Show Complete List in Table format Hide Complete List in Table format
Terms Definitions
Free association is a method designed to explore the unconscious.
Jordan feels guilty for hurting his younger brother. Freud would have attributed these feelings to Jordan's superego
Frank refuses to believe that he is addicted to drugs despite overwhelming evidence to the contrary. He is most clearly demonstrating the defense mechanism of denial
Which neo-Freudian theorist emphasized that personality development is strongly influenced by feelings of inferiority? Adler
Celine recently had a vivid dream that was strikingly similar to an ancient but unfamiliar religious myth. This coincidence would have been of particular interest to Jung
Mr. Dutoit was asked by his psychotherapist to look at some ambiguous photographs and make up a story about each. Mr. Dutoit was most likely completing a(n) ________ test. projective
The Rorschach inkblot test often fails to yield results that are consistent from one assessment to a second subsequent assessment. This most clearly indicates that the test is not reliable
Which of the following Freudian ideas is most consistent with contemporary psychological research findings? Conscious awareness of what goes on in our own minds is very limited.
Which theory has been most severely criticized for offering after-the-fact explanations without advancing testable predictions? psychoanalytic theory
Which personality theorists have most clearly been credited with encouraging the popular belief that a positive self-concept is the key to happiness and success? humanistic theorists
Carl Rogers emphasized that a positive self-concept is promoted by unconditional positive regard.
Which theorists have been criticized for underestimating the human predisposition to engage in destructive and evil behaviors? humanistic theorists
An interest in describing and classifying the many ways in which individuals may differ from one another is most characteristic of the ________ perspective. trait
A person who is helpful and trusting most clearly ranks high on the Big Five trait dimension known as agreeableness
A highly anxious and insecure personality illustrates the Big Five trait dimension of neuroticism
Which perspective most clearly emphasizes the interactive influences of traits and situations on human behavior? social-cognitive perspective
Analena's refusal to purchase fattening snacks at the grocery store is both a cause and a consequence of her superior dietary self-control. This best illustrates the importance of reciprocal determinism.
Corbett refuses to take reasonable precautions to protect his health because he believes good health is just a matter of luck anyway. Corbett's attitude best illustrates an external locus of control.
Paula expects that diligent study will enable her to earn good grades on her tests. Paula's belief best illustrates an internal locus of control.
Mr. Carlson is a politician who credits his past election victories to his own effective communication and hard work; he attributes his past election losses to factors beyond his control. His assessments best illustrate self-serving bias.
A criticism of the social-cognitive perspective has been that it underestimates the importance of enduring personality traits.
Psychiatrists and psychologists are most likely to consider socially unusual behavior as disordered if it is personally distressful.
DSM-IV-TR is most likely to be criticized for classifying an excessively broad range of human behaviors as psychologically disordered.
Today's psychologists assume that disordered behavior is influenced by all of these factors.
The medical model would be LEAST helpful for explaining the dramatic increase in reported cases of dissociative identity disorder during the past 40 or so years.
A psychotherapist is most likely to use the DSM-IV-TR in order to ________ various psychological disorders. identify
Jeremy experiences so much anxiety about taking the elevator that he climbs 10 flights of stairs to get to his office each workday. Jeremy appears to suffer from specific phobia.
Repeatedly checking to see if your stove is turned off is to ________ as repeatedly thinking you might try to set your own house on fire is to ________. compulsion; obsession
Repeated distressing dreams and intrusive memories of an intensely fearful and life-threatening experience are symptoms most commonly associated with post-traumatic stress disorder.
Learning theorists have suggested that compulsive behaviors are reinforced by anxiety reduction.
It is easy to condition but hard to extinguish fears of the types of stimuli that threatened our ancestors. This fact is best explained from a ________ perspective. biological
Research on anxiety disorders indicates that some people are more genetically predisposed than others to develop anxiety disorders.
Fear-learning experiences can traumatize the brain by creating fear circuits within the amygdala
Evidence that dissociative identity disorder is not simply a product of conscious role-playing is most clearly provided by the distinct brain and body states associated with differing personalities.
Bipolar disorder is most likely to be characterized by alternations between extreme hopelessness and unrealistic optimism.
Which of the following disorders typically occurs in periodic episodes that eventually terminate by themselves even without professional help? major depressive disorder
The incidence of major depression is greatest among those reared apart from an identical twin who suffers the disorder.
Research suggests that women are more vulnerable to depression than men because women are more likely to respond to negative life events with self-focused rumination. This suggestion best illustrates a ________ perspective. social-cognitive
Self-blaming attributions are most likely to be associated with depression
Seeing one-eyed monsters would be a(n) ________. Believing that you are Christopher Columbus would be a ________. hallucination; delusion
The chances for recovery from schizophrenia are considered to be greatest when the disorder develops rapidly in response to a stressful life situation.
Schizophrenia that develops gradually over a long period is called ________ schizophrenia. chronic
A PET scan study of people with ________ found increased activity in the amygdala. paranoia
An abnormal shrinkage of cerebral tissue is most likely to be associated with schizophrenia
Evidence suggests that ________ contribute(s) to schizophrenia. prenatal viral infections
North Americans born during the winter and spring months are at a slightly increased risk for schizophrenia
Personality disorders are best described as inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning.
One cluster of personality disorders marked by noticeably odd or eccentric behavior is exemplified by the ________ personality disorder. schizoid
Researchers have found low levels of ________ in 13-year-old boys who were later convicted of a crime as 18- to 26-year-olds. adrenaline
Immigrants to the United States from Mexico average ________ mental health than Mexican-Americans born in the United States. Immigrants to the United States from Asia average ________ mental health than Asian-Americans born in the United States. better; better
Study this Flashcard on your Mobile Device Look at our list of Apps