Ch 16 BIO Flashcards

Terms Definitions
During Griffith's experiments with Streptococcus pneumoniae in mice, material from _____ bacteria transformed _____ bacteria.
heat-killed virulent ... living nonvirulent
Avery and his colleagues' 1944 experiment showed that DNA _____.
was the substance that transformed the bacteria in Griffith's experiment
A scientist assembles a bacteriophage with the protein coat of phage T2 and the DNA of phage T4. If this composite phage were allowed to infect a bacterium, the phages produced in the host cell would have _____.
the protein and DNA of T4
In an important experiment, a radioactively labeled bacteriophage was allowed to infect bacteria. In a first trial, the phage contained radioactive DNA, and radioactivity was detected inside the bacteria. Next, phage containing radioactive protein was used, and the radioactivity was not detected inside the bacteria. These experiments led to the conclusion that _____.
the genetic material of the phage is DNA
Up until Hershey and Chase showed that DNA was the genetic molecule, what molecule was considered the best candidate for carrying genetic information and why?
proteins because they were thought to be the only molecule with both the variety and specificity of function to account for the array of heritable traits observed
Monomers for the synthesis of DNA are called _____.
Chargaff found that for DNA _____.
the ratio of A to T is close to 1:1 and the ratio of G to C is close to 1:1
What technique was most helpful to Watson and Crick in developing their model for the structure of DNA?
X Ray Crystalography
In DNA, the two purines are _____, and the two pyrimidines are _____.
a,g &t,c
The two sugar-phosphate strands that form the rungs of a DNA double helix are joined to each other through _____.
hydrogen bonds
The information in DNA is contained in _____.
the sequence of nucleotides along the length of the two strands of the DNA molecule
Who is credited with explaining the structure of the DNA double helix?
Watson and Crick
Which of the following attributes of DNA is most crucial to its accurate duplication?
Base pairing and hydrogen bonding
The experiments of Meselson and Stahl showed that DNA _____.
DNA replicates in a semiconservative fashion
The role of DNA polymerases in DNA replication is to _____.
attach free nucleotides to the new DNA strand
What enzyme joins Okazaki fragments?
The unwinding of DNA at the replication fork causes twisting and strain in the DNA ahead of the fork, which is relieved by an enzyme called _____.
The overall error rate in the completed DNA molecule is approximately _____.
1 error per 10,000,000,000 nucleotides
Put the following DNA-containing entities in order according to the amount of DNA found in their genomes.
virus, bacteria, eukaryote
What is the major difference between bacterial chromosomes and eukaryotic chromosomes?
Bacteria have a single circular chromosome whereas eukaryotes have several linear chromosomes.
Unlike prokaryotic DNA replication, replication of eukaryotic chromosomes _____.
cannot be completed by DNA polymerase
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