the holding of an office
the legislative process through which the majority party in each statehouse tries to assure that the maximum number of reps from its political party can be elected to congress through the redrawing of legislative districts
number of African-Americans at the Constitutional Convention?
what city was the Constitutional Convention held in?
A population count (every 10 years)
member of the electoral college chosen by methods determined in each state
supporters of the U.S. Constitution at the time the states were contemplating its adoption
True/False - citizens of the United Sates have to follow the laws of the U.S.?
the highest court in the U.S.?
election in which voters decide which of the candidates with in a party will represent the party in the general election
the document written in 1787 and ratified in 1788 that sets forth the institutional structure of the U.S. government and tasks these institutions perform; it replaced the Articles of Confederation
to stand on a on decided cases
together, what is the Senate and House of Representatives called?
which amendment says that we have rights than it says in the Constitution?
True/False - if you born outside the U.S. to a parent who is a U.S. citizen, you are not a U.S. citizen?
The legislative body that makes laws for the state of Maryland
the reallocation of the # of seats in the House of Reps after each decennial census
|Bill of Rights||
the first ten amendments to the Constitution, drafted in response to some of the anti-federalist concerns; these amendments define such basic liberties as freedom of religion, speech, and press, and guarantee defendants' rights
which amendment says that you have the right to have a trial seen by a jury of your peers?
|Speaker of the House||
leader of the House of Representatives?
this system gives all key powers to the national or central government
|Writ of Habeas Corpus||
a court order requiring jailers to explain to a judge why they are holding a prisoner in custody
if a President vetoes a law, what can Congress do?
|Differences between articles of confederation and the constitution||
Articles: unicameral, states had more power, no national executive, no national courts, congress could not regulate interstate commerce, depended on states to provide militAry support, could not collect taxes, within congress every state had a single voter no matter population, 9/13 states to pass a law, unanimous consent.
Constitution: national government cN collect taxes, a much more powerful central/national government, can regulate interstate/foreign commerce, three branded of government that can check and balance each other, congress is bicameral with the houses able to check each other, house based on populations,senate based on equal representation.
electors in DC
How many House of Representatives
|Positive Rights versus Negative Rights||
The accumulated total of federal deficits, minus surpluses, over the years
legally specified and limited contributions that are clearly regulated by the Federal Election Campaign Act and by the Federal Election Commission
|3 parts of constitution||
preamble, articles, amendments
The group of presidential advisors that include the fifteen executive department heads and other top officials
when property's owner has reasonable expectation of privacy of items seized
|equality of opportunity||
provide citizens with opportunities for participation in economic system. but accept unequal results in income, power, and property ownership
a view that emphasizes the importance of individual choice and responsibility, the private sector, and the free market, in which government's primary obligations are to defend the country militarily, protect individuals from crime, and ensure that people fulfill contracts entered into freely
Money that is designated for a specific program in someone's district.
money from the national government that states can spend within broad guidelines determined by Washington
the individual in an election who currently holds the contested office; as distinct from the challenger, who seeks to remove the incumbent from power
the constitutional amendment passed in 1964 that declared poll taxes void in federal elections
organizations that, under section 527 of the internal revenue code, raise and spend money to advance political causes
nominating elections in which only voters belong to that party may participate. Only registered Democrats can vote in a closed Democratic primary, for example
what the public thinks about a particular issue or set of issues at any point in time
the value that all Americans should be treated the same under the law, be able to influence government, and have equal opportunity to succeed in life
those legally eligible to vote who have registered in accordance with the requirements prevailing in their state and locality
A belief that ultimate power resides in the people.
|What influences how a member of Congress makes decisions?||
-staff and support agencies
|Checks and Balances||
Each branch of the government exercises some control over the others
Analysis of a public policy to determine how well it is working
right to counsel in federal courts; Supreme Court ordered states to provide an attorney for indigent defendants accused of a capital crime (Powell v. Alabama), and in 1963, the Court extended the same right to everyone accused of a felony (Gideon v. Wainwright). The Court later ruled that a lawyer must be provided for the accused whenever imprisonment could be imposed (Argersinger v. Hamlin, 1972); speedy trial and an impartial jury, but most cases are settled through plea bargaining rather than through trial by jury.
it's a good thing (Professor at Columbia University)
▪a sign of healthy democracy
•it means people are involved
•something happens in the political system that upsets some people...
◦and they for a group so as to counteract it
▪instead of complaining
•example (not given by Truman): Massachusetts legalizes gay marriage (2003)... groups form to oppose it
•groups are formed to counteract other group's activity, as well
◦government manages conflict
◦Ted Lowi: it's a bad thing, generally
▪no guarantee of getting good policies
•this is a general criticism
◦E.E. Schattschneider: also bad
▪“the pluralist chorus sings with an upper-class accent” (1960s)
•this system benefits wealthy
◦2/3 of interest groups represent the business community
•poor people under-represented
◦they can't afford to make campaign contributions
◦Mancur Olson: it's irrational
▪MAKES NO SENSE
▪Why volunteer? - and give money – when the group will succeed without you?
•Free rider problem
◦you will receive the benefits anyway, whether or not you join and give money
those who are willing to use gov't to promote order but not equality
|Partial birth abortions||
Abortions that are done to fetuses that are at least twenty years old.
a tax that rises in percentage terms as incomes rise
a primary election in which only a party's registered voters are eligible to vote
|The Civil Service System||
All appointive positions in the executive, judicial, and legislative branches of the government of the united states, except positions in the uniformed services.
|Checks and Balances||
- All branches check each other relating to powers
|court of appeals||
second tier of courts in the federal judicial system, serves each if 11 regions plus one for DC
a second way a president can veto a bill
he was the only president to have been elected once & re-elected 3 times
|secure the blessings of liberty||
6th goal of the Constitution (stated in the preamble)
|The Budget Act of 1921||
Required the President to submit an annual budged for the Federal Government to Congress
|Gonzales v. O Centro Espirita Beneficente Uniao do Vegetal||
case decided by the United States Supreme Court involving the Federal Government's seizure of a sacramental tea, containing a Schedule I substance, from a New Mexican branch of the Brazilian church União do Vegetal (UDV). The church sued, claiming the seizure was illegal, and sought to ensure future importation of the tea for religious use. The United States District Court for New Mexico agreed and issued a preliminary injunction under the Religious Freedom Restoration Act
|white, male, 55 yrs old, married, 2 kids, christian||
what are the characteristic (averaged) for a member of congress.
|Why was Madison so concerned about public opinion?||
There was a chance that they were divide rather than unite the country;Mob rule over a political minority
freed some slaves
|Marbury v. Madison||
Established Judicial Review
smaller committees within larger committees
legislation benefits one state or district
To come together as a group
Human Nature: essentially good- "noble savage" society made a person unhappy and corrupt, larger societies would perpetuate human unhappiness
A parliamentary procedure used to close the debate. Cloture is used in the Senate to cut off filibusters. Under the current Senate rules, three-fifths of senators must vote for the cloture to halt a filibuster
philosophy of political reform based on the goodness and wisdom of the individual citizen as opposed to special interests and political institutions
(not used) a bicameral legislature with proportional representation in each house and executive and judicial branches chosen by legislature
for elite wealthy women not poor
made by delegates of Constitutional Convention from many larger states to ask for strong national gov't (w/ bicameral legislature, national executive, national judiciary, and legislative representative based on population)
|Greece and Aristotle||
Democracy was originally associated with...
A foreign policy of withdrawal from international policical affairs
|________- list of all registered voters in each precinct||
|Has a U.S. president ever been impeached/convicted?||
Conducted at the polling places on Eleciton day, used to help the media predict the outcome
Gave Congress power to collect taxes on income
reasonable cause for issuing a search warrant or making an arrest; more than mere suspicion
the action of nominating or state of being nominated
comittee used by political parties at their nat'l conventions to determine which delegates may participate.
|Secretary of State||
Hillary Clinton; Refers to the official responsible for foreign policy and is the head of the United States Department of State.
|_________ is the political extension of special interest groups which have a major stake in public policy||
Political Action Committee
|Supreme Court should take an active role in using its poweres to check the activities of government bodies when they exceed their authority||
second part of the Townshend Acts that imposed customs duties on colonial imports of glass, lead, paint, paper, and tea.
A person who has full control of a group
a group of people chosen to make the laws
|unprotected categories of speech||
obscenity (the miller test, community standards), libel and commercial speech
states the courts should play a role in shaping the national policies
When Kuwait reflagged it s tankers in 1987 so that it would not be attacked by Iran during the Iran-Iraq war
A provision in a deed to real property prohibiting its sale to a person of a particular race or religion. Judicial enforcement of such deeds is unconstitutional.
|FDR's legacy as president||
the growth of modern presidency begins with FDR
-elected during Great Depression (1932)
-immediately begins work on helping economy (New Deal)
-president during outbreak of WWII
-new, permanent federal agencies
|equal time rule||
an FCC rule that is a broadcaster sells time to one candidate, it must sell equal time to other candidates
|equal privileges and immunities clause||
a clause in the Constitution stating that states are to treat equally their citizens and the citizens of other states.
he was 1 of 2 presidents chosen by the House of Reps
|necessary and expedient clause||
a clause in Article II, section 3, of the Constitution that authorizes the president to recommend legislation to Congress
|Impeachment: the role of both Houses of Congress||
Senate: serves as jury for impeachment process
House: starts the impeachment process
|Describe Thomas Jefferson's role in the second Continental Congress of 1775. Discuss how he was chosen for this role.||
1. His role was to represent VA.
2. He was chosen to write the Declaration of Independence.
3. He was chosen to write largely because he brought the support of the southerners.