive movement and new deal
1. direct primaries
2. civil service laws ended the spoils system and implemented merit
3. social welfare services were offered by the new deal
4. issue oriented and candidate centered politics have risen
The government prints up money and offers bailouts (it lends money to large businesses so that they don't go bankrupt).
How does the government maintain the economy?
7 - Who wants to borrow and who wants to lend?
-developing countries are by definition short of capital, making them eager to borrow
-Using borrowed money to speed growth and increase national output gives developing economies powerful interests in attracting loans and makes borrowing relatively uncontroversial within debtor countries, as long as there are good economic times
National Security Council
Print Media
newspapers, magazines, newsletters, and books
What does "sovereignty" mean?
Independent authority
Article 7 of the Constitution
ratification process
establish justice
set a system of laws
Elastic Powers
stretched powers of the Constitution
untrue spoken statements that defame the character of a person
Free enterprise system
Economic system characterized by private or corporate ownership of capital goods; Investments determined by private decision rather than state control and determined in state market.
A person who lives in a place
separation of powers
Constitutional division of powers among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches, with the legislative branch making law, the executive applying and enforcing the law, and the judiciary interpreting the law.
Delegated Powers
expressed powers granted to a government by its constitution
the single most expensive social welfare program is...
social security
def: voucher programs
provide taxpayer supported financial assistance to needy parents who wish to send their students to private schools
Petition of Right
no random imprisionment, limits on martial (military) law, no quartering (housing the military), no tax w/o Parliament's consent, challenged Divine Right of Kings-king subject to laws.
National Party convention
end of July beginning of august
Terms of Elected Office
Senate-6, House-2, Texas Senate-4, Texas House-2
Prospective voting
voting for a candidate because you favor his or her ideas for handling issues
District Attorney/DA
prosecuting lawyer for gov, decides if gov will prosecute
26th amend
gave people over 18 right to vote.
a devotion to the interest of a particular region
conference committee
committee composed of house and senate members that try to reconcile disagreements between the two branches of congress over differing versions of a bill
rotation in office
practice of citizens serving in public office for a limited term and then returning to private life
Constitutional Government
a government in which the leaders have won an election and need to recognize and enforce laws
amicus curiae
"friend of the court"; a third party to a lawsuit who files a legal brief for the purpose of raising additional points of view in an attempt to influence the court's decision
New Federalism
Ronald Reagan elected in 1980 on a pledge to return power to the states
Concept of New Federalism (1980s-2001)
Attempts were made to shrink the national government, allow states to administer more
real and adverse
criteria to determine case taken by supreme court. real issue between individuals or the government, between two parties.
closed primary
a primary election in which voting is limited already to registered party members
A type of democracy in which ordinary people make the laws themselves is called : _hyperdemocracy or ,retrospective democracy or,representative democracy or ,direct democracy or, indirect democracy_.
direct democracy
What is reapportionment?
determining # of seats for each state of House
policy initiation
the 1st step taken to make or change policy.
Human Development Index (HDI)
Estimate of overall health wealth and education of a country's people
Commerce Clause -
The clause in Article I, Section 8, of the Constitution that gives Congress the power to regulate interstate commerce (commerce involving more than one state).
Schabas 1 - principles of the likeminded (those who disagreed with the ILC)
-wanted inherent jurisdiction over “core crimes”(genocide, crimes against, and war crimes)
-wanted elimination of the UNSC veto in prosecutions
-independent prosecutor with power to initiate proceedings propio motu
-prohibition of reservations to the Statute
How many African-Americans lived in the Colonies at the time of the Const. Convention? What was the percentage of the total population?
600,000 or 18% of the total population
H-B article - Preferential Trade Agreements
*today many international institutions embed human rights standards and expectations into rules and regulations governing trade.*

better way of regulating human rights behavior than Human Rights Agreements because HRAs have two inherent flaws:
H-B article - Preferential Trade Agreements
The first is that HRAs lack any apparent incentives to make repressive governments conform and do what the agreement states.
The second is that, in addition to the lack of incentives to cooperate with the agreement, there is no superior power that compels observance of the law.

*Because of these two flaws, HRAs are often disregarded by some member states as an agreement that is not binding.**
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