american revolution Flashcards

Terms Definitions
tories
loyalists
revisionist
diff perspectiverevises history
Thomas Paine
wrote Common Sense
Who wrote "Common Sense"?
Thomas Paine
When was the Declaration signed?
1776
Place where Horatio Gates abandoned his men
Camden
James Otis
Massachusetts lawyer and public official
Cause: Pontiac's Rebillion
Effect: Proclamation of 1763
general howe
replaces general gage and evacuates boston to british canada, loyalists go with british
Lord Cornwallis
British general who surrendered at Yorktown.
THE GOAL OF FRANCE
TO DEFEAT GREAT BRITAIN
Common Sense
1176, Thomas Paine, called for complete independence from G.B.
 
revolution
the termination of a government by those who are governed by force, violence
Baron Von Steubon-- Whoat contry was he from---
Germany
Who commanded the French land forces in America during the american revolution?
General Rochambeau
john hancock
Patriot leader and president of the Second Continental Congress; first person to sign the Declaration of Independence.
Midnight ride
Paul Revere, William Dawes, and Samuel Prescott were part of this event
"Intolerable Acts" (1774)
British closed Boston Harbor;No more assemblies;Colonists were ANGRY;13 Colonies unite and talk more to plan revolt against Britain
Marquis de Lafayette
French general in American Revolution; on Patriot side
1st continental congress
response to intolerable acts,met in Philly to discuss actions against British and set up boycotts
Charles Townshend
1767- Establishes the Board of Customs Commission (No juries; just on the spot decisions) Creates Townshend Acts (5 new taxes)
Governor William Cosby
Lousy thief, rigged elections, bribed judges, and somehow was still governor of New York. (British didn't want to fire him because it would show they made a mistake in hiring him, and they were perfect)
bunker hill
a hill in Charlestown, Mass.: the first major battle of the American Revolution, known as the Battle of Bunker Hill, was fought on adjoining Breed's Hill on June 17, 1775.
Camp Followers
Women who followed their men by choice or economics into war, kept morale up and performed household tasks for the soldiers. Little things like this can make huge differences
the people
"king" in a free country according to Thomas Paine
veto
to reject a law passed by a lawmaking body, preventing it from going into effect
sons of liberty
groups of colonists the formed a secret society 2 oppose british policies at the time of the American Revolution.
Currency Act
1764- All paper currency was to be weeded out. Massive deflation
The father of the American Navy was:
John Paul Jones
On what date was the Declaration of Independence adopted?
July 4, 1776
French & Indian War
1754 - 1763; conflict between France and Great Britain over land in North America
The townshend Acts
a series of laws passed by parliament that suspend New York assembly and established taxes on goods, etc.
The American commander in the west who secured the Ohio Valley for American forces. He defeated the Indians.
George Rogers Clark
Tea Act
1773; placed a tax on an item to help save the British East India Company; colonists boycotted
What rule did George Washington play in the army?
Commander of the contnal army
Who was known as the "Bloody Ban" and why was he called that?
Banister Tarleton; Cruel tactics
What does the first part of the Declaration of Independence deal with?
General Ideas about Society and Government
What was done by the 2nd Continental Congress?
1.) debated war vs. peace; 2.) set up the Continental Army; 3.) chose George Washington as commander; 4.) authorized paper money; 5.) set up foreign affairs committee
whigs
patriots
patriots
suporters of colonies
Hessians
German soldiers fro Hire
Horatio Gates
Opposes Cornwallis.Destroyed by British. Troops weakened by stomach flu.
What are privateers
privatley owend ships
King of Britain during Revolution
Geore III
Francis Marion
the "Swamp Fox", guerilla fighter
Stamp Act
Tax on all paper products
Who wrote the pamphlet "Common Sense"?
Thomas Paine
Treay of Paris
Document that recognized American Independence.
TRAITOR
A PERSON WHO BETRAYS HIS/HER COUNTRY AND HELPS ITS ENEMIES.
free enterprise
private buisnesses can operate without much government regulation
 
James Otis
Boston lawyer who exlaimed that "Taxation without representation is tyranny!" 1765
Proclamation of 1763
prohibited colonists from settling West of the Appalachian Mountains.
Which state is not part of the tidewater region of the Atlantic coast?
Georgia
edmund burke
A conservative leader who was deeply troubled by the aroused spirit of reform. In 1790, he published Reforms on The Revolution in France, one of the greatest intellectual defenses of European conservatism. He defended inherited priveledges in general and those of the English monarchy and aristocracy. Glorified unrepresentitive Parliament and predicted reform would lead to much chaos/tyranny.
Government Act
Part of the Intolerable Act where Massachusetts Charter was revoked
import
a product brought into a country for sale or use
2nd continetal congress
Washington is appointed commander of the Continental Army, Richard Henry Lee proposes Independence, Declaration of independence was written. try to make peace asked for free trade and equal taxes
Magna Carta
an agreement that gives basic rights to the accused (habeaus corpus) and says that in order to take someon'es land or property, the King must get permission from Parliament. This is famous because it limits the power of monarchy, spreads power and rights to more people, and is the first sign of Democracy. Nobles made this agreement because the were scared that King John, a selfish and evil ruler, would seize their lands and rights, so they kidnap him, take him to an island, and won't release him until he signs this.
valley forge
a village in SE Pennsylvania: winter quarters of Washington's army 1777–78.
Robert Morris
A financer of the revolution who was the first treasurer of the U.S. He signed the Constitution and the Declaration of Independence
Albany Plan of Union
a plan for permanent unification amongst the colonies
Who fought with the French against the British in the French and Indian War?
Native Americans
Writs of Assistance
a search warrant that allowed british officers 2 enter colonial houses or business 2 search for smuged goods.
House of the Burgesses
The Virginian House where Patrick Henry made his VA Resolves speech.
Name of the African American killed in the Boston Massacre
Crispus Attakus 
What were Americans called who did not want to break away from Britain?
Loyalists or Tories.
Glorious Revolution
the rise of the working class and the eventual overthrow of monarchies, occurred 1200-1600
The olive branch potition
when the colonists faked they were sorry and used the olive branch as a "peace" sign
The man known as the Swamp Fox who attacked the end of Cornwallis' forces was?
Francis Marion
The battle of bunker HIll
The first major battle of the revolution. It showed that the Americans could fight yet the British would be hard to defeat. The saying " don't fire until you see the whites of their eyes!" comes from this battle
How did Baron Von Steuben aid Washington
help them by skilled fighting force
Who were the 3 people that went to warn the colonists at Lexington and Concord?
Paul Revere, Prescott, and Dawes 
What made the Stamp Act of 1765 a "direct" tax?
It was imposed on actual goods and services.
retreat
withdraw
1765
Stamp Act
Treaty of Paris
1783
Determination
D from DECLARE
to leave without permission
desert
George Washington was from
Virginia
Mr A
My American History Teacher
surrender
to give up, stop fighting
Representation
speaking on behalf of someone
Benjamin Franklin
Declare independence from Britain
revolution
a war against your own government.
Maryland
the first colony established for Catholics
Tyranny
cruel and unjust use of power
slavery
southern and northern colonies felt differently about slavery because of that it was not in the Declaration
mercenaries
professional soldiers that will fight for anyone who will pay them
Saratoga
Turning point in the American Revolution; the 1st time that it looked like the Americans would win and the French become an ally.
Thomas Jefferson
Wrote the Declaration of Independence
Loyalist
American colonists who remained loyal to Britain and opposed the war for independence
May 5, 1775/Won 100 cannons
Fort Ticonderoga
Paul Revere
Famous midnight rider. Warned "The Brittish are coming."
Continental Congress
the legislative assembly composed of delegates from the rebel colonies who met during and after the American Revolution
Benjamin Rush reunited John Adams and Thomas Jefferson
T
monopoly
gives complete control of a good service in an area to one person or group
Committee of Correspondence
An organization used to protest.
1865
l'esclavage est aboli par le 13ieme amendement en
allies
nations that work together to achieve a common goal
State Constitutions
Except for Connecticut and Rhode Island, the states created new constitutions. In the constitutions, the executive had to be limited.
desertion
running away from duties such as military service; aka going AWOL
quartering act
colonists had to house british soldiers
Duty
Tax you pay on something you buy.
Quatering act
the fourth rule of the Intolerable Acts, colonists had to give British troops food and let them live in their house (1765)
Boycott
Refusal to buy goods or have dealings with a country or other entity.
Strategy of Attrition
unfair guirella warfare used by Washington and Virginia Militia
Flintlock Musket
a muzzle loading musket or long firearm that uses a flint in the hammer to strike a spark and ignite the black powder
when is the offical end of the american revolution war(month,year)
october,1781
nathaneal greene
made Br occupation of south unbearable to citizens lead cornwallis on chase in back country
Cornwallis harassed local Ams for supplies and took slaves
won support of south
georgia
colony that didnt go to the first continental congress
General Rochambeau
expert in siege warfare, general of French land troops.
boston massacre
the shooting of five unarmed colonists by British soldiers (after being taunted/mocked) in the 1770's
stamp act(1765)
raise revenue by taxing virtually all printed material. americans responded
Jehu Grant
enslaved laborer who escaped from his master and joined the colonists when he "saw liberty poles and people all engaged for the purpose of freedom"
Inflation
a continuous rise in the price of goods and services
British fort by the Great Lakes, attacked by Native Americans in 1763
Fort Detroit
Battle of Trenton
Washington crossed the Delaware and surprised attack on the British
Townshend Acts
Passed by Parliament in 1767. Taxed glass, tea, paper, and lead--products heavily improted by the colonists.
Intolerable Acts
in response to Boston Tea Party, 4 acts passed in 1774, Port of Boston closed, reduced power of assemblies in colonies, permitted royal officers to be tried elsewhere, provided for quartering of troop's in barns and empty houses
Boston Tea Party
December 16, 1773, a group of Bostonians, dressed as Native Americans, boarded the tea ships and dumped the cargo overboard. They dumped 342 chests overboard. Tea was a perfect rallying point because every colonial, rich or poor drank the beverage.
Battle of Yorktown
The last battle of the American Revolution
John Locke
People have the right to life liberty and property, government should protect the rights of the people, and government only has the powers that people give it.
Sources of Colonial Dissatisfaction
1. No representation in Parliament
2. Resented the power of colonial governors.
3. Great Britain wanted strict control of colonial legislatures.
4. Opposed British taxes
5. Proclamation of 1763
The Mohawks
James Brant was one of the Mohawk leaders. He had strong ties with England and the Mohawks were for the Loyalist cause. Brant was an ambassador between the Iroquois Confederacy and Britain and so he demanded land in the new British Empire. When Britain granted this request, the Mohawks became allies and would later help in the War of 1812.
No Taxation without Representation
Colonists' cry for representation in British Parliament after the passage of Sugar Act, Stamp Act and Townshend Acts
Declatory Act (1766)
Britain professed the right to tax without challenge
Proclamation Line of 1763
prohibited colonial settlement west of the Appalachian Mountains, colonists werent allowed to settle of buy land there, this led to outrage in the 13 colonies
Parliament
The group of people who are elected to make a counrty's laws and discuss important national affairs
Virtual representation
When a person whose NOT in your group represents you
Yorktown and Lord Cornwallis
Surrounded by superior force on land and French navy, Oct. 18th 1781 Cornwallis surrenders his army in order to save his army. Second great defeat (after Burgoyne). Important turning point in retrospect. Looked at in isolation, it was not clear that the war was over. Deborah Sampson continued to fight in '82 and '83.
Baron von Steuben
German man who came to help the colonists get better at military matters during the winter of 1777-1778
town meeting
government of a town by an assembly of the qualified voters
Dominion of New England
This method of control was established by King James II in 1686. It aimed at bringing the New England colonies under stricter royal control. According to the king, the colonies existed purely for the economic benefit of the Mother country (England). Navigation Laws were instituted by Parliament to restrict colonial trade relationships with countries other than England. The colonists reacted with distaste and quiet rebellion. Smuggling and large black markets for smuggled goods became very common during this time.
William Prescott
Battle of Bunker Hill: On the night of June 16, 1775, which Patriot colonel led about 1,200 men up the hills of Charleston, across the Charles River near Boston?
All men are created equal
Phrase from the Declaration of Independence that led African Americans to believe they would be freed from slavery
Committees of Correspondence
used to spread the news of British wrongdoings colonists
Giving colonial governors more power
How the King kept colonists under control after the F&I war
The Sugar Act was passed because
Parliament decided that the colonies should help pay for the French and Indian War
WHAT WERE THE 3 LARGEST CITIES OF THE COLONIES?
BOSTON, NEW YORK, PHILADELPHIA
What was the first major battle of the American Revolution? ***
The Battle of Bunker Hill.
Was the Boston Massacre really a massacre?
No, only five people died. That doesn't constitute a massacre.
Why colonists were angered about Stamp Act
because they had no part in making this tax law.
Two reasons why England needed to raise revenue after the French and Indian War.
(1) To pay the debt from the war. (2) To pay to keep the Army in America.
Rebels
patriots
repeal
to cancel
Assembly
A lawmaking body
event
something that happens
fertile
rich in nutrients
separated
move awayfrom or leave
tariff
Tax on imported goods
Believed all people were equal
Rousseau
1763
Paris Treaty and Royal Proclomation
December 25, 1776
Battle of Trenton
26.Describe life for George Washington and his troops at Valley Forge.
a
Punished
Hurt someone for doing something wrong.
John Adams
Championed the Cause of Independence
Redcoats
British soldiers during the American Revolution.
princeton
another victoy when washington moved troops in the middle of the night again.
Prior to 1763, the British subordinated American Capital to ______capital
British
treason
the crime of betraying one's country
July 14, 1789
French Revolution (To the Bastille)
mercenary
worked for hire as a professional soldier
Yankee
merchants from New England who sailed up and down the Atlantic coast
Bacons Rebellion
(VIRGINIA) Governor refused to protect poor farmers in the back country from Native Americans -> Back Country marched to Jamestown and burned it down in protest.
British Advantages
-more money
- well trained army
-better weapons and supplies
-had a Navy
Decloration Of independence
DEclared colonists independence from GB. Stated colonists rights. (men) and second continental congress
George Washington
Commander of the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War
Phillis Wheatley
The first recognized African American woman poet in America. She was a slave but then set free.
1. Minutemen
men would be ready to fight
Neutralists
people in the American colonies who did not want to choose a side or get involved
Patrick Henry
"give me liberty, or give me death"
secondary source
Text and/or artifacts that are not original, but written from something original (biographies, magazine articles, research papers).
Colonel Rall
Hessian leader at the Battle of Trenton
William Howe
A British general who participated in many battles.
Where is Fort Ticonderoga?
South of Lake Champion (NY)
Craftsmen
men who use skill to amke things.A shipbuilder or printer is a craftsman.
John Burgoyne
what brittish general wanted to take over the Hudson river Valley
non-importation agreement
colonists agreed not to import goods taxed by England
minutemen
ist inb the militia who respond to attacks instantly
Guerilla Warfare
Fighters who specialize in sudden hit and run tactics is called what?
Loyalists
Colonists who are loyal (true) to the King of GB.
congress
a meeting where a chosen or elected group of people discuss ideas, make decisions and make the laws
Constitution
A set of laws that people have agreed upon for the government.
The term for when the military forces are used to control an area
Martial Law
Declaration of independence
The document that said the colonies were free from British rule.
nonimportation agreements
promised to not buy nor import british goods
interfere
to enter into or take part in other people´s business
Pioneers
people who are the first to settle in a region
North Bridge
The Battle of Concord: There was a brief battle at __________.
Lexington and Concord
first "battles"; meant to get suppies from militia, but shots exchanged between minutemen and the british as the british continued to concord; Americans ambushed british, killing 300
How do the colonists see themselves?
Equal to the English.
John Paul jones
flees brit navey and enlists in american navey, sent to france where they give him a ship and wins many battles against the english
Harbor
an area of water next to the land where the water is calm, so that ships are safe when they are inside it.
Declaration of independance
Was a letter that said the American colonies are free
Olive Branch Petition
On July 8, 1775, this letter expresses hope for a reconciliation with Britain, appealing directly to the King for help in achieving this.
Sam Adams
A member of the Sons of Liberty who started the Committee of Correspondence to stir public support for American independence.
battle of saratoga
battle in new york where the patriots hold off a british attempt to capture the new england colonies; 1777
Boston Tea Party, 1773
British ships carrying tea sailed into Boston Harbor and refused to leave until the colonials took their tea. Boston was boycotting the tea in protest of the Tea Act and would not let the ships bring the tea ashore. Finally, on the night of December 16, 1773, colonials disguised as Indians boarded the ships and threw the tea overboard. They did so because they were afraid that Governor Hutchinson would secretly unload the tea because he owned a share in the cargo.
checks and balances
a built in system with each branch checking the actions of the other two
George Rogers Clark
Leader of a small Patriot force that captured British-controlled Fort Vincennes in the Ohio Valley in 1779.
The Treaty of Paris
Treaty signed in 1783 that offically ended the American Revolution. Great Britain recognized the United States as an independent country.
1773, East India Company
In ____, the Tea Act drastically cut the price of British tea and allowed the __________________ to gain a monopoly on the tea business in the colonies.
What were the advantages of the British before the war?
See the "Revolution: Advantages" document
Treaty of Paris (1783)
Treaty that ended the war. It gave America freedom and all lands up to Mississippi River.
Battle of Kaskaskia, Battle of Cahokia
western battles lead by George Rogers Clark and the Over Mountain Men; July 4, 1778; not a single shot was fired because the people of the villages surrendered after they heard their attack plans; patriot victory
Paul Revere and William Dawes
Paul Revere's Ride: The 2 men continue on to Concord from Lexington.
What was the continental congress
It was set up in reaction to Britain's Intolerable Acts and drew up the Declaration of Rights
What did the second act of the Coercive Acts require of officials?
All council members, judges, and sheriffs in Massachusetts had to be appointed by the governor instead of being elected.
name the 2 principles that the state constitutions had in common.
rights of the citizens and power divided into 3 branches.
Lemuel Hayes
African American who joined the Patriots; black writer who sought to articulate the lessons of the revolution to Blacks
treaty
a formal written agreement between two or more countries or governments
massacare
when alot of people are killed violently, especially people who cannot defend themselves
continental
relating to a continental, or large mass of land
Navigation Acts
Laws that governed trade between England and its colonies. Colonists were required to ship certain products exclusively to England. These acts made colonists very angry because they were forbidden from trading with other countries.
Charleston
City in South Carolina on the Atlantic coast
ally
a country that agress at help or support another country
quater
to provide someone with a place to sleep and eat,esspecially soldiers
levy
to officialy say that people must pay a tax or charge
Where were there plenty of loyalists?
Charles Town (SC)
Nathan Hale
During the NY campaign, he dressed like a British soldier, as a spy for George Washington; he was caught and hung; said "My only regret is that I have but one life to give for my country"
James Armistead
African American who served in the Continental Army.
Deborah Sampson
woman who disguised herself as a man to fight in the war; she dressed her own wounds to keep her secret
Abagail Adams
Wife of John Adams who worried the declaration didn't aid women's rights
Habor
An aera of wateer next to the land where the water is calm,so that ships are safe when they are inside it
Green Mountain Boys
group of Vermont soldiers who captured Fort Ticondroga
French and Indian War
Wars between the British and the French over the dominance of the New World.(1754-1763)
Problems Washington's army faced
Hunger, sickness, and the harsh winter killed nearly 1/4 of the army; many men were unexperienced and untrained and used their own equipment(not organized)
october 1781 battle of yorktown
the final battle of the americutionan revolution
Why were other countries helping US
France and Spain were enemies of Britain.
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